Edugross

Animal Potpouri

Animal Potpouri
  1. . Endangered Birds
  2. . Types of Dinosaurs
  3. . Age of Dinosaurs
  4. . Legs and Posture 
  5. . Horns and Tails
  6. . Brain
  7. . Eyes 
  8. . Teeth
  9. . Skin
  10. . More on Dinosaurs 
  11. . Warm or Cold-Blooded
  12. . Nests and Eggs
  13. . Food
  14. . King of Dinosaurs 
  15. . Colours of Dinosaurs
  16. . Last Dinosaurs 
  17. . Adaptation
  18. . Endangered Animals
  19. . Origin of Birds 
  20. . Structure of Birds
  21. . Flying
  22. . Beaks
  23. . Feathers 
  24. . Singing Birds
  25. . Eggs
  26. . Young Ones
  27. . Nests
  28. . Feet
  29. . Sight
  30. . Flightless Birds 
  31. . Migration

ENDANGERED BIRDS

1.Why are some birds endangered?

on the verge of becoming extinct. It Some birds are almost extinct, or, are may be because, mankind may have destroyed them or the species may be harmed, due to environmental pollution. California candour, too faced extinction during the 1980’s. But then, the few left were brought and kept in parks and sanctuaries, to avoid extinction. The great auk, a flightless seabird, has become extinct since the 1600s. Great Auk

2.Which birds have disappeared forever?

Many birds were found in oak and beech forest. But, by the passing of time, the forests were cleared, and hence, the number of birds declined. These birds were also killed for food. These birds laid only one egg at a time, and therefore, the number of birds declined. Among the other birds that have become extinct are the dodo and the great auk.

TYPES OF DINOSAURS

1.How are the dinosaurs grouped?

On the basis of the structure of their h ips or pelvic bones
hipped or Saurischian dinosaurs, and bird hipped or they are generally divided into two orders, namely lizard Ornithischian dinosaurs. They can also be classified as omnivorous or both plant and meat-eating dinosaurs. carnivorous or meat eating, herbivorous or plant-eating and

2.what were the different kinds of dinosaurs?

Some of the various types of dinosaurs were: meat-eaters, eg. Tyrannosaurs. Therapods. It included two legged dinosaurs which were Sauropods. It included giant, plant eating dinosaurs. e.g. Apatosaurus and Diplodocus. Ornithopods- It included smaller, plant eating dinosaurs which walked on two legs. e.g. Iguanodon, Ceratopsians- It included horned dinosaurs which were plant-eaters. e.g. Triceratops. Stegosaurs. It included the dinosaurs who were armed with plates. They were also plant-eaters and walked on four legs e.g. Kentrosaurus, Anklyosaurs- It included armoured dinosaurs and were fou footed plant-eaters. e.g. Nodosaurs. Pachycephalosaurus- These were dinosaurs with extremely thick skull roofs.

AGE OF DINOSAURS

1.which was the first dinosaur?

The first dinosaur would have appeared during the middle Triassic period i.e. about 230 million years ago. Among the first were Herrarasaurus and Staurikosaurus. These were meat-eaters and used to walk upright

2.What were dinosaurs?

Dinosaurs were reptiles which lived millions of years ago. They
evolved and lived in the Mesozoic period. ‘Dinosaur’ means terrible lizard, and is based on the Greek words ‘deinos’ (terrible) and ‘sauros’ (lizard). The first Dinosaur appeared around 220 million years ago and the last one became extinct about 65 million years ago.

LEGS AND POSTURE

1.How did dinosaurs use their legs?

Dinosaurs had four limbs. Some dinosaurs used all four legs for tanding and walking stood and walked on two legs and the other like lor For example Janenschia Whereas, there were others who example two were used as arms, for example Deinonychus There were still other groups which could walk on louro two legs as they wished, example Edmontosaurus. Further AU some dinosaurs even had five toes like some reptiles.”

2.Do you know the speed with which dinosaurs moved?

The ostrich dinosaurs were the fastest and ran upto a speed of 70km/hr. The Sauropods were the slowest dinosaurs which could attain a speed of only 4-6km/hr. Dinosaurs such as Iguanodon could run at the speed of 10-12km/hr for several hours

3.Were there any flying dinosaurs?

There were many flying, non-avian reptiles that lived during the time of the dinosaurs. They were the pterosaurs which included Plesiosaurus, Pteranodon, Pterodactylus, Dimorphodon, Rhamphorhynchus, Quetzalcoatlus, and many others.

HORNS AND TAILS

1.what were the horns of a dinosaur like?

The plant eating category of dinosaurs had horns. The horns grew bigger as the animal grew These comprised of a bony core, and an outer covering of horny substance which was made of keratin. Horns were mainly used for self defense. Dinosaurs might have used them to push over plants or dig up roots for food.

2.Did all dinosaurs have tails?

Yes, all dinosaurs had tails. The tail of some of the Sauropods comprised of 80 bones, which was more than twice the usual number. They might have used their tail to brush away enemies. Some meat eating dinosaurs used their tails to balance the weight of their body and head.

3.Why did Triceratops have horns ?

Triceratops were fierce looking creatures, but they were plant-
eaters. The three sharp horns of the Triceratops were used to fright off hungry meat eating dinosaurs and to fight them. Their
horns were about 1m long.

BRAIN

1.What was the size of the brain of a dinosaur?

Normally, the size of the brain bears a link to the size of the body. But in case of dinosaurs, it is a little different. The size of the brain of the dinosaur was very small as compared to its body size, Normally, in a human, the weight of the brain is 1/50th the weight of the body, but, the brain of Stegosaurus was just 1/1,25,000th of its weight, whereas, the brain of Brachiosaurus was 1/1,00,000th the weight of its body. Troodons, small sized meat-eaters, were thought to be intelligent. It was a hunting dinosaur, about 2 metres long, and had a brain size similar vision, and grasping hands. to that of a mammal or bird of today, stereoscopic.

2.Did a dinosaur have two brains ?

No, it was a paleontologist’s misconception which they realised later, that what they considered as a second brain, was an enlargement in the spinal cord in the hip area, perhaps for containing fat and nerve tissue. This nerve centre may have controlled the animal’s hind legs and tail and was larger than the animal’s tiny brains.

EYES

1.How do we come to know about the eyes of the dinosaur?

Since eyes are very soft they soon rol away after death, or are eaten away, that is eyes. It is only through the hollows in the
why no fossils have been found of dinosaurs, skull, where the eyes are situated, that we can describe the eyes of the dinosaurs.

2.what were the eyes of the dinosaur like?

From the fossils discovered we can conclude that the eyes of the dinosaur were somewhat like that of the reptiles of today. Dinosaurs with small eyes had good vision only during the day. From the shape of the skull it is found that some dinosaurs had large bulges known as optic lobes in their brains. One such dinosaur was the plant-eater Leaellynasaura.

3.How well could dinosaurs See?

Many dinosaurs could probably see very well as do many reptiles today. T-rex was a master predator and could probably spot prey from long distances, much like an eagle can, today.

TEETH

1.What was the shape of the teeth of the dinosaur like?

The hardest part of a body is the teeth, hence are easy to find in the remains. Out of the numerous fossils of dinosaurs found, fossils of teeth are the maximum. The teeth of shapes, for example knives, pegs, dinosaurs found so far are of different file, etc. It is from the teeth that one can decide what the daggers, in the form of comb, or in the form of dinosaur ate and whether it was plant-eating or flesh-eating Flesh-eating dinosaur had its mouth full of sharp teeth. In some cases, the teeth were up to 15 cm in length.

2.Did dinosaurs have baby teeth?

Like mammals, the dinosaur also replaced their baby teeth with new teeth. The rate of replacement was much higher in plant eating dinosaurs.

3.Which dinosaurs had hundreds of teeth?

Some duck-billed dinosaurs had more than 1000 teeth, all of which were at the back of the mouth. Their teeth were tiny and were tightly packed in rows.

SKIN

1.How did the skin protect the dinosaurs?

The fossils found indicate that, the boy of Chinesaurs was covered with scale Certain other tonsils show that the body had bums or tubercles spaced among them. The scaly skin also served as thorns in the forests. It also protected them from the botes a protection from enemy as well as from the scratches of the stings of small animals,

2.What was the skin of Edmontosaurus like?

Samples of the for skin of this duck-bill hadrosaur are veryuncommon. The body was covered with thousands of small scales, which resembled pebbles,

3.Which dinosaur had body armour?

The body of Ankylosaurus was covered with a thick leathery skon which had hard, bony lumps and spikes over it. This kind of bons
cover made the dinosaur very safe and was thus, protected from them enemies.

MORE ON DINOSAURS

1.which may have been used to blow air through to make?

footsteps of another dinosaur. What they likely couldn’t hear OE ON DINOSAURS What Sounds did dinosaurs make? Of course no one really knows. However, certain dinosaurs like hadrosaurs had specialised head crests a trumpeting sound Sounds would have been used to warn others about predators or to attract a mate.

2.Could dinosaurs hear any Sound?

Probably a lot of low frequency sounds like the heavy were the high pitched sounds that birds make.

3.How do we get to know about the footprints of a dinosaur ?

Numerous footprint fossils have been found at various sites around the world. The footmarks on mud, sand and also on loose earth, were hardened and with time and environmental conditions, became fossils which were preserved and hence became a source of information for the scientists.

WARM OR COLD-BLOODED

1.What do you mean by warm-blooded or cold-blooded?

Animals that take on the temperature of their surrounding cold blooded. They are hot are known as when their environment is hot and cold when their environment is cold. Warm-blooded animals try to keep the temperature of their body constant. They can make their own body heat in cooler environment and by cooling themselves in hotter environment.

2.were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded?

If dinosaurs were warm-blooded they would have stayed warm and active in cold countries. If they were cold blooded then they would have been slow movers in cold conditions. There is confusion whether they were warm-blooded or cold-blooded. Some believe that those dinosaurs which stood upright were warm-blooded,

NESTS AND EGGS

1.Did the dinosaurs lay eggs?

Dinosaurs, like all other reptiles laid eggs. This information has been confirmed by the fossils found. The eggs were elongated in shape, and had tough flexible shells.

2.How big were their eggs?

Dinosaur eggs varied in size, depending on the species. Among the largest are fossilised dinosaur eggs collected in the mid 1990s from Late Cretaceous rocks in China. These eggs are more than 60 cm long and about 20 cm in diameter.

3.What do you know about the nests and eggs of protoceratops?

The nests of protoceratops were shallow and about 1m across, surrounded by low walls. The female laid around 20 eggs at a time and arranged them neatly in a circle. These eggs were covered with sand and they incubated with the help of the heat from the Sun

FOOD

1.What did dinosaurs eat?

were meat-eaters. These hunted for plant-eating Mostly all dinosaurs lived on plants and trees. Some insects, lizards, birds and small mammals. dinosaurs. The meat-eating dinosaurs even ate.

2.were dinosaurs omnivorous?

Fossils show that certain species had different kinds of teeth — some for grinding and others for which suggests that they may well have tearing feasted on both types of food.

3.Is it true that some dinosaurs ate stones?

Yes, some dinosaurs gulped down stones. These stones gathered in
their stomachs and worked somewhat like teeth. The tough plant food which they ate was broken down by the help of these stonelike teeth.

KING OF DINOSAURS

1.Which dinosaur is regarded as the ‘king of dinosaurs?

The biggest meat-eating animal of the dinosaur group was Tyrannosaurus Rex, and thus, it may have been their king. It was a huge creature, with a head of about 1m in length and teeth as long as the hands of a man. Its huge size was a came towards it.
restraint in moving and so it could catch its prey only when it

2.How big were the dinosaurs?

Dinosaurs varied in sizes from that of a hen to the height of a
three storeyed building In length, the dinosaurs were even
uplo 21 m. The weight of the dinosaurs was supposed to be
between 20 and 50 tonnes.

3.What is Mesozoic era?

Mesozoic era is known as the age of reptiles, which refers to the interval of geographical time from 252.2 to 66 million years ago, the time during which the dinosaurs existed and became extinct. The era is subdivided into three major periods: the Thassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous,

COLOURS OF DINOSAURS

1.What was the colour of dinosaurs?

No clues have been found regarding the colour of the dinosaurs. Fossils of skin have been found which only tell us that its skin was scaly.

2.What is the opinion of Son experts regarding the colour of the dinosaurs?

Some experts are of the opinion that dinosaurs might have been dull green or brown in colour, like the crocodiles, Some are of the view that some dinosaurs might have been red, bright yellow or blue in colour, somewhat like the colour of today’s snakes and lizards. In order to frighten away their nemies some dinosaurs ught have been vibrantly colourful

LAST DINOSAURS

1.which were the last dinosaurs?

It was seen that by the end of the Cretaceous period, many animals of the reptile category suddenly disappeared or perished. Cretaceous period ended about 65 million years ago and no fossil have been discovered for later period, which indicates that dinosaurs did not live after this period. The dinosaurs which were found during this period were Sauropods, Alamosaurus, Hadrosaurs, Anatosaurus and Parasaurolophus. So, studies show that these might be the last of dinosaurs which appeared on Earth.

2.Can dinosaurs live again?

Dinosaurs were recreated as living creatures in the Jurassic Park movies Dinosaurs can be created only in fictions but not in reality. It is believed that dinosaurs will not be able to survive today’s diseases.

ADAPTATION

1.what is adaptation?

which all living beings adjust Adaptation refers to the process by themselves to their surroundings, sale in the environment. by changing themselves or their acts in a particular manner. This is done in order to survive and be

2.what is camouflage?

Camouflage is one of the best examples of adaptations. To ways of camouflaging themselves. For example hide themselves from their enemies, animals have different Chameleon: They change their colour to blend themselves with the background. flowers in order to attract insects. Praying mantis: These change their colour to look like Sloths: Their coarse hair is grooved and in these groove, grows simple green algae, the colour of which helps to conceal the sloth. Shingleback lizard: This lizard seems to have two heads. Actually its tail is plump which becomes similar to its head. Thus, the predator does not know
which end to attack.

ENDANGERED ANIMALS

1.Why are polar bears at risk?

Hunting of polar bears for their fur has been banned. Yet there is a great threat for these bears and that is because the planet
is getting overheated due to pollution in the air. If the ice on the Arctic melts, the bears will not be able to move freely in search of food. As a result, they may dte.

2.Why do seals get their fur dyed?

The pups of ringed seals of the Canadian Arctic are hunted for their pure white fur. People trying to protect them, spray coloured dye on them, which make their fur useless.

3.Which extinct animal wasbrought back?

One of the animals which were extinct was Pere David’s deer. They existed only in the zoos. Fortunately, they were bred again and now they can be found in their grassland homes in North China.

ORIGIN OF BIRDS

1.what do you know about the origin of birds?

It were the reptiles, from which mammals and birds evolved. It were the reptiles only, who grew large enough during Mesozoic age, to be called the dinosaurs. They were short lived and became extinct soon. Then came the lizards and the snakes. There were some lizards which had flaps on their skins, which they used as wings. But, the problem was that these were membranous wings, which were difficult to fold, and if broken, the creature could not fly, and would eventually die. Then, came the class called Aves, which included birds, but the exact period of their evolution is not known.

2.which is the earliest known bird?

Archaeopteryx is the earliest known bird. Its name means ‘ancient wing’. It had a wingspan of about 50 cm. It superficially resembled both a bird and a reptile. In fact, except for the feathers, the bird like feet, and the fact that it had a wishbone (furcula), it didn’t really look like a bird,
Besides, the jaws had teeth in them. It also hac the ankle bone fused to the shinbone.

STRUCTURE OF BIRDS

1.What is the structure of birds?

Birds are the only creature to have feathers. Feathers give them warmth and protect them from the adverse weather. account for only 5% of the total weight. The body have back bones. The bones of the birds are very light. The They also help them in flying Birds are vertebrates, ie, the temperature of a bird ranges from 40°C to 44°C. In many cases, the nostrils of the birds are at the base of their beaks Birds do not have teeth. Their food is broken down the gizzard, which is a part of their digestive system.

2.Which birds have scales?

All birds have scales. The feet and the legs of the birds ar- covered with scaly skin, like the skin of snakes and lizards. THE scales are made up of keral

FLYING

1.How is the body of the bird adapted for flying?

this. The jaws are modified into beak. The Since birds can fly, their bodies are adapted for forelimbs are modified into wings. The muscles of the chest are well developed to enable them to fly. Since, flying requires a lot of energy, the bones are generally hollow, but, strong enough. The lungs of birds have nine air sacs attached to it. These help them to swim in water.

2.How fast do the birds flap their wings?

The species of birds, that beat their wings the slowest, are the herons. They flap their wings only two to three times a second. Most of the birds beat their wings three to eight times a second. But, the humming bird flaps at the rate of 78 beats per second.

3.What is the use of feathers?

Feathers protect a bird in a variety of ways. In general, feathers protect a bird from the harmful rays of the Sun, ra and injury to their delicate skin. The feathers also have th- remarkable ability to trap air pockets, which then serve a insulation in cold weather.

BEAKS

1.Why do birds have beaks?

The beak is the modified jaw of the birds, The beak acts both, as the nose as well as the mouth The birds use their beaks for cutting, catching or hammering, Different birds have different beaks, which are characteristics of them. Birds with long, thin beaks use them for probing and also for sucking nectar from long, tubular shaped flowers. Examples of such birds are the humming bird, Hawaiian honey Birds with flattened beak catch wood boring insects on trees. 27 Birds such as the eagle have strong, hooked beak for tearing the flesh. The bird which has the most powerful beak is the hyacinth macaw.

2.What are bird’s beak made of?

Bird’s beaks are made primarily of a calcium compound, much like your nails and teeth. The bird’s beak which is correctly called the manible is an extention of the skull with a modification of the boney material.

FEATHERS

1.what are the feathers of abird like?

and also change with time. The Teachers of each bird are dillerent, feathers get worn out due to climatic change, and, hence are replaced with new ones. They provide the warmth required by the birds. The feathers may be soil to provide warmth, or strong to give them power to fly.

2.What are the feathers made of?

Feathers are made of a substance called keratin, which is a kind of protein, Keratin is also present in the scales of reptiles. The central part of the feather is called the shaft or quill and this supports two opposite rows of barbs that together form the vane of the feather. Two sets of barbules, branch off from each barb and get interlocked by means of tinier barbicels to give the leather great strength and smoothness.

3.What makes the feathers of a bird colourful?

The colours of the feathers come from the pigments produced by the bird itself in its skin, and from something which it eats. For example, the peacock has feathers with a metallic sheen of ever changing colours.

SINGING BIRDS

1.why do birds sing?

Binds make sounds of different types. These sounds are birds to sing. This may be to attract the female for mating sometimes like songs. There may be different reasons, for the The sounds can also be, to warn other birds regarding some danger. These can even be to stay together during flight at night.

2.What is a passerine ?

There are about 9,200 species of birds in the world, out of which 5,425 are passernes, also known as song birds or perching birds. Crows are the largest passerines.

3.How do humming birds hum?

This brilliantly coloured bird from America, makes the humming sound by rapidly flapping its wings. These are the smallest variety of birds. There are about 300 species of humming birds.

EGGS

1.What is incubation?

The process by which the parent birds keep their eggs at the right temperature, for the young ones to develop, is called incubation. The mallee fowl keeps its eggs warm by using rotting vegetation.

2.Why do birds turn their eggs?

It is seen, that birds keep turning their eggs during incubation
They turn them, so as to give, same warmth to the eggs. The eggs hatch up with the warmth provided by the mother.

3.Which birds lay the biggest and the Smallest eggs?

The ostrich lays the biggest egg. It is white in colour, with about 20 cm in length, and 15 cm in diameter. It weighs about 1 kg. The smallest egg is that of the humming bird, which is just 1 cm in length.

YOUNG ONES

1.How do the parent birds their young ones?

In order to avoid their young ones from being eaten by enemies, most parents take constant care of them. They look after their young ones, until they grow feathers and learn to fly.

2.How do penguins take care of their young ones?

In order to survive the cold of the Antarctic, the penguin parents, breed their chicks on their feet for 45-50 days. They do not freeze to death. do so, to keep their young ones away from ice, so that, the

3.Which bird starts life with a jump?

The nest of the mallard ducks are often found in the holes of trees. When the ducklings hatch, their mother calls, an they jump out of the nest and tumble to the ground. They a land safe and sound, as they are very light in weight.

NESTS

1.What are nests made or?

Nests are made of large and small twigs. Large twigs are used to make the frame, while the small twigs are put in between to bind it together Feathers, plastic, wires and all other kinds of material are used to buld the nest.

2.What are the different types of nests?

The different types of bird’s nest are Mound, Scrape, Burrow, Cavity, Cup Saucer or plate, Platform, Pendant and Sphere.

3.How do different birds build their nests?

Birds are born with the knowledge to make nests. But with practice, they make better nests. Some birds, like quetzal of America, build nests in holes of trees. Hornbills of Africa, build nest in trees, and then block the entrance. Just a hole is left, so that, the male can pass food to the female sitting inside. Some birds build nests using strands of grass. There are birds like cuckoo and honey guides which do not build their own
nest, but, use the nests of other birds for laying eggs.

FEET

1.How do birds walk?

walk on toes, unlike other creatures A special feature of birds is that, they who walk on foot. Mostly they have four toes, three pointing forward and one backward.

2.How do ducks paddle?

The feet of the duck is webbed. It helps the duck to paddle in water. The legs of the bird are at their rear, which provides maximum propulsion through water. The seagulls, swans and geese also have webbed feet.

3.What’s So Special about Ostrich’s foot?

Almost all birds have four toes but an ostrich has only two. The inner toes have disappeared. Its feet resemble those of the antelopes and cattle.

SIGHT

1.Why do owls have such big eyes?

Owls come under the special category, called nocturnal. This means, that owls can see al night. So, in order to catch their prey and protect itself from enemies, it has big eyes,

2.Why does a kiwi Sniff at night?

The kiwi is almost blind, and so, it remains in its burrow during daytime. Because of its good sense of smell, it hunts in the night, to sniff out worms, insects, berries etc.

3. Why does a budgie cock its head?

The budgie has eyes on the side of its head, in order to have greater viewing area. But, to view things exactly in front, is a difficult task. Therefore, it has to cock its head, in order to focus on the things exactly in the middle of its eyes.

MIGRATION

1.What do you understand by migration of birds?

The birds move from the area of low temperature, towards the quator, in order to keep themselves warm. This is known as migration. Also, the food is scarce in winter. With the onset of spring the birds return to their homes. The migratory birds find their way, by the position of stars and sun. They also use local landmarks to find the direction of travel.

2.Which bird flies the furthest?

The bird called Arctic term, is known to travel the maximum during a year. After breeding in summer at the Arctic Circle, they fly off in winter to Antarctic Circle, and return in summer. The complete trip is almost 5,000 km.

3.Why do migratory birds fly in V-formation?

There are two well-supported and complementary explanations for why birds fly in formation. One is to conserve energy by taking advantage of the upwash vortex fields created by the wings of the birds in front. The other is to facilitate orientation and communication among the birds.

  1. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT GIRAFFES?
  2. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE TEETH OF CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS?
  3. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE HEART OF AN ANIMAL?
  4. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SURVIVAL OF THE ARCTIC FOX IN THE COLD?
  5. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT YAKS?
  6. WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT SNOW LEOPARDS?
  7. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT PRAIRIE DOGS?
  8. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT DINGOES?
  9. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ART OF SNAKE CHARMING?
  10. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT CENTIPEDES?
  11. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE VENOMOUS FISH?
  12. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MENACE OF RABBITS IN AUSTRALIA?
  13. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT WOMBATS?
  14. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT PLATYPUSES AND MAMMALS?
  15. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMALS THAT REGENERATE THEIR BODY PARTS?
  16. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMAL THAT HAS THE LARGEST EYES?
  17. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMAL THAT CHEWS ITS FOOD WITH ITS LEGS?
  18. GESTATION PERIODS?
  19. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MAMMALS THAT HAVE THE SHORTEST AND LONGEST

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT GIRAFFES?

Giraffe is the world’s tallest animal with a height of about 5-6 m. But it is five times lighter than an elephant. Its long legs and neck help it to reach and eat the leaves, twigs and fruit at the top of trees, which other animals cannot eat. Apart from this, it has a 50 cm long, blue tongue which is so tough that it can wrap around the thorns of a thorny tree to get the twigs. The legs of the giraffe are about 2 m long, however, it consists of only seven bones-the same number of bones that a human has. The coat of the giraffe is patched in brown or cream. But each giraffe has its own unique pattern. The reticulated giraffes of East Africa have triangular patches, whereas the South African Cape giraffes have blotchy markings. When a giraffe walks, it moves its two legs on one side of its body and then the two on the other side. When it comes to running, it can gallop faster than the speediest racehorse with the help of its long legs.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE TEETH OF CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS?

Carnivores are predators which can eat it. These carnivorous animals catch and kill their prey before they use their sharp claws to grip their prey. A big cat, such as a tiger, bites into the back of the neck of its prey. It’s teeth move between the neck vertebrae and break the nerve cord connections to the brain. As a result, the prey dies instantly. The teeth of these carnivores are adapted to eat the flesh of their prey. At the front of the mouth, the teeth are sharp and pointed. There are four other teeth which are longer than the others. These are called the canine feeth. These are the teeth that the big cat uses to hold onto the throat of its prey to kill it. The teeth at the back of the mouth are also sharp and pointed but larger than those at the front. When the mouth is closed, these back teeth come together like the blades of a pair of scissors. These teeth are used to cut into the flesh of the prey and shear off the pieces of meat.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE HEART OF AN ANIMAL?

The animal with the biggest heart is naturally the biggest animal ever the blue whale. The heart of the blue whale is as big as o small car. Its main blood vessel is big enough to crawl through. But its heart beats very slowly, just five or six times per minute when the blue whale is at the surface and even slower when it dives. In comparison to this, a human heari beais seventy times per minute at rest. Above all, the heart of the hummingbird beats five hundred times per minute at rest and more than a thousand times per minute when it flies. Thus, the heart of the hummingbird is the largest in proportion when compared to any other animal’s. An average mammal’s heart comprises less than 1 per cent of its total body weight. The heart of a blue whale is only 0.5% of its body mass, whereas the heart of the hummingbird is 2% of its body mass. That is approximately 4% bigger than the whale’s. This is because the humming-bird needs enough oxygen and food so that it may hover like a helicopter and remain in the sky for long hours.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SURVIVAL OF THE ARCTIC FOX IN THE COLD?

The Arctic fox is a furry mamma fundra and coastal that lives in the far north, in the areas of Greenland, Scandinavia and North America, Iceland, Siberia. Towards the end of summer, the greyish brown coat of the Arctic fox begins to grow thicker. The colour of the for turns grey and then white. This is how the Arctic fox gets well coated to help it survive the cold. Because of its thick coat, it is able to survive the freezing cold temperatures. Thick hair on the pads of its feet protects its feet from freezing and helps it to walk on the ice. The Arctic fox can walk on ice without slipping. It can curl up in the snow and cover its nose and face with its bushy tail to keep warm. The relatively small size of the Arctic fox’s ears mimimizes heat loss. During summer, the fox hides food in its den or under rocks. In this way, it stores food for later use.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT YAKS?

The yak is a long-haired humped domestic animal found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of South Central Asia, as well as in Mongolia, Wild yoks are about two metres in height, whereas domes-fic yaks are about half that height. Both types have long shaggy hair to insulate them from the cold. Wild yaks con be either brown or black in colour. Domesti-cated ones can also be white in colour. Domestic yaks are kept for their milk, fibre and meat. Yak milk is often processed to cheese. Yoks are
also used for transporting goods across mountain passes. Their dung is even burned to produce energy, Yak fibres are soft and smooth. They are of several colours, including grey, brown, black and white. The length of yak fibre is about 1.2 inches. It is combed or shed from the yak and then dehaired. This splendid
downy fibre is spun into yarn and used for knitting. Many wild yaks are killed for food by the Tibetans.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT SNOW LEOPARDS?

leopards are left which A snow leopard is a medium sized cat which weighs about 35 to 55 kilograms. Todos only a few hundred snon the Himalayus, where they are now a proiected species. A live grey snow leopard has a soft coat with ringed spots and rosettes of black or brown. Ils foil is heavy with fur and the bottom of its paws is covered with fur for protection against snow and cold. These leopards come under the Category of endangered species because their pelis command a very high price in the fur market. They are illegally hunted for their bones and body parts which are used in traditional Chinese medication During the 1960s, their total population went down to 1,000. But it has recovered slightly since then. They are sparsely distributed across 12 countries in Central Asia: China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT PRAIRIE DOGS?

size of a rabbit, which lives underground, A prairie dog is a mammal. It is about the Whos a brown or grey-coloured coat with black-lipped hair and a black-tipped tail. The underside of the prairie dog is light fan in colour. It has short legs and sharp claws to help it dig its home. These mammals are und primarily in the 01 prairies and they feed on grasses, roots, seeds and lealy plants. They dig tunnels and make small mounds around the entrance to the tunnels to prevent rain from entering them. Prairie dogs are organized into coteries. Each coterie usually consists of one male three or four females and several young ones. Each female in a coterie produces one litter (2-10 pups) annually after a gestation period of 3- to 37 days. As many as two thousand prairie dogs may live in one prairie dog town. Farmers and ranchers have been known to poison prairie dogs because of the perceived threat to crops and livestock.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT DINGOES?

Dingoes are wild dogs found in Australia. They have features common with both wolves and modern dogs and are regarded as (more or less) the unchong ancestor of modern dogs descendants of an early They can be brown, black or white and usually live in packs. The main difference between a dingo and the other dogs is that dingoes do not bark. That does mean that they remain silent. They howl and whine very loudly indeed. They have erect ears, larger canine teeth and domed heads. Unlike the domestic dog, o dingo breeds only once o year. The female dingo gives birth to about five pups, which are not independent until six eight months of age. Dingoen eat rabbits, rodents, birds and lizards in addition to larger prey such as sheep and deer. Besides this, they even eat fruits and plants. Dingoes are considered a pest in Australia because of the large number of sheep and cattle they every year

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ART OF SNAKE CHARMING?

There is a lot of misunder: standing about snake charming Much of it is deliberately caused. A snake charmer likes us to believe that the snoke is bewitched by the beautiful music it plays on his pipe. The snake sways and dances to the music while the charmer taps his foot on the ground in time with the rhythm. In fact, a snake is actually deaf; it cannot hear music. It doesn’t respond to the sound of the pipe at all. It reacts to the vibrations it feels caused by charmer’s tapping feet and appears to dance. The music has no part in it at all. A snake has no ear drum. Besides, it does not have the system of bones and ducts that convey the vibrations from the ear-drum to the sense cells of the inner ear.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT CENTIPEDES?

Centipedes are reddish-brown, flattened, elongated arthropods. The word Centipede’ means hundred legged’. Actually, not many centipedes hove as many as hundred legs. Some have as few os 15 pairs, others have as many as 173 pairs, but most centi-pedes have about 35 pairs. Both centipedes and millipedes forma mall group of arthropods Adapted for life on the land. They ore generally about 1 or 2 inches long but species from North America con grow upto 7 inches long. A pair of legs is attached on most of its body segments. The first pair of legs located below the mouth is modified into poisonous jaws to kill insects. With all these legs, the centipede can run very quickly. Centipedes are usually found under the bark of fallen trees and under stones but sometimes they creep into our homes also. They feed on insects and other small animals but do not damage plants.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT VENOMOUS FISH?

there are about 250 species of venomous fish. The most venomous he is the stonetish. Stonefish are mottled greenish brown in colour with their skins having many stone-like appendages which give them an almost perfect camouflage. The most striking feature of this species is its spine of 13 grooved hypodermic-like projections, each capable of piercing a sandshoe. If you accidentally step on one, the venomous spines on the back and sides of the stonelish will inject venom and cause severe pain, illness and perhaps death. Out of all the stonefish, the Reef Stonefish is the most venomous fish in the world. It is usually brown or grey and may have the patches of yellow, orange or red. It looks like an encrusted rock or lump of coral. It has thirteen stout spines in the dorsal fin which can inject a highly toxic venom The venom causes intense pain and is believed to have killed many Pacific and Indian Ocean islanders.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MENACE OF RABBITS IN AUSTRALIA?

enormous amount of damage to Australian farmlands. This is becaus- they breed very quickly and rabbits were introduced into eat almost any vegetable. Ir the 18th century, three pairs om Australia. They multiplied so rapidly that, with the addition of others which were brought over, they spread over most of the continent and caused a tre. mendous amount of damage. The female rabbit or doe produces four to eight litters of five to eight young ones in a year. They are blind, helpless and nearly furless at birth. But in two weeks, they are able to run. In a month, they can fend for themselves. At the age of six months, they are able to breed. It is estimated that a pair of rabbits, given ideal conditions, could have 13,718,000 descendants in three years. Various attempts were made to control the rabbits but all in vain. Finally, in the early 1950s a virus disease called myxamatosis was introduced. 80 per cent of the population of rabbits had died within three years.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT WOMBATS?

Wombats are stout, sturdy marsupials. They grow to about 1.3 min length and can weigh up to 36 kg. They have large, blunt heads with small eyes and ears, and short, muscular necks. They have long, sharp claws and stubby, powerful legs which make them great diggers. Wombats live in burrows in usually well drained soils that are easy to dig in. The burrows, which are often built on the sides of gullies, can be up to 30 m long, and several m deep. A wombat can reproduce after it has reached two years of age. The young wombat weighs just 1 gm and is less than 3 cm long. It crawls from the birth canal to the mother’s pouch. This pouch opens backwards, so when the mother is digging, she doesn’t cover her baby with sand. In this way, she protects its young one from dirt and twigs. The young one stays in the pouch for about 10 months.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE PLATYPUSES AND MAMMALS?

The platypus is a very special mammal. Usually, all mammals give birth lo young ones but platypuses lay eggs. Mammals that lay eggs are called monotremes. Females lay up to 3 eggs. When they hatch, the babies lick milk from a patch on their mother’s stomach. The babies leam to look after themselves after about six months. They live along the banks of rivers and streams and
spend a lot of time in the water. They are well adapted for living in water as they have thick coats of oily fur which keeps them warm if the water is really cold. Besides, they have strong webbed feet to pull them through the water when they are swimming. They use their tails for steering. The bill of a platypus is soft and rubbery and has 2 holes near the end which are the nostrils. The bill is very sensitive. The platypus uses it to feel for food on the riverbed. It likes to eat worms, shrimps and small crayfish.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMALS THAT REGENERATE THEIR BODY PARTS?

Regeneration means the regrowing of a lost or damaged limb. Among invertebrates, the capacity to regenerate parts like legs or entire sections of the body is fairly common. The planarians (flat wors) can be cut into 50 preces and you will end up with 50 smaller worms. Man arm of a starfish is cut off, you will have to starfishes after regeneration Crickets can regenerate their legs. These are just a few examples of invertebrates capable of regenerating their complex structures There is only one group of vertebrates that has the capacity to regenerate their highly complex structures such as Timbs awetails spinal cords or eyes throughout their lives: the urodele omphibians. Urodeles are salamanders and have the outstanding ability to regenerate perfectly their complex tissues over and over again. Each time, the regenerated tissue is identical to the original in appearance and function. A lizard often sheds its tail to escape its predator. The tail regrows, but it is not a perfect replacement of the original. If a lizard loses a leg, it will never regrow. Frogs, meanwhile, con regenerate their tails as tadpoles, but they lose all their regenerative capacity after metamorphosis.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMAL THAT HAS THE LARGEST EYES?

The eyes of the giant squid (Architeuthis dux) can be up to 25 centimetres (ten inches) across, about the size of a volleyball.
Those large, sensitive eyes are useful in the dark waters where the giant squid lives, about 200-700 metres (660-2,300 feet) 3D
below the surface of the ocean. Giant squids are among the world’s most mysterious large animals. No live specimen has been captured so far. Like all squids, a giant squid has a mantle (torso), eight arms and two longer tentacles. The arms and tentacles account for much of the squid’s great length. It is a deep ocean animal that can grow to a tremendous size. Recent estimates put the maximum size at 13 metres for a female squid and 10 metres for a male squid. Agiant squid has small fins at the rear of the mantle. It uses these fins for locomotion. It has a complex, well-developed brain. It is a ferocious predator. It is pursued and eaten by large cetaceans such as sperm whales.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE ANIMAL THAT CHEWS ITS FOOD WITH ITS LEGS?

The horseshoe crab does not have jaws and teeth. It usually chews its food with its legs. However, it does not need its legs to grind food because, like birds, it has a crop that breaks down food before it posses through the gut. While the horseshoe crab does not have a conventional jaw, its four pairs of walking legs have a special equipment attached to them. The crab uses it to manipulate and shred food before passing it to its mouth. The last pair of walking legs can be used to break shells and to crush fough food. Because the crab often swallows sand and shell
fragments, its gizzard (stomach) is quite powerful and can grind up almost anything it consumes. The horseshoe crab has millions of sensors scattered over its body with the help of which it can smell worms in the water. Then, it follows them, grabs them with its front leg-like pincers and stuffs them live into a hole in its oesophagus. Bristly spines on its walking legs that surround the mouth grind the food.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MAMMALS THAT HAVE THE SHORTEST AND LONGEST GESTATION PERIODS?

Gestation is the period of time between fertilization and the birth oto mammal. The shortest known gestation period is 12 to 13 days. This record is shared by three marsupials (mammals in which the young ones are bom prematurely and finish developing in a pouch located near the mother’s abdomen). They are the American or Virginion opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), the rare water opossum or yapok (Chironectes minimus) of northern South America and the eastern native cat (Dasyurus viverrinus) of Australia. All three of these marsupials give birth to their young ones. The young ones, then, find their way to a small pouch where they mature, like a baby kangaroo. This pouch stage lasts up to two months after which they stay close to their mothers for another monih or so. The longest gestation period for a mammal is that of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with a period from 660 days to 760 days. These elephants carry their babies in their wombs for about 660 days or 22 months.

Animal world

  1. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY MARSUPIALS?
  2. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY REPTILES?
  3. WHAT IS A LEMUR?
  4. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF AN ELEPHANT’S TRUNK?
  5. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INDIAN AND AFRICAN ELEPHANTS?
  6. WHAT DO BROWN BEARS LOVE TO EAT?
  7. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY CAMOUFLAGE?
  8. WHAT IS THE DANGER FACED BY APES AND MONKEYS?
  9. WHAT DO GIANT PANDAS EAT?
  10. WHAT DO POLAR BEARS EAT?
  11. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE FLAT NOSE OF THE PIG?
  12. WHAT ARE SLOTHS?
  13. WHAT DO FARM ANIMALS GIVE US?
  14. WHAT DOES THE DOG FAMILY CONSIST OF?
  15. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANIMALS BASED ON FOOD?
  16. WHAT DO HIPPOPOTAMUSES LOOK LIKE?
  17. WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LARGE EARS OF THE RABBIT?
  • WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF ANIMALS FOUND IN THE ARCTIC REGION ?

 WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY MARSUPIALS?

  Marsupials are animals whose babies are born before they are ready to survive in the outside world. The newborn undergoes most of its development attached to the mother’s nipples and nourished by her milk. The young ones develop in the mother’s pouch. There are about 270 species of marsupials which include Kangaroos, koalas and opossums Kangaroos are the largest marsupials. The female kangaroo has a pouch in her belly to protect her young ones. Inside the pouch, the baby sucks on its mother’s teats. When the baby kangaroo is bom, it is naked and looks like a tiny jelly baby and is a few centimetres long with two tiny arms. Soon, the baby moves itself up through the fur on its mother’s belly and into her pouch. The baby kangaroo lives here and grows for 6-8 months sucking on its mother’s feats. Koalas are also marsupials which look like teddy bears. A koala baby spends 6 months in its mother’s pouch and another 6 months riding on her back.

  WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY REPTILES? 

 covered with scales or plates which form armours. Reptiles are con Reptiles are vertebrates (animals with backbones) and are usually blooded, which means that their body temperatures depend on their surroundings. For example, in cold weather it feels cold. Most reptiles lay eggs, except for some lizards and snakes which give birth to young ones Reptiles are found in various parts of the world. Since they are I cold blooded, many of them cannot survive in very cold places like the Go nev Thi polar regions. Reptiles include crocodiles, alliga- tors, snakes, lizards, tortoises and turtles. There are 22 species of crocodiles. They are armourplated, have power- ful tails and deadly fangs. They are very good swimmers and can move very fast in water. The bodies of snakes are covered with waterproof scales. They are devoid of eyelids and legs. Tortoises and turtles have leathery skins and shells to protect their bodies  

WHAT IS A LEMUR?  

The lemur belongs to the most primitive members of the order Primales which comprise monkeys. Lemurs are small furry creatures with long tails and big eyes. Lemurs are found on the islands of Madagascar Africa and some areas of Asia. Most lemurs live on trees except the ring- tailed lemur which lives mostly on the ground. These ring-tailed lemurs get their name from their black ringed fails. Lemurs feed on a mixed diet which consists of fruits, seeds, insects and small birds. Most lemurs are active at night, but some like the ring-tailed are active during the day. One large lemur lives in Madagascar which is popularly known as “Sifaca”. It is brightly coloured white with black, red or brown markings. There is fold of skin between its arm and body which helps in its long jumps from one tree to another. Lemurs use their sense of smell to communicate with one another. These primates have scent glands on their bottoms and on their feet that leave odours on surfaces they cross. 

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF AN ELEPHANT’S TRUNK?  

The African elephant is the largest land animal, growing as tallas 4 metres and weighing more than 6,000 kg. The trunk of the elephant is hi the most outstanding part of the elephant’s body. It is an extension of the nose and the upper lip. The trunk is very powerful and flexible. The elephant uses its long trunk to breathe, to smell and to gather food. It is very good for holding on to things and it is so sensitive that it can even pick up very small objects. The trunk is also used for drawing up water. The water is then transferred to the elephant’s mouth for drinking. The trunk is also used to draw up water which the elephant, then, showers all over its body. The elephant also enjoys dust baths, using the trunk to gather the dust and blow it over itself. In this way, it gets rid of flies and ticks. The trunk is also used to warn the other elephants of danger, by giving a loud blasi, called a trumpet 

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INDIAN AND AFRICAN ELEPHANTS?  

The main difference between the Indian and African elephants is ihal the African elephant is much larger than the Indian elephant. An elephant uses its large ears to flap them and keep them cool. African elephants have larger ears than the Indian elephants. An elephant has a lip at the end of the trunk. An Indian elephant has just one lip, whereas an African elephant has two lips. There is also a little difference in the feet of two species. There are five digits on the front feet of the Indian elephant, while the African elephant has four. The tusks of an elephant are actually enlarged incisor teeth. They are used for digging up roois, boring for water and for fighting. Only the males of the Indian elephanis have tusks. In case of the African elephants, both male and female have tusks. Also, the tusks of the Indian elephant are smaller. An African elephant does not live for more than 50 years, whereas an Indian elephant lives for an average of 70 years 

 WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY CAMOUFLAGE? 

 Camouflage is a way in which an animal’s colour or shape matches its surroundings. In other words, it is an animal’s ability to hide itself from its predator and prey. Animals have many ways of camouflaging themselves in order to hide themselves from their enemies. Paradoxophyla palmata, o narrow-headed frog native to Madagascar, is a leading example. The frog’s brown and yellow colouring, as well as its rough texture, allows it to blend in with the mud and tree trunks in its environment. The spots on the leopard and the stripes of the tiger are so well camouflaged, that it is difficult to make out whether they are or not, until they move. In order to maich with the surrounding, the chameleon can change its colour. Similarly, the praying mantis of Malaysia can change its colour and look like a flower. The sloth of the South American jungles has an unusual way of camouflage. It has coarse hair which is grooved. Within these grooves grow simple, green algae. This gives a green appearance and helps the sloth to conceal itself from predators. 

WHAT IS THE DANGER FACED BY APES AND MONKEYS? 

 Many apes and monkeys are in danger of extinction, because of the rapid destruction of the rain forests. Habitat loss due to the clearing of tropical forests for agriculture, logging and for the collection of fuel wood are some of the reasons responsible for the declining number of primates. In addition, climate change is altering the habitats Gol ner of many species. The mountain gorilla of Africa, the orangutan of Asio and numerous monkeys of South America are among the few. The baby orangutans are very popular pets. In order to capture the babies, hunters kill their mothers first. In this way, the babies become weak and they are easy to catch. The captured babies may die of diseases because animals are likely to catch human diseases. Together with this, their habitat is also being destroyed, which results in the decreasing number of orangutans. Similarly, the snow monkey of China is also hunted for its beautiful hair. 

WHAT DO GIANT PANDAS EAT?  

of western China and Tibet. Their main food are bamboo shoots and Pandas are black, large furry mammals that live in the bamboo forest leoves. An adult ponda can eat up to 30-40 kg of bamboo each day. rarest species of animals in the are among the Giont pandas world. A giant panda’s digestive system is more similar to thal of a carnivore than a herbivore. So much of what is eaten is passed as wasie. To make up for the inefficient digestion, a panda needs to consume a comparatively large amount of food from 20 to 40 pounds of bamboo each day to get all its nutrients. To obtain this much food means that a panda must spend 10 to 16 hours a day eating. The rest of its time is spent mostly sleeping and resting. The balance consists of other grasses and occasional small rodents or the fawns of musk deer. In zoos, giant pandas eat bamboos, sugar canes, rice gruel (a special high-fibre biscuit), carrots, apples and sweet potatoes.  

WHAT DO POLAR BEARS EAT?  

The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle. It is able to Sur severe cold because it’s body is well insulated with the fur and the con swim for over 150 km. A healthy diet for a polar bear consists of about 2kg (4.4lbs) of fol per day. Ringed seals, with their high fat-content, are the polar bear’s primary prey. Polar bears mostly eat seals which are found beneath the ice. The seals make holes in the ice so that they may come up to breathe in air. The polar bears con sniff these holes. They wait until the seals come out from the holes to breathe. As soon as the seals pop up, the bears attack them with their paws and the seols are killed. Polar bears also eat grass, fish and berries during the summer months. A polar bear gives birth to its young ones in a den which is dug in the snow. The young ones stay in the den for about three months. At the time of birth, their weight is less than 1 kg each. By the fime they come out of the den, they are 10 kg. 

 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE FLAT NOSE OF THE PIG? 

 has four foes on each foot. Each toe ends in a hoof. The two middle There are many different kinds of pigs reared around the world. A pig hooves are divided in all pigs, except the mule foot breed which has a solid or single toed hoof in the middle of each foot. A pig has a large head with a long snout which is strengthened by a special bone called the prenasal bone and by a disc of cortilage in the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very sensitive sense- organ. That is why the pig has an excellent sense of smell. The shape of the nose helps it to turn over the soil and sniffs out roots, insects, larvae and other food. In France, pigs are used to find truffles, a type of fungus which grows underground. Female pigs are chosen because truffles smell like male pigs and the female pigs are, hence, attracted towards them. Pigs reproduce very rapidly. Their gestation period lasts for 114 days, after which they give birth to 8-12 piglets at a time. 

WHAT ARE SLOTHS? 

 Sloths are stronge-looking mammals found in Central and South America. They reside in trees and are never visible away from forest areas. There are two types of sloths, namely three-toed and two-toed sloths. A three toed sloth has three-toes on each foot, whereas o two toed sloth has two toes on its front feet and three on the back. Sloths cre believed to be very lazy animals. They are the slowest land mammals. They move at the rate of 1.8-2.4 metres per minute. They spend about 18-20 hours a day sleeping. With the help of their strong, long claws they hang around the branches of frees. Their grp is so strong that even if they sleep in this manner they do not fall. They usually crawl about slowly at night in search of tree leaves and twigs. The fur of a sloth is grey and shabby. Sometimes algoe grow in its fur which gives it a greenish shade. This actually helps the sloth because the green colour helps it stay unnoticed by predators like eagles, jaguars and other animals.  

WHAT DO FARM ANIMALS GIVE US?  

Farm animals include cattle, sheep and hens. There are about 200 breeds of domestic cows. Dairy cows are female cows which are reared for milk, cheese and butter production. The female cows give birth to one calf each and after that, they give milk twice a day. A typical dairy cow provides 16 litres of milk daily, which sums to almost 6,000 litres each year. Male cows are reared mainly for their meat, which is called beef. Sheep, goats and ilama- like alpacas are all reared for their wool, which is used in making clothes. Hairy sheep are kept for their milk and meat whereas the woolly ones are kept for their wool. About 3.3 million alpacas are farmed for their long and fine wool which grows almost to the ground. Sheep were domesticated about 10,000 years ago. Today, there are more than 700 million sheep in the world and 800 different breeds. Hens are farmed for their eggs and meat. Hens lay one or two eggs a day. Every day, the eggs must be taken away from them so that they may noi hatch. 

WHAT DOES THE DOG FAMILY CONSIST OF?

  The dog family is a large group of four-legged, long-nosed, meos eating animals. They include dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals and coyotes. All kinds of dogs have long, canine teeth which are used for piercing and tearing their prey. Dogs have a very good sense of smell and hearing. The largest among the wild dogs is the wolf. Wolves are very good at teamwork while attacking their prey bigger than themselves such as moose, deer, caribou and musk oxen. Usually, 7-20 wolves form a group known as a pack. They communicate with the other members of their group by howling. Foxes are cunning hunters which prowl in the night alone or in pairs. Their prey includes rats, mice and rabbits. Another fearsome hunter is the group of jackals which are found all over Asia and Africa. In addition to the hunted animals, they also eat the remains of the animals killed by big cats. 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANIMALS BASED ON FOOD? 

 According to the eating habits, animals are divided into three categories, namely herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous, Herbivorous animals are those which usually eal only plants, Herbivores include animals like cattle, elephants and horses, They either eat grass or leaves, barks and buds of trees and bushes. They have tough, crowned teeth to eat the hard plant-food. Also, they are found eating most of the time. Carnivorous animals are those which eat only animal flesh. Carnivores have pointed conine teeth for piercing and tearing the meat. Carnivores include all dogs and big cats like lions, tigers, cheetahs etc. Carnivores eat only occasionally because meat is very nourishing. They tend to rest after each meal. Some carnivores like hyenas do not hunt. Instead, they feed on the remains of dead animals. Omnivorous animals are those which eat both plants and animals. Many primates such as monkeys, apes and humans are omnivores. 

WHAT DO HIPPOPOTAMUSES LOOK LIKE? 

 Hippopotamuses are, big, grey, pig-like creatures that live in Africa The word, hippopotamus, comes from the ancient Greek word ‘hippo meaning horse and ‘potamus’ meaning river. Hippos spend their days moving about in rivers and swamps. They only come out at night to feed. Its eyes, nose and ears are situated on the top of its head. Hence, it remains above the water, even when the rest of the body is completely submerged. By spending the daytime in water, hippos avoid the heat of the Sun. The skin of the hippo loses water very easily in the hot, dry daytime, but the cool, moist night air suits it very well. Male hippos fight in order to defend a territory or the right to mate with the females of that territory. First, they threaten one another by grunting, scattering dung with their tails. Then, they show off their large canine teeth orusks’. 

WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LARGE EARS OF THE RABBIT? 

 A rabbit is a small, furry animal with a short tail and pointed ears. It is a neck and timid animal and is always surrounded by many enemies. Therefore, Nature has gifted it with large ears to help it hear, even the slightest sound. The large area of the ear catches almost every sound-wave produced in the air and transfers it into the inner ear. This makes the rabbit aware of its enemies in time and run away to a safe place. A rabbit washes its ears by repeatedly licking its forepaws and rubbing them over the surface of its ears. It does this in order to keep its ears clean. The jackrabbit lives in the deseri, where it is very hot in the day and very cold during the night. The long ears of the jackrabbit not only allow it to listen out to enemies, but also help it to control the body temperature. It can lose heat when it is hot or take in heat when it is cold, by controlling the flow of blood through the numerous blood vessels in its large, thin ears. 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF ANIMALS FOUND IN THE ARCTIC REGION AND HOW HAVE THEY ADAPTED THEMSELVES?

  The Arctic is a very cold, windy and often snowy biome located around the North Pole. Animals that live in the Ardic are adapted to extreme conditions. Many animals that live in the Arctic like the Arctic fox and the ermine have coats that thicken and change colour to white during the winter as camouflage in the snow. Some animals hibernate during the cold season; they go into a very deep, sleep-like state in which their heartbeats slow down. These animals often hibernate in underground burrows or pits. Ground squirrels line their burrows with lichens, leaves and with the hair of musk ox. They, then, roll up these burrows into balls and sleep for seven months. The musk oxen have thick overcoats of shaggy long straight hair that hangs down to the ground. Their undercoats are thick brown fleece. The white fur of the polar bear helps it to sneak up on on the ice packs seals that are laying Females dig dens in the snow where they hibernate during the worst part of the winter. 40   

 

 

 

  1. HOW DO ANIMALS HIBERNATE?
  2. HOW MANY TYPES OF APES ARE THERE?
  3. HOW CAN BEARS BE DANGEROUS?
  4. How ARE RHINOS BECOMING ENDANGERED?
  5. DO FISH SWIM AND BREATHE UNDERWATER?
  6. HOW LONG CAN A CAMEL GO WITHOUT WATER?
  7. HOW DO THE EYES OF A CAT SHINE?
  8. HOW DO RABBITS DIFFER FROM HARES?
  9. HOW FAR CAN A KANGAROO JUMPY
  10. HOW FAST CAN ANIMALS RUN?
  11. HOW ARE STRIPES A BOON TO ZEBRAS?
  12. HOW DOES A TIGER KILL ITS PREV?
  13. NOW DO MAMMALS CLEAN THEIR FUR?
  14. HOW MANY MAMMALS ARE THERE?
  15. HOW DOES A STAG GET BACK ITS ANTLERS?
  16. NOW ARE BEAVERS SUITED TO LIFE UNDER WATER?
  17. HOW DOES A DOLPHIN SEE WITH THE HELP OF SOUND?
  18. HOW DO BATS FLY?

HOW DO ANIMALS HIBERNATE?

 In order to cope with the cold and due to unavailability of food in winters, some animals go into a kind of deep sleep called hibernation. During hibernation, the temperature of the body drops. As a result, ihe animal burns the food stored in its body very slowly. It requires less oxygen. As a result, breathing is slower and the heart beats only faintly. Small mammals like bats, squirrels and hedgehogs hibernate . The Arctic fox which lives in the far north of Asia and America can sleep for days together when there is scarcity of food in winter. Many animals like the bear go to sleep during winter. But scientists believe that they do not hibernate. They sleep more in winter than in summer. Squirrels bury dozens of nuts in autumn to feed on them during winter. They seem to have a remarkable memory as they are able to find most of them when they need.

 HOW MANY TYPES OF APES ARE THERE? 

There are four types of apes- gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons and orangutans. The gonillos are the biggest of all apes weighing up to 225 kg and standing as follas 2 metres They are vegetarians and eat leaves and shoots. When there is danger , they put on a ocious look, pound their hands against their chests and bellow loudly Chimpanzees are very clever and use fools more than any other animals, apart from humans. They use leaves as sponges up water to drink and crack nuts with stones. They communicate with for soaking one another through a huge range of grunts and screams and also by facial expressions and hand gestures. Gibbons live in the forests of Southeast Asia and spend most of their time swinging from branch to branch with their long arms. Only a few orangutans are left in the forests of n Sumatra and Borneo. An orangutan means old man of the woods. It is reddish brown in colour and lives mainly on fruits.

  HOW CAN BEARS BE DANGEROUS?

 Bears are the largest meal eating lond  animals. They usually have thick  shaggy cools. There are 7 species of  bears. Most of them live north of the  Equater but only the spectacled bear  and the sun bear live south of the  Equator Bears are good free climbers,  powerful, quick to react and relatively  harmless to people, except when  provoked Bears can be very fierce at  Times and can kill their victims with their  powerful cuff from their front paws or  with their teeth. Other brown bears are found in North America bul  the grizzly bear is the best known. It gets its name from the grizzled  appearance of its fur. The smallest bear is the sun bear of Malaysia  which spends most of the day in its cave and searches for food in the  night. The polar bear is the only  bear which lives in the Arctic. It feeds  solely on fish, seals and walruses.

 HOW ARE RHINOS BECOMING ENDANGERED? 

 When an animal is said to be  its entire species is in danger  endangered, it means that  example, the white rhino  of becoming extinct. For  is endangered. Rhinos  are becoming extindi  because of their valuable  horns which can grow  as long as 157 cm. Rhinos  are usually found in  Africa and Asia. It is not  just hunting which is killing off  the rhinos but also due to the reason that the African savannah  frequently suffers drought  . Some conservationists cut off the horns of  the rhinos thinking that poachers will no more kill them without their  horns. Cutting off the hors is like cutting your fingernails  . The horns are  made of keratin, the same substance  which makes our nails and hair.  HOW DO FISH

 

SWIM AND BREATHE UNDERWATER?  

 A fish swims by bending its  muscular body from side to  side while moving its tail.  The tail helps the fish to  swim in a straight line.  The fish remains stable  with the help of the  dorsal fins on the top of  the body and the anal fin  on the underside, near  the tail. The pectoral fins  near the head and the  pelvic fins on the underside  are used for steering. A fish  has a gas-filled swim bladder  inside its body with the help of which they  can rest at a depth in the water. Fish are  able to breathe underwater because  they have special organs called gills.  Gills are a feathery structure behind  the heads of fish. These gills have  finger-like projections that contain tiny  blood vessels. When water enters  through the mouth of the fish, it flows  over the gills. The filaments in the gills  take in oxygen from the water and pass  it into the blood. If water is  contaminated, the fish comes to the  surface of the water to take in oxygen  from the air.

 HOW LONG CAN A CAMEL GO WITHOUT WATER? 

 Camels can go without water  for long periods of time from  many days to even months.  When water is available, they  can drink over 200 litres in a  day. Their bodies are well  adapted to enable them to go  without water in several ways.  They have very few sweat  glands, and, hence, litile  moisture is lost through  perspiration. Camels can  reduce water loss by producing very little urine. They can close their  nostrils. This prevents water loss through evaporation. A camel’s hump  is actually a reserve of fat which the body can break down into food  and water when these are scarce. As the reserves are used up, the  hump gets smaller. Nevertheless, a  camel still loses water, but it can lose  up to a quarter of its body weight  without any harm. The camel’s body  returns to its normal shape just after ten  minutes of drinking. 

HOW DO THE EYES OF A CAT SHINE?

 nas cores the members of a family of a very distinctive kind. The  members include tigers,  lions, cheetahs, leopards  and domesticated cots.  Irrespective of their sizes,  all cats are similar in the  way that their bodies are  adapted for hunting and  killing. One of the things  that aids a cat to be a fine  hunter is its eyes. The cat’s  eyes are adapted very well  for seeing in the night as a  cat is a night hunter. In low  light, its pupils open very wide to let os much light as possible enter the  eyes receptors. Any light rays that miss the receptors are reflected back  by a mirror-like layer called the tapetum lucidum’ which is situated of  the back of the eye. This gives a second  chance to the receptors to absorb the  rays. It is this layer with which a cat’s  eye shines when it is caught in bright  light in the dark. A cat’s eye can absorb  50% more light than a human’s eye.  0 0  

 HOW DO RABBITS DIFFER FROM HARES?  

 Robbits and hores belong to a group of  mammals called lagomorphs meaning  leaping shopes’ They are tiny  mammols with long ears. Generally,  hores have larger ears and larger  bodies than rabbits. Rabbits are  gnawing animals and live in  groups, whereas hores live alone,  normally in grassy places. Rabbits  live in burrows underground and  hares live above the ground and  escape enemies through sheer  speed. Baby rabbits are blind and  furless of the time of birth but they  grow very quickly. Baby hares are  known as leverets. They are open-eyed, furry and active within minutes  of their birth, Rabbits breed very quickly. During the breeding season,  the female can give birth to 20 babies every month. These babies can  have their own families after 6 months.

 HOW FAR CAN A KANGAROO JUMP?   

Kangaroos are big Australian  mammals that hop around on  their hind legs. They flourish in  grossy plains and take huge  strides. A fully grown kangaroo  is about six feet tall. Its front  legs are short, whereas its hind  legs are very long. The tail of the  kangaroo can be over 1.5 metres  long. It uses its tail to provide  balance while hopping. Its legs  are so powerful that it can  cover 14 metres in one single  hop and leap up vertically  more than 3 metres in the air.  There are two kinds of  kangaroos-red ones and  grey ones. Red kangaroos can hop at  55 km/hr for shori distances. They are  found in the dry grasslands of Central  Australia. Grey kangaroos are found  in the woods and grasslands of  southeast Australia.  2

  TTUN TAST CAN ANIMALS RUN? 

   The cheetah is the fastest lond animal. It runs with a  speed of more than 100 km/hr. However,  it requires to stop after some time.  The cheetoh gets its speed  from its long and  powerful legs. It has  large muscles along  its back which it uses  like spring with each  long stride. It uses its  clows to grip the  ground while running  The claws are fairly blunt but very strong.  The cheetah is also known as the hunting  leopard. It has been trained by people for  hunting for a very long time. Another land  animal that runs fast over long distances is the  pronghorn antelope. It can run at a speed  of 56 km/hr for about 6 kilometres.  Antelopes are four-legged hooved  animals. 

TTUN TAST CAN ANIMALS RUN?  

 The cheetah is the fastest lond animal. It runs with a  speed of more than 100 km/hr. However,  it requires to stop after some time.  The cheetoh gets its speed  from its long and  powerful legs. It has  large muscles along  its back which it uses  like spring with each  long stride. It uses its  clows to grip the  ground while running  The claws are fairly blunt but very strong.  The cheetah is also known as the hunting  leopard. It has been trained by people for  hunting for a very long time. Another land  animal that runs fast over long distances is the  pronghorn antelope. It can run at a speed  of 56 km/hr for about 6 kilometres.  Antelopes are four-legged hooved  animals.

 HOW DOES A TIGER KILL ITS PREY?

  Tigers are the larges of the  big cots. The average male  ger’s body grows up to over  2 metres long. It has a foil  which is 1 metre long. Tigers  line in the forests of Asia,  Sumatra and Javo. As hunters  are being them for their skin  mey are becoming rare. They  prey on large animals such as  deer, buffaloes, antelopes  and wild pigs. Silence and  stealth are their main hunting  skills. The stripes on o figer’s  body comouflage the tiger so that it may reach its prey without being  seen. After spotting its prey, the tiger crouches close to the ground and  then creeps forward slowly. When it is just a few metres away, it makes  osudden and powerful rush and then pounces on its prey. The jaws of  the tiger contain long-pointed front teeth which it uses to stab the prey.  With its sharp hooked claws and  powerful shoulders, it clings onto its  prey tightly and pulls it to the ground.

 HOW DO MAMMALS CLEAN THEIR FUR? 

 One of the characteristics of mammals is that they are covered with for  or have hair. Fur or  hair is made up of a  tough protein called  keratin. The hair  protects the mammals  from cold, heat, wind  and water. In order to  keep their fur clean and  free from parasites, all  mammals clean their  fur in different ways.  They either lick their  fur with tongues or  comb through it with  their fingers. Some mammals nibble other animals’ fur with their teeth.  This is known as grooming. Social mammals such as chimpanzees  often groom one another’s fur. There are two advantages of  grooming  Firstly, those parts of the coat which are difficult to reach are cleaned.  Secondly, it strengthens friendship  and keeps the group together. Some  mammals have stiff hair called  whiskers which serve as defence.

  HOW MANY MAMMALS ARE THERE?  

 Mammols are vertebrate animals that  nourish their young ones with their milk.  Most mammals have hair on their bodies  There are more than 4,000 different kinds  of mammals. These are further classified  into 21 groups colled orders. Some orders  contain hundreds of mammals, whereas  others may contain only one mammal.  y su  The biggest order is that of the ‘rodents’  which includes more than 1,700 species  of mice, rais, squirrels and  chipmunks. The order of bat’  contains about 1,000  species. Mammals cover an  enormous range of sizes, shapes and  weights. They are the most intelligent animals alive. The cleverest  mammals are humans and apes. They also spend many years caring  tor, and teaching their young ones. Humans beings are the mammals  having long life spans, but whales are not far behind. The Fin Whale  Balaenoptera physalis is believed to have a maximum life-span of 90 –  100 years 

 HOW DOES A STAG GET BACK ITS ANTLERS? 

 Most species of deer live in woods  and grasslands in the mild regions  of North America and Northern  Europe. Male deer are called  stags, young males are bucks,  females are doe and babies are  fowns. Usually, only stags have  antlers. Deer have branching antlers  made of bones on their heads.  These antlers drop off and grow  again each year. These antlers are  often damaged during fighis.  When the antlers fall off after a  fight, the new set starts to appear  as small knobs on the top of a  deer’s head within a few weeks. The  growing antlers are covered in a  soft skin called velvet. Underneath the velvei, tiny blood vessels feed  the growing antlers. The next time when a deer fights, the blood supply  of these growing antlers is cut off. The  velvet dries up and is peeled off. Then,  the deer rubs it off on bushes and  trees. A young deer may take five years  to develop a full set of anilers.

  HOW ARE BEAVERS SUITED TO LIFE UNDER WATER?  

 Beavers are large rodents with flat fails. They live in rivers, streams and lakes  neor woodlands and  are good swimmers  Beovers are suited  to life in water in  a number of ways  Their bodies are  streamlined and  their rear feet are  webbed. Their eyes  ore protected by  special skins. The  dense and water  proof coats of  beovers keep them warm both in and  out of water. The most important is the  broad, flat and scaly tails which can  be moved up and down to drive the  beovers through water with great  speeds. The tails can also be used as  rudders to steer. Beavers can swim  under water for almost 1km holding  their breath all along the way. Beavers  build shelters called lodges to live in  during winter. Most lodges are like  mini islands made of branches and  mud.   

HOW DOES A DOLPHIN SEE’ WITH THE HELP OF SOUND? 

  Dolphins are sea creatures. They  are mammals, not fish, as the  mothers feed their young on their  milk. They usually live in groups of  20 to 100 animals. Dolphins  communicate with high-pitched  clicks called phonations. Some of  these clicks are higher than any  other animal’s sound. Even while  hunting for food, they use these  clicking sounds. These clicking sounds are reflected by objects in their  path and come back as echoes. The echoes help dolphines to make  out as to where the fish are and also how far they are from their prey.  This technique is known as echo-location. Whales and bats also use  this technique. Dolphins are among  the most intelligent animals, along  with humans and chimpanzees.  Dolphins can be trained to jump  through hoops, toss balls or walk  backwards through the water on their  rails. 

  HOW DO BATS FLY?

   zBats are the only mammals capable of flying.  The wings of o bat consist of leathery skin stretched  between four elongoted finger bones on each hand.  The wings are very strong but very light. In order to  fly, o bai flexes its arms up and down, just like a  swimmer doing the function of a butterfly. Most bats  sleep during the doy, hanging upside down in  caves and other dark places. They come out of  night to feed on insects which fly in the dark  They find their prey by echo-location in the  same way as dolphins do Bats have such good  ears that they can hear even the beating of the  wings of an  insect. A bat can  make up to 200 shrieks  per second in order to guide  itself by the echoes. The world’s  smallest bat is also the smallest known  mammal. It is the very rare Kitti’s hog  nosed bat, or bumble bee bat of  southern Thailand. Its body is 3 cm  long. It has a wingspan of 16 cm. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM

  1. WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF BOARS?
  2. WHERE IS THE HORNED VIPER FOUND? 
  3. WHERE DOES THE FEMALE GASTRIC BROODING FROG INCUBATE ITS YOUNG?
  4. WHERE IS THE GAVIAL FOUND?
  5. WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE PANGOLIN? 
  6. WHERE ARE ARMADILLOS USUALLY FOUND?
  7. WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE KANGAROO WHICH CLIMBS TREES? 
  8. WHERE IS THE CARIBOU FOUND?
  9. WHERE CAN YOU FIND A LIVE PREHISTORIC FISH? 
  10. WHERE DO FROGS LIVE?
  11. WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE OKAPI?
  12. WHERE CAN YOU FIND GIBBONS?
  13. WHERE DO KOALA BEARS LIVE?
  14. WHERE ARE THE RINGTAIL CATS FOUND?
  15. WHERE DOES THE JAGUAR LURK?
  16. WHERE CAN YOU SEE FRILLED LIZARDS? 
  17. WHERE CAN YOU FIND A PLATYPUS?
  18. WHERE ARE PYTHONS FOUND?

WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF BOARS? 

Boars are the ancient forefathers of the domestic pigs The wild boar is still found in Europe in marshy woodland disiricis) where there is plenty of cover. It is fairly plentiful in Spain, Austria, Russia and Germany, particularly in the Black Forest. The body of the wild boor is compact; the head is large and the legs are relatively short. The tur consists of stiff bristles The colour of a boor usually varies from dark grey to black or brown. An adult boar averages 100-150 cm in length and has a shoulder height of 90 cm. As a whole, its average weight is 60-70 kilograms. Boars like to live in forests near streams or ponds. Since boars don’t have any sweat glands, they wallow in the mud to cool off. Wollowing also helps them to get rid of fleas and ticks. Boars are fast runners and good swimmers. Boars have fough noses or snouts which help them dig They have an excellent sense of smell and can sniff out underground foods.

WHERE IS THE HORNED VIPER FOUND? 

Iran. This species lives mostly in sandy areas, sometimes marked Horned vipers are lound in North Africa eastward through Arabia stones and rocks. Horned usually bury themselves in the sand in order to keep cool in the desert heat. A horned viper is thick snake with a short tail. It has o triangle-shaped head and o long scale over each eye ihat pokes up like a horn. Some snakes have ridges over their eyes instead of the two tall horns. They have brown blotches down grey, yellow-or red-tinged backs. The back and head scales have ridges or keels. Adult viper are quite small, usually growing to just 11.8 to 23.6 inches (30 to 60 centimetres). A few reach 2.8 feet (85 centimetres). They eat the other animals of sandy habitats. These may include small mammals, lizards and birds. A horned viper is active of night . It hides during the day beneath rocks or in underground tunnels made by other animals. It is an egg-layer creature. The female viper 12-20 eggs in damp soil. 

WHERE DOES THE FEMALE GASTRIC BROODING FROG INCUBATE ITS YOUNG? 

The gastric brooding frog is extinct. Like a water frog, the gastric brooding frog had eyes on the top of its head so that it might lie in water with its eyes above the surface. Its skin was slimy. Its feet had extensive webbing The tadpole, unlike other tadpoles, did not have a mouth or coiled intestine. It lived off its yolk sac. It also had an undeveloped tail. As the tadpoles grew inside their mother, her stomach expanded until it occupied most of the body cavity. As a result, the mother frog could not even fully inflate her lungs. The tadpoles could move a little in her stomach. During the brooding, the stomach did not produce hydrochloric acid. The gestation period inside the mother was probably about 8 weeks. A large number of tadpoles (about 30) could be seen within the stomach of the mother. The mother gave birth to all them by opening her mouth. Baby frogs came up to the mouth. Then, they gradually started dropping to the ground (the mother kept her mouth wide open). If a baby frog wouldn’t leave the mother’s mouth, she re- swallowed it to be born later.

WHERE IS THE GAVIAL FOUND? 

The ghoral orgavial is the second-longest of all living crocodiles, aher the saltwater crocodile. It is usually found in the river systems of Indus (Pakistan) and the Brahma & North eastern India), the putra(Bangladesh, Bhuign Ganges (Bangladesh, India & Nepal) and the Mahanadi in the rainforest biome,India) Small numbers of gharials are also found in Kalodan and River Ayeyarwady Myanmar . The crocodile-like gharial gets its name from the Hindi word ghara, a stout clay-pot which resembles the bulbous growth on the nose of a mature male. The growth, called a ghare is used to attract motes and to generate bubbles, a facet of the mating ritual. The gavials have a very long and narrow snouts. They have flat bodies and are greenish in colour . Their elongated and powerful jaws are armec with razor-sharp teeth, which interlock to make a trap for the slipper fish. Their limbs and legs are relatively weak and are incapable to perform aggressive activities. Young gharials eat insects, larvae and small frogs. Mature adults feed solely on fish.

WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE PANGOLIN? 

“Pangolin” is a Malaysian word for rolling up into a ball,” which the pangolin does to protect itself from its enemies. Pangolins have long tails, short powerful limbs and conical heads. They are native to the regions of southeast Asia and are found in East Africa, Sudan, Central African Republic and the southern region of Africa. Some pangolins live in trees but most are ground dwellers. Ground-dwelling pangolins have strong legs capable of digging into fermite mounds for food. The arboreal pangolins have prehensile tails which they use both for balance and as hooks to hang from. Arboreal pangolins roll up in balls in tree-hollows at night to sleep. A pangolin’s body is covered with large, flat, imbricated horny scales. The pangolin feeds only on burrowing social insects, such as ants and termites. The tongue of a pangolin can be extended about 25 cm. Confronted with a threat, it curls itself very tightly into a ball. ce

WHERE ARE ARMADILLOS USUALLY FOUND? 

The Spanish word ‘armadillo’ means “little armoured one: The ‘armour” of the armadillo is composed of bony plates covered by a leathery skin. Although armadillos have several unique characteristics that distinguish them from other mammals yet more than 12,000 bony scoles that cover the head, legs and back are their most notable features. Armadillos generally have pointy or shovel- shaped shouts and small eyes. They vary widely in sizes and colours. There may be a 5- centimetre-long, salmon-coloured pink fairy armadillo or a 1.5 metre-long, dark brown giant armadillo. Others have black, red, grey, or yellowish colouring. Armadillos live in a variety of habitats, including thorny scrublands, mixed grasslands and wooded bottomlands. Their preferred habitats may be wetlands with dense shade and sandy soils that are easy to dig. River valleys and areas around creeks, stock ponds and reservoirs are their most favourite habitats. Of the 20 varieties of armadillos, all but one live in Latin America. The familiar nine-banded armadillo is the only species that includes the United States in its range. The armadillo’s diet consists mostly of insects and other invertebrates. Small animals, baby birds, eggs and may occasionally be eaten as well. carrion

WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE KANGAROO WHICH CLIMBS TREES? 

Tree kangaroos are macropods adapted for life in trees. They are found in the rainforests of New Guinea, iar northeastern Queensland and nearby islands, usually in mountainous areas The tree-kangaroo is a large, heavy- bodied marsupial with powerful limbs, a long cylindrical tail equal to length of its head and body, and short rounded ears. It has short soft fur, grey on the back and lighter on the belly, with a black snout, toes and a tail tip. Its average head and body length is 26″. Tree kangaroos have developed exceptionally long tails for balance and stronger forelimbs for climbing. Their feet are shorter and wider; they have longer claws on all feet and rubbery soles for better grip . Tree kangaroos are slow and clumsy on the ground. But in trees, they are bold and agile. They climb by wrapping the forelimbs around the trunk of a tree and hopping with the powerful hind legs, allowing the forelimbs to slide. The smallest tree- kangaroo is a little bigger than a large raccoon. The biggest one is about the size of a large dog.

WHERE IS THE CARIBOU FOUND? 

Caribou, also called reindeer, ore found in the northern regions of North America, Europe, Asia, ond Greenland Caribou are the only deer in which both males and females have antlers though only some females have them. Caribou have large hooves that are useful tools for life in the harsh northlands They are big enough to support their bulk on snow and to paddle them efficiently through the water. The under-side of the hoof of a caribou is hallowed out like a scoop and used for digging through the snow in search of tood. Its sharp edges give the caribou o dood hold on rocks or ice. The caribou has a very warm soft fur wat is hollow and insulated. The tur sheds water and snow. Caribou eat large quantities of food to increase their internal heat production. In order to conserve heat, the caribou has hollow hair rooted in a thick layer of fat. The hair also prevents heat loss from its thin, long legs by having two circulation systems. The circulation through the legs is up to 50 degrees colder than the circulation system for the rest of its body.

WHERE CAN YOU FIND A LIVE PREHISTORIC FISH? 

Numerous fossil remains of coelacanth fish have been found. These fish died over 70 million years ago. In fact, the coelacanth fish is said to have first appeared some 350 million years ago. To the amazement of experts, the first living coelacanth fish was found in 1938 off the coast of South Africa. In 1952, a second one was caught one by a fisher-man from the Comoro Islands, between Mozambique Madagascar. Since then, many more coelacanths have been told around the Comoros Coelacanths are elusive, deep-sea creatures, living in depths up to 2,300 feet (700 metres) below the surface. They can be huge, reaching 6.5 feet (2 metres) or more and weighing 90 kilograms. Usually, they live among reefs, from which they will dart out on their prey. They are strong and powerful flesh-eaters. The heart of a coelacanth is an S-shaped tube and is probably the most primitive of its kind in existence today. The most striking feature of this “living fossil is its paired lobe fins that extend away from its body like legs and move in an alternating pattern, like a trotting horse.

WHERE DO FROGS LIVE ? 

Frogs can be found almost anywhere except Antarctica However, most species are found in tropical regions. More frogs are found in warmer countries. You can find frogs in water or near places that are like ponds and streams. However, some frogs will never enter the water. They live mainly on land and go to the water only to mate. Then, there are some kinds that live in trees . These frogs have tiny sticky pads on their fingers and toes to help them cling to the tree-trunks as they climb. Tree frogs are tound in Europe , North America and South America, New Guinea, North Africa and the warm parts of Asia. The best-known European tree-trog is less than two inches long. Its colour is usually bright green. Some frogs are burrowers. Burrower frogs live on land and have short hind legs and cannot hop. Frogs that live in cold winter places hibernate during this time. They either hibernate in burrows or remain buried in the mud bottom of ponds.

WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE OKAPI? 

The okapi is a mammal native to the Ituri Reintorest, located in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in central Africa. Although the okapi bears striped markings reminiscent of the zebra, it is most closely related to the giratie. Although it prefers altitudes between 500 and 1,000 m yet it may venture above 1,000 m in the eastern montane rainforests. The okapi has a form superficially resembling that of a horse. Its average body length is 2.5 m. Iis average height at the shoulder is 1.5 m. Its neck is relatively long in comparison to that of other ruminants. Its ears are large and flexible . The colour of its body is chocolate-brown, with creamy white horizontal stripes on the legs and hindquarters. The tongue of an okapi is long enough for it to wash its eyelids and clean its ears (inside and out). It is one of the few mammals that can lick its own ears. Okapis are herbivores. They eat tree leaves, buds, grass, ferns, fruit and fungi. 

WHERE CAN YOU FIND GIBBONS? 

Gibbons are small, arboreal apes distributed in the wild in the tropical and subtropical rainforests of Southeast, South and East Asia. They are currently found in small populations in China, Loos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Northeast India, Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia. There are 15 living gibbon species, whose colouration ranges from cream to brown, grey and black. They are greatest acrobats. A gibbon has the considered to be among the world’s ability to swing frorn free to tree (distance of 50 fecij at a speed of up to 35 mph. The trees are 200 feet above the ground. Gibbons are very small and lightweight. They have small, round heads, very long arms (the arms are longer than the legs) and shori, slender bodies. Gibbons ore renowned for their loud, complex vocalizations. These calls are used to announce location, defend territory and to develop and maintain pair bonds. Gibbons are omnivores (eating plants and meat). They forage for food in the forests during the day, eating fruit (which constitutes about 75% of their diet), leaves, flowers, seeds, free barks and tender plant-shoots. They also eat insects, spiders, birds eggs and small birds.

WHERE DO KOALA BEARS LIVE? 

A koala resembles a miniature beor, with a large head above a stocky body, a tiny tail and long muscular limbs. 11 has a round face with forward-lacing eyes, a blunt, prominent nose, and two round ears on top of the head. Its pows are well adapted for gripping and climbing trees. It has two forepaws ending in five digits (fingers or toes), each with stout, curved claws used for climbing. The first two digits are opposite the other three, as if the koala has two thumbs and three fingers. This paw structure enables the koala to grasp tree branches. A koala depends on an eucalyptus tree, also known as a gum tree, for shelter and food. Pofore the Europeans colonized Australia, koalas were found in euentlyptus forests throughout the continent. When European settlers arrived in Australia in the 19th century, they began clearing eucalyptus forests to create farmland. By the end of the 20th century, more than 80 per cent of Australia’s eucalyptus forests were destroyed. Today, koalas survive in the remaining small patches of eucalyptus forests throughout eastern Australia, from the tropical northeast to the cooler southeast.

WHERE ARE RINGTAIL CATS FOUND? 

Ringtail cats are not related to the cat family but are really members of the roccoon family. A ringtail is a cat sized animal that resembles a mix between a fox and a roccoon. Its face with a pointed snout is tox-like and body is raccoon-like and elongated. The top side of the animal is yellow to dark brown or black and the underside is a whitish bufi . The ears and the eyes are large and the eyes are ringed by white fur. The tail is very bushy and can be longer than the head and body in many cases. It is also marked by 14-16 alternating black and white bands. The name “ringtail” comes from the black ring-markings that are found on its fail. Ringtails usually inhabit semi-arid deserts, rock plateaus and canyons (in the southwest states such as Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Texas). They also live in coniferous forests in California and Oregon). Ringtails are great climbers. Because of their tactile movements and agility, these animals make their homes in mountainous terrains, rock crevices, tree hollows or under cliffs.

WHERE DOES THE JAGUAR LURK? 

The joguar is one of four big cats besides the tiger, the lion and the leopard. The jaguar is the third largest after the tiger and the lion. On an average, it is the largest and mosi powerful in the Western Hemisphere. Jaguars inhabit the rainforests of South America. They are found in the countries of southern Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Panama, El Salvador, Uraguay, Guatemala, Peru, Columbia, Bolivia, Venezuela, Surinam and French Guiana. Jaguars used to range as far north as Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California, but their population line has receded forther south. Jaguars prefer wet lowland habitats, swampy savannas or tropical rain forests. A jaguar’s coat has different colours. It is usually yellow-brownish with black spots, like a leopard. Some jaguars are even white. The jaguar’s coat on its side and back is spotted with large black rosettes, each consisting of a circle of spots surrounding a central spot. The spots on its head, legs and underside are solid black. A Jaguar has the stronger jaw in relation to its head size as compared to any of the other three big cats. A male jaguar weighs 90 – 120 kg, whereas a female jaguar weighs 60-90 kg

WHERE CAN YOU SEE FRILLED LIZARDS? 

Filled and or Falseth temperole fare and saven waedlands al northern Australia They spend most of their life in Trees bul descend Deegalenally to lead on ants and small lizards A Frilled and can be uplo 95 centimetres long lis colour matches the colour of the land and the tree il lives on Male Frilled Izards are more brightly coloured than female filled lizards. Their spectacular frills are used for defence and communication. When a filled lizard sees danger, it slowly lowers itself onto the ground, relying on its natural body colours to act as comeullege If the lizard feels threatened, it will extend its legs, open its brightly coloured mouth and show its teeth. Il erects the Inill which looks like a scaly umbrella. This helps to make it look bigger. With a loud hissing sound, it will jump towards the threat. If the frill and hissing is notellective, the frilled lizard will begin to thrash its fail repeatedly, whipping it against the ground. As a last resort, the lizard will make a sudden tum and run off on its hind legs to the nearest tree.

WHERE CAN YOU FIND A PLATYPUS? 

Platypus is the name given to a semi-aquatic mammal, found only in eastern Australio, including Tasmania. In other words, The echidna and the platypus are the only members of a primitive group of mammals known as monotremes, i.e. mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to young ones. A platypus has very unique and unusual features. The animal is best described as a hodgepodge of more familiar species: the duck (bill and webbed feet) beaver (tail) and otter (body and fur). Platypuses hunt underwater, where they swim gracefully by paddling with their front of webbed feet and steering with their hind feet and beaver-like tails. The folds of skin cover their eyes and ears to prevent water from entering. Their nostrils close with a watertight seal. These Australian mammals are bottom feeders. They scoop up insects, larvae, shellfish and worms in their bills along with the bits of gravel and mud from the bottom. All this material is stored in their cheek pouches. When platypuses come up to the surface, they mash it for consumption Platypuses do not have teeth. So, the bits of gravel help them to “chew their meal. 

WHERE ARE PYTHONS FOUND? 

The biggest species o and are con and cools bage as crocodiles, pues nelopes or small deer Led hom Poms in voriety of hobo conging from orests and and deserts Some species are by aquatic of the time to Gont species or climb tres when needed. Pyons range Africa and through parts of southern Asia, dioPokiston, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanko; Peso, cucing Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Combodia, and in regions of southern China. They are also found in Micosia, the Philippines, New Guineo and Australia. A gesom about to 10 ong and can weigh up to 140kg  

HOW DO ANIMALS HIBERNATE?

 In order to cope with the cold and due to unavailability of food in winters, some animals go into a kind of deep sleep called hibernation. During hibernation, the temperature of the body drops. As a result, ihe animal burns the food stored in its body very slowly. It requires less oxygen. As a result, breathing is slower and the heart beats only faintly. Small mammals like bats, squirrels and hedgehogs hibernate . The Arctic fox which lives in the far north of Asia and America can sleep for days together when there is scarcity of food in winter. Many animals like the bear go to sleep during winter. But scientists believe that they do not hibernate. They sleep more in winter than in summer. Squirrels bury dozens of nuts in autumn to feed on them during winter. They seem to have a remarkable memory as they are able to find most of them when they need.

 HOW MANY TYPES OF APES ARE THERE? 

There are four types of apes- gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons and orangutans. The gonillos are the biggest of all apes weighing up to 225 kg and standing as follas 2 metres They are vegetarians and eat leaves and shoots. When there is danger , they put on a ocious look, pound their hands against their chests and bellow loudly Chimpanzees are very clever and use fools more than any other animals, apart from humans. They use leaves as sponges up water to drink and crack nuts with stones. They communicate with for soaking one another through a huge range of grunts and screams and also by facial expressions and hand gestures. Gibbons live in the forests of Southeast Asia and spend most of their time swinging from branch to branch with their long arms. Only a few orangutans are left in the forests of n Sumatra and Borneo. An orangutan means old man of the woods. It is reddish brown in colour and lives mainly on fruits.

  HOW CAN BEARS BE DANGEROUS?

 Bears are the largest meal eating lond  animals. They usually have thick  shaggy cools. There are 7 species of  bears. Most of them live north of the  Equater but only the spectacled bear  and the sun bear live south of the  Equator Bears are good free climbers,  powerful, quick to react and relatively  harmless to people, except when  provoked Bears can be very fierce at  Times and can kill their victims with their  powerful cuff from their front paws or  with their teeth. Other brown bears are found in North America bul  the grizzly bear is the best known. It gets its name from the grizzled  appearance of its fur. The smallest bear is the sun bear of Malaysia  which spends most of the day in its cave and searches for food in the  night. The polar bear is the only  bear which lives in the Arctic. It feeds  solely on fish, seals and walruses.

 HOW ARE RHINOS BECOMING ENDANGERED? 

 When an animal is said to be  its entire species is in danger  endangered, it means that  example, the white rhino  of becoming extinct. For  is endangered. Rhinos  are becoming extindi  because of their valuable  horns which can grow  as long as 157 cm. Rhinos  are usually found in  Africa and Asia. It is not  just hunting which is killing off  the rhinos but also due to the reason that the African savannah  frequently suffers drought  . Some conservationists cut off the horns of  the rhinos thinking that poachers will no more kill them without their  horns. Cutting off the hors is like cutting your fingernails  . The horns are  made of keratin, the same substance  which makes our nails and hair.  HOW DO FISH

SWIM AND BREATHE UNDERWATER?  

 A fish swims by bending its  muscular body from side to  side while moving its tail.  The tail helps the fish to  swim in a straight line.  The fish remains stable  with the help of the  dorsal fins on the top of  the body and the anal fin  on the underside, near  the tail. The pectoral fins  near the head and the  pelvic fins on the underside  are used for steering. A fish  has a gas-filled swim bladder  inside its body with the help of which they  can rest at a depth in the water. Fish are  able to breathe underwater because  they have special organs called gills.  Gills are a feathery structure behind  the heads of fish. These gills have  finger-like projections that contain tiny  blood vessels. When water enters  through the mouth of the fish, it flows  over the gills. The filaments in the gills  take in oxygen from the water and pass  it into the blood. If water is  contaminated, the fish comes to the  surface of the water to take in oxygen  from the air.

 HOW LONG CAN A CAMEL GO WITHOUT WATER? 

 Camels can go without water  for long periods of time from  many days to even months.  When water is available, they  can drink over 200 litres in a  day. Their bodies are well  adapted to enable them to go  without water in several ways.  They have very few sweat  glands, and, hence, litile  moisture is lost through  perspiration. Camels can  reduce water loss by producing very little urine. They can close their  nostrils. This prevents water loss through evaporation. A camel’s hump  is actually a reserve of fat which the body can break down into food  and water when these are scarce. As the reserves are used up, the  hump gets smaller. Nevertheless, a  camel still loses water, but it can lose  up to a quarter of its body weight  without any harm. The camel’s body  returns to its normal shape just after ten  minutes of drinking. 

HOW DO THE EYES OF A CAT SHINE?

 nas cores the members of a family of a very distinctive kind. The  members include tigers,  lions, cheetahs, leopards  and domesticated cots.  Irrespective of their sizes,  all cats are similar in the  way that their bodies are  adapted for hunting and  killing. One of the things  that aids a cat to be a fine  hunter is its eyes. The cat’s  eyes are adapted very well  for seeing in the night as a  cat is a night hunter. In low  light, its pupils open very wide to let os much light as possible enter the  eyes receptors. Any light rays that miss the receptors are reflected back  by a mirror-like layer called the tapetum lucidum’ which is situated of  the back of the eye. This gives a second  chance to the receptors to absorb the  rays. It is this layer with which a cat’s  eye shines when it is caught in bright  light in the dark. A cat’s eye can absorb  50% more light than a human’s eye.  0 0  

 HOW DO RABBITS DIFFER FROM HARES?  

 Robbits and hores belong to a group of  mammals called lagomorphs meaning  leaping shopes’ They are tiny  mammols with long ears. Generally,  hores have larger ears and larger  bodies than rabbits. Rabbits are  gnawing animals and live in  groups, whereas hores live alone,  normally in grassy places. Rabbits  live in burrows underground and  hares live above the ground and  escape enemies through sheer  speed. Baby rabbits are blind and  furless of the time of birth but they  grow very quickly. Baby hares are  known as leverets. They are open-eyed, furry and active within minutes  of their birth, Rabbits breed very quickly. During the breeding season,  the female can give birth to 20 babies every month. These babies can  have their own families after 6 months.

 HOW FAR CAN A KANGAROO JUMP?   

Kangaroos are big Australian  mammals that hop around on  their hind legs. They flourish in  grossy plains and take huge  strides. A fully grown kangaroo  is about six feet tall. Its front  legs are short, whereas its hind  legs are very long. The tail of the  kangaroo can be over 1.5 metres  long. It uses its tail to provide  balance while hopping. Its legs  are so powerful that it can  cover 14 metres in one single  hop and leap up vertically  more than 3 metres in the air.  There are two kinds of  kangaroos-red ones and  grey ones. Red kangaroos can hop at  55 km/hr for shori distances. They are  found in the dry grasslands of Central  Australia. Grey kangaroos are found  in the woods and grasslands of  southeast Australia.  2  TTUN TAST CAN ANIMALS RUN?    The cheetah is the fastest lond animal. It runs with a  speed of more than 100 km/hr. However,  it requires to stop after some time.  The cheetoh gets its speed  from its long and  powerful legs. It has  large muscles along  its back which it uses  like spring with each  long stride. It uses its  clows to grip the  ground while running  The claws are fairly blunt but very strong.  The cheetah is also known as the hunting  leopard. It has been trained by people for  hunting for a very long time. Another land  animal that runs fast over long distances is the  pronghorn antelope. It can run at a speed  of 56 km/hr for about 6 kilometres.  Antelopes are four-legged hooved  animals. 

TTUN TAST CAN ANIMALS RUN?  

 The cheetah is the fastest lond animal. It runs with a  speed of more than 100 km/hr. However,  it requires to stop after some time.  The cheetoh gets its speed  from its long and  powerful legs. It has  large muscles along  its back which it uses  like spring with each  long stride. It uses its  clows to grip the  ground while running  The claws are fairly blunt but very strong.  The cheetah is also known as the hunting  leopard. It has been trained by people for  hunting for a very long time. Another land  animal that runs fast over long distances is the  pronghorn antelope. It can run at a speed  of 56 km/hr for about 6 kilometres.  Antelopes are four-legged hooved  animals.

 HOW DOES A TIGER KILL ITS PREY?

  Tigers are the larges of the  big cots. The average male  ger’s body grows up to over  2 metres long. It has a foil  which is 1 metre long. Tigers  line in the forests of Asia,  Sumatra and Javo. As hunters  are being them for their skin  mey are becoming rare. They  prey on large animals such as  deer, buffaloes, antelopes  and wild pigs. Silence and  stealth are their main hunting  skills. The stripes on o figer’s  body comouflage the tiger so that it may reach its prey without being  seen. After spotting its prey, the tiger crouches close to the ground and  then creeps forward slowly. When it is just a few metres away, it makes  osudden and powerful rush and then pounces on its prey. The jaws of  the tiger contain long-pointed front teeth which it uses to stab the prey.  With its sharp hooked claws and  powerful shoulders, it clings onto its  prey tightly and pulls it to the ground.

 HOW DO MAMMALS CLEAN THEIR FUR? 

 One of the characteristics of mammals is that they are covered with for  or have hair. Fur or  hair is made up of a  tough protein called  keratin. The hair  protects the mammals  from cold, heat, wind  and water. In order to  keep their fur clean and  free from parasites, all  mammals clean their  fur in different ways.  They either lick their  fur with tongues or  comb through it with  their fingers. Some mammals nibble other animals’ fur with their teeth.  This is known as grooming. Social mammals such as chimpanzees  often groom one another’s fur. There are two advantages of  grooming  Firstly, those parts of the coat which are difficult to reach are cleaned.  Secondly, it strengthens friendship  and keeps the group together. Some  mammals have stiff hair called  whiskers which serve as defence.

  HOW MANY MAMMALS ARE THERE?  

 Mammols are vertebrate animals that  nourish their young ones with their milk.  Most mammals have hair on their bodies  There are more than 4,000 different kinds  of mammals. These are further classified  into 21 groups colled orders. Some orders  contain hundreds of mammals, whereas  others may contain only one mammal.  y su  The biggest order is that of the ‘rodents’  which includes more than 1,700 species  of mice, rais, squirrels and  chipmunks. The order of bat’  contains about 1,000  species. Mammals cover an  enormous range of sizes, shapes and  weights. They are the most intelligent animals alive. The cleverest  mammals are humans and apes. They also spend many years caring  tor, and teaching their young ones. Humans beings are the mammals  having long life spans, but whales are not far behind. The Fin Whale  Balaenoptera physalis is believed to have a maximum life-span of 90 –  100 years 

 HOW DOES A STAG GET BACK ITS ANTLERS? 

 Most species of deer live in woods  and grasslands in the mild regions  of North America and Northern  Europe. Male deer are called  stags, young males are bucks,  females are doe and babies are  fowns. Usually, only stags have  antlers. Deer have branching antlers  made of bones on their heads.  These antlers drop off and grow  again each year. These antlers are  often damaged during fighis.  When the antlers fall off after a  fight, the new set starts to appear  as small knobs on the top of a  deer’s head within a few weeks. The  growing antlers are covered in a  soft skin called velvet. Underneath the velvei, tiny blood vessels feed  the growing antlers. The next time when a deer fights, the blood supply  of these growing antlers is cut off. The  velvet dries up and is peeled off. Then,  the deer rubs it off on bushes and  trees. A young deer may take five years  to develop a full set of anilers.

  HOW ARE BEAVERS SUITED TO LIFE UNDER WATER?  

 Beavers are large rodents with flat fails. They live in rivers, streams and lakes  neor woodlands and  are good swimmers  Beovers are suited  to life in water in  a number of ways  Their bodies are  streamlined and  their rear feet are  webbed. Their eyes  ore protected by  special skins. The  dense and water  proof coats of  beovers keep them warm both in and  out of water. The most important is the  broad, flat and scaly tails which can  be moved up and down to drive the  beovers through water with great  speeds. The tails can also be used as  rudders to steer. Beavers can swim  under water for almost 1km holding  their breath all along the way. Beavers  build shelters called lodges to live in  during winter. Most lodges are like  mini islands made of branches and  mud.   

HOW DOES A DOLPHIN SEE’ WITH THE HELP OF SOUND? 

  Dolphins are sea creatures. They  are mammals, not fish, as the  mothers feed their young on their  milk. They usually live in groups of  20 to 100 animals. Dolphins  communicate with high-pitched  clicks called phonations. Some of  these clicks are higher than any  other animal’s sound. Even while  hunting for food, they use these  clicking sounds. These clicking sounds are reflected by objects in their  path and come back as echoes. The echoes help dolphines to make  out as to where the fish are and also how far they are from their prey.  This technique is known as echo-location. Whales and bats also use  this technique. Dolphins are among  the most intelligent animals, along  with humans and chimpanzees.  Dolphins can be trained to jump  through hoops, toss balls or walk  backwards through the water on their  rails. 

  HOW DO BATS FLY?

   zBats are the only mammals capable of flying.  The wings of o bat consist of leathery skin stretched  between four elongoted finger bones on each hand.  The wings are very strong but very light. In order to  fly, o bai flexes its arms up and down, just like a  swimmer doing the function of a butterfly. Most bats  sleep during the doy, hanging upside down in  caves and other dark places. They come out of  night to feed on insects which fly in the dark  They find their prey by echo-location in the  same way as dolphins do Bats have such good  ears that they can hear even the beating of the  wings of an  insect. A bat can  make up to 200 shrieks  per second in order to guide  itself by the echoes. The world’s  smallest bat is also the smallest known  mammal. It is the very rare Kitti’s hog  nosed bat, or bumble bee bat of  southern Thailand. Its body is 3 cm  long. It has a wingspan of 16 cm.