Online Practice Unseen Comprehension Passage For Class 10

Solved Examples

1.Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

  1. Here’s why effective communication is so important. In a large organisation, when a CEO addresses a live webcast, a must in today’s day and age, even a single question from an employee, no matter how unimportant it might be, will resonate across centres. It then becomes absolutely necessary for the leader to respond in a precise and unambiguous manner and use the platform to deliver his or her message across to the people. When the spotlight is on the leader onlookers will hold on to every word he or she utters Rhetoric can make many a hero.
  2. Choice of words chosen to deliver a message is equally important. Communication is not about company information. It’s more like if you want to drink water, do 1 presume you want to drink Coke?, an HR head once remarked. If strategy is important, what’s even more critical is communication of the strategy One can either be vague and leave it to the imagination of others or be precise without any obscurity. Either way, depending on what the situation demands, it’s a leader’s call and he or she can be sure, people are going to judge.
  3. The importance of effective communication is not restricted to the leadership level alone. Companies are looking at innovative and effective ways to communicate with employees and also enable employee-to employee communication, what one can term as E2E. So there are tools like Facebook, Twitter, etc. that are being created to encourage active discussion among the employees, irrespective of where they are based. It also ensures that any gap in communication is bridged and there are no excuses for that.
  4. An engineering company I know uses SMS as a means to communicate with their employees. They started this practice even when others were just about warming up to sending mailers to meet their communication needs. Others may take a cue from this and start using platforms like WhatsApp and others, who knows. The fact is, companies are using technology in a big way because they understand that the biggest challenge today is communicating with the Gen-Yers and Gen-Xers. The logic is simple, if the new generation is used to modes like ATM and online shopping, how can archaic communication methods work?
  5. Effective communication can work at multiple levels in an organisation like training, learning and development, educational opportunities, among others. Moreover, in a chaotic world, the only thing that will work is sane communication. If communication fails organisations run the risk of falling into a trap where ideas emerge from all corners but don’t get executed. So when it comes to people matters, silence is not always golden.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.                                                                                                                                 (2 x 4=8 marks)

  1. Why is effective communication absolutely necessary for the leader?

Answer: Effective communication is absolutely necessary for the leader as it enables him/her to respond in a precise and unambiguous manner. He or she uses communication to deliver the message across to the people. Effective communication can make one a hero.

  1. What are the writer’s views regarding effective communication among employees? Mention any two innovative communication techniques being used by companies today.

Answer: The writer says that companies are looking at innovative and effective ways to communicate with the employees. They use tools like Facebook, WhatsApp or Twitter to encourage active discussion among the employees, irrespective of where they are based. It also ensures that any gap in communication is bridged and there are no excuses for that.

  1. Why are the archaic communication methods no longer useful nowadays?

Answer: Archaic communication methods are no longer useful nowadays because the Gen-Yers and Gen-Xers are used to modes like ATM, WhatsApp and online shopping.

  1. What happens if communication fails in an organisation?

Answer: If communication fails in an organisation, then organisation runs the risk of falling into a trap where ideas emerge from all corners but don’t get executed.

 

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1 the meaning of resonate is

(i) a deep and reverberating sound

(ii) to evoke memories

(iii) an idea meets with agreement

(iv) resound

b. In para 2 the synonym of the word ‘vague is

(i) clear

(ii) indeterminate

(iii) determinate

(iv) precise

c. The meaning of ‘rhetoric’ in para 1 is

(i) the art of effective communication

(ii) related to rhythm

(iii) loftiness

(iv) pompousness

d. The antonym of ‘multiple’ in para 5 is

(i) many

(ii) few

(iii) single

(iv) resound

          

Answers:

a. (iii) an idea meets with agreement

b. (ii) indeterminent

c. (i) the art of effective communication

d. (iii) single


Read the following ssage carefully.

  1. It is an indisputable fact that the world has gone too far with the innovation of new technologies such as mobile phones, the Internet and so on, due to which people are able to tour the cosmos virtually sitting at one place using their smart devices or other technological gadgets. Though mobile internet access is oftentimes hurried and short, it can still provide common internet features like alerts, weather data, emails, search engines, instant messages, and game and music downloading.
  2. Due to the easy access of smart phones, communication has been very effective and instant. People are able to convey their message all around the globe to their loved ones without spending hefty sums of money. Adults are always fond of such gadgets and they always welcome and adopt such new technology readily. Further, young people have been able to broaden their minds and improve their skills by doing research on the Internet. For instance, they use smart phones to look up any new word they come across.

As we know that most of the universities have online teaching provision and smart phones assist the students to complete their assignments on time.

  1. The mobile phone has been a lifesaver for a lot of people in case of an emergency. Likewise, use of smart phones can be of vital importance in preventing crimes in the society by providing information to the security forces in time.
  2. Nonetheless, for the young the use of mobile phone can be like an addiction and they can misuse it. Young people are also prone to getting involved in undesirable activities on the Internet. This might have adverse effect on their academic performance. Therefore, young people should always be monitored and made aware of its bad outcomes.
  3. Also a major contributor to its popularity is the availability of prepaid or ‘pay as you go services’ from a phone shop or an online store. This allows subscribers to load text or airtime credits to their handsets by the use of their credit cards, debit cards or by buying a prepaid card from the network they subscribe to. This plan also doesn’t commit a particular customer to a contract. If prepaid card is not that appealing to you, then you can opt to subscribe using the ‘pay by month plan’.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How are smart phones helpful in communication?

Answer: Smart phones help people to convey their messages all around the globe to their loved ones without spending huge amounts of money.

  1. What are the benefits of mobile phones for the young generation?

Answer: Mobile phones help the young generation to broaden their minds and improve their skills by doing research on the Internet. For example, they can use their mobile phones to find the meaning of any new word that they come across.

  1. How can mobile phones be considered ‘life-savers’?

Answer: Mobile phones are considered life-savers because they provide instant communication in case of an emergency. They also provide information to security forces in time and thus help in prevention of crime.

  1. Mention any two demerits of mobile phones.

Answer: The following are the two demerits of mobile phones:

(i) Youngsters get involved in undesirable activities on the Internet.

(ii) They adversely effect the academic performance of students.

  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, synonym of ‘innovation’ is

(i) production

(ii) sincerity

(iii) invention

(iv) prevention

b. In para 2 meaning of the word ‘ hefty’ is

(i) large

(ii) handsome

(iii) fat

(iv) small

c. Meaning of the word ‘adverse’ in para 4 is

(i) positive

(ii) negative

(iii) admirable

(iv) unguided

d. In para 5 the synonym of the word ‘subscriber’ is

(i) student

(ii) patients

(iii) teacher

(iv) users

             

Answers: a.

 (iii) invention

b. (i) large

c. (ii) negative

d. (iv) users


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. Every urbanite knows the bright lights of the city make it impossible to see the stars in a night sky. What most of us do not know is that those lights also may be making us sick. The cause is light pollution – the unearthly glow of billions of street lamps, security and porch lights, searchlights, office lights and signs-as people everywhere try to dispel the darkness of the night.
  2. For the first time, light is being investigated seriously as a pollutant and a health hazard – a possible cause of increased incidence of breast cancer, depression and other ailments.
  3. In the most heavily urbanized regions, it no longer ever really get dark. Satellite images reveal that in large areas of eastern North America, Western Europe, Japan and Korea, night has become a constant twilight. In a natural night sky, someone looking at the heavens should be able to see nearly 3500 stars and planets and the glow from the Milky Way, our galaxy. But in some brightly lit cities, the number of visible stars has dwindled to about a few dozen,
  4. And for many wildlife species, light pollution seems to be as grave an environmental threat as bulldozed habitats and toxic-chemical dumping.

5 Lighting from office towers confuse migratory birds which fly into building fit up at night. Millions of birds in North America die from these crashes. Researchers have noticed since the 1980s that artificial lights along ocean beaches confuse millions of baby turtles. Observers say that the turtles instinctively crawl to the brightest thing on the horizon- normally the reflection of the moon on the sea. But where beaches are illuminated baby turtles often crawl to the lit roads, where they are flattened by cars, or wander in circles on the beach. Once day breaks, they bake to death in the sun.

  1. Sea turtles and birds are clearly in peril because of light at night, but scientists have begun to study whether humans may share something of the same fate. Richard Stevens, a US Epidemiologist, has developed the idea that night light can disrupt critical hormonal levels that affect human health. Stevens came to this conclusion while trying to solve the puzzle of why breast cancer risk is five times higher in industrialised societies than in non-industrialised countries.
  2. Travis Longcore, Science director at the Urban Wild Lands Group (a Los Angeles conservation group), says that light pollution should be receiving the same attention as other environmental ills. Canada has set up a conservation reserve north of Toronto, the first in the world to preserve a pristine night sky Conservationists are hoping to expand the area of preserved night sky beyond the park’s boundaries by encouraging local municipalities to curtail the use of poorly designed night lighting.
  3. In the United States, the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has been campaigning for bylaws requiring night-friendly lights, where the bulbs recesses into the fixture so that the light does not glare out horizontally or upwards Lamps that direct a light beam at the ground use less electricity and do not uselessly light the sky. While the health and environmental impacts or light pollution are starting to capture attention, Dave Crawford, the executive director of IDA, has other concerns too. He too worries that light may be making people sick and harming wildlife, but he says the fading of the heavens could also cause a fading of the human imagination in many ways a greater long-term threat.

I On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How is light a pollutant? What harm does it cause?

Answer: Light is a pollutant as it can make us sick, and is a health hazard. Light is a cause of increased incidence of breast cancer, depression and other ailments in human beings.

  1. How are sea turtles and birds in peril because of lights at night?

Answer: Lighting from office towers confuses migratory birds who fly into lit up buildings at night and die from these crashes. Sea turtles on the other hand instinctively crawl to illuminated beaches and lit up roads where they are either flattened by cars or wander in circles on the beach where they bake to death in the sun once day breaks.

  1. What measures have been taken in Canada to reduce light pollution?

Answer: In Canada, a Conservation Reserve north of Toronto has been set up to preserve a pristine night sky. Conservationists are also hoping to encourage local municipalities to curtail the use of poorly designed night lighting.

  1. What are the suggestions given by the IDA to counter light pollution?

Answer: The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has suggested the use of night-friendly lights where the bulbs recesses into the fixture so that light does not glare out horizontally or upwards. Such lights that direct a beam of light on the ground use less electricity and do not light up the sky unnecessarily.

  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 3 the synonym of the word ‘dwindle’ is

(i) go up

(ii) float

(iii) diminish

(iv) expand

b. In para 4 the meaning of the word ‘bulldozed’ is

(i) to help a bull to sleep

(ii) to ride a bull

(iii) to clear ground   (iv) to cultivate a field

c. In para 5 the antonym of the word ‘illuminated’ is

(i) to light up

(ii) to brighten

(iii) to darken

(iv) to highlight

d. In para 6 which word means ‘serious and immediate danger’?

(i) Peril

(ii) Fate

(iii) Discrupt

(iv) Affect

            

Answers:

a. (iii) diminish

b. (iii) to clear ground

c. (iii) to darken

d (iv) Peril


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. If you have travelled up the Mandakini valley, and then crossed over into Alaknanda valley, you are immediately struck by the contrast. The Mandakini is gentler, richer in vegetation, almost pastoral in places, the Alaknanda is awesome, precipitous, threatening and seemingly inhospitable to those who must live and earn a livelihood, in its confines.
  2. Even as we left Chamoli and began the steady, winding climb to Badrinath, the nature of the terrain underwent a dramatic change. No longer did green fields slope gently down to the riverbed. Here they clung precariously to rocky slopes and ledges that grew steeper and narrower, while the river below, impatient to reach its confluence with the Bhagirathi at Devprayag, thundered along the narrow gorge.
  3. Badrinath is one of the four dhams, one of the foremost holy places in India. The other three are Rameshwaram, Dwarka and Jagannath Puri. For the pilgrims travelling to this holiest of holy cities, the journey is exciting, possibly even uplifting, but for those who live permanently on these crags and ridges. life is harsh, a struggle from one day to the next. No wonder, trees are so important-even a child knows that Perhaps everybody knows of trees as silent benefactors of man, scavenging the polluted air. The trees are the primary producers and without them it is just impossible to imagine animal life. But these facts have remained as bits of information, without the concern and painstaking endeavour in helping a tree grow.
  4. Our planners should understand that it is the vast treasure of plant and animal life that plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance. The tribal communities have a close relationship with forests. It has been estimated that nearly 25 million tribals live in and around forests and depend, to a great extent, on forests for their sustenance. The government reports always talk about their welfare, but the fact is just the reverse. Without proper settlement options, they are gradually being forced into exile for the sake of industries, large and dangerous dams and many other purposes. The dense forests in Korba have given way to several large industries and all the tribal communities in that region have been ousted. The residents of Tehri, Bastar, Angul, Talcher, Digboi, Visakhapatnam, etc. have suffered the same fate.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How does Mandakini differ from Alaknanda?

Answer: Mandakini is gentler, richer in vegetation and almost pastoral in places, while Alaknanda is precipitous, threatening and inhospitable to people who live around here and earn their livelihood.

  1. What was the sudden change seen in the nature of terrain as the narrator left Chamoli and began the climb to Badrinath?

Answer: As the narrator left Chamoli and began the climb to Badrinath, the green fields no longer sloped gently down to the riverbed. They were visible in only small parts on the sides of the rocky slopes and ledges that grew steeper and narrower.

  1. How have trees been described in the passage?

Answer: In the passage, trees have been described as ‘silent benefactors of man, scavenging the polluted air. They are the primary producers and without them it is just impossible to imagine animal life.

  1. How have the tribals been affected?

Answer: Tribals have been forced into exile because of development of industries, large and dangerous dams and many other purposes.

 

  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1 the meaning of the word ‘contrast’ is

(i) being similar

(ii) being strikingly different

(iii) being bright

(iv) being submissive

b. In para 2 the meaning of the word ‘precariously’ is

(i) in a way that is likely to fall or collapse

(ii) in a secure way

(iii) in a continuous way

(iv) in an unusual way

c. In para 3 the synonym of the word ‘crags’ is

(i) mountains

(ii) shores

(iii) ridges

(iv) sandstone

d. In para 4 which word is the antonym of ‘suddenly’?

(i) Vital

(ii) Gradually

(iii) Exile

(iv) Fate

            

Answers:

a. (ii) being strikingly different

b. (i) in a way that is likely to fall or collapse

c. (iii) ridges

d. (ii) Gradually

Practice Exercise

Read the following passage carefully.

                                      A BILLION STRONG OR A BILLION WEAK?

  1. On May 11, India turned a billion-strong, or a billion-weak, if you wish. Is the glass half empty or is it half full? There are two ways of looking at the billionth Indian. If you go by the tradition of counting heads, it means one billion mouths to feed. But if you want solutions then you are looking at two billion hands. The birth of the billionth baby cannot, and should not, be taken in isolation. What are we promising this landmark baby? Are we ensuring a sound upbringing, adequate nutrition, proper education, excellent health and a bright successful future? Or, are we predicting for him malnutrition, disease, no primary education, unemployment and polluted air?
  2. In order that a child gets what is needed to groom it for a successful future, the economic background of a family has a lot to contribute. An ideal family setting decreases domestic burdens and worries to ensure quality time is being provided by the parents. Education, a grey area where government policies are concerned, remains the single most important requirement for a meaningful future.
  3. A sound mind in a sound body further emphasises the need for adequate nutrition and a clean environment. The child needs to breathe fresh air. He needs a park and facilities for sport and physical training. Above all, he needs a clarity of thought unaffected by pollution, violence and a fast disappearing moral fabric that are all symptoms of an over-populous community.
  4. Reduction in cultivable land and a depleting water table have made the situation worse. So whatever land area we have, has to be preserved and utilised as best as can be possible, at all costs. Water must be saved, rapid depletion of the water table is a certainty, since recharge of the water table takes almost twice the time that it takes to empty it.
  5. There has been some success with the staple foods of the north and the south. Wheat production has gone up by over three times, and rice yield is up twofold. In addition to basic agricultural growth, we have improved yields in other food areas such as dairies, poultry, fisheries, etc. Most of it has been possible through multi-pronged strategies. But these cannot be the magic wands for the future. Unfortunately, as things stand today, the per person consumption rate of grain is falling because of a rising population. That each year India adds a population equal to what Australia has to itself, is a fact most well-read Indians know of. How has this come about? World population grows by about 250,000 per day and almost 19 per cent is contributed by India.
  6. For any solution, population must be controlled. And if Kerala can do it, why not others. All it requires is a concerted effort, an iron will, unfailing perseverance and essentially an unshakeable dedication. Then, and only then, we can hope to promise, if not this billionth child, at least the later ones, a future worth the name.
  7. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.
  8. How does an ideal family setting help?
  9. What does a child require for proper growth?
  10. Why is rapid depletion of water table a certainty?
  11. What does one need to control population growth?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1 the synonym of the word ‘isolation’ is shit of min

(i) segregation

(ii) combination

(iii) together

(iv) different

b. In context of para 2 the meaning of the word ‘groom’ is

(i) husband-to-be

(ii) to brush the coat of a horse or a dog                

(iii) to prepare someone for a particular activity

(iv) to grieve

c. In para 5, which word means ‘important, especially in terms of consumption’?

(i) Staple

(ii) Yield

(iii) Strategies

(iv) Wand

d. In para 6, what is the antonym of the word ‘

(i) Controlled

(ii) Concerted

(iii) Unshakeable

(iv) Solution

            


Read the following passage carefully.

KALAM’S CONCEPT OF TOTAL COMMITMENT

  1. Total commitment is not just hard work, it is total involvement. Building a rock wall is a back-breaking work. There are some people who build rock walls all their lives. And when they die, there are miles of walls, mute testimonials of how hard those people had worked. He continued, ‘But there are other people who, while placing one rack on top of another, have a vision in their minds, a goal. It may be a terrace with roses climbing over the rock wall and chairs set out for lazy summer days. Or the rock wall may enclose an apple orchard or mark a boundary. When they finish, they have more than a wall. It is the goal that makes the difference. Do not make rocketry profession, your livelihood, make it your religion, your mission.
  2. To succeed in your mission, you must have single-minded devotion to your goal. Individuals like myself are often called ‘ workaholics: I question this term because that implies a pathological condition or an illness If I do that which desire more than anything else in the world and which makes me happy, such work can never be an aberration Words from the Twenty-sixth Psalm come to my mind while I work: ‘Examine me, O Lord and prove me.
  3. Total commitment is a crucial quality for those who want to reach the very top of their profession. The desire to work at optimum capacity leaves hardly any room for anything else. I have had people with me who would scoff at the 40-hours-a-week job they were being paid for. I have known others who used to work 60, 80 and even 100 hours a week. They found their work exciting and rewarding. Total commitment is the common denominator among all successful men and women. Are you able to manage the stress you encounter in your life? The difference between an energetic and a confused person is the difference in the way their minds handle their experiences. All of us need difficulties because they are necessary to enjoy success. All of us carry some sort of super-intelligence within us. Let it be stimulated to enable us to examine our deepest thoughts, desires, and beliefs.
  4. Once you have done this, charge yourself, as it were, with your commitment to your work, you also need good health and boundless energy. Climbing to the top demands strength, whether it is to the top of Mount Everest or to the top of your career. People are born with different energy reserves and the one who tires first and burns out easily will do well to reorganise his or her life at the earliest.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How are people who have a vision different from those people who do not have a vision?
  2. What according to the writer is the secret of success in one’s mission? Which type of work can never be an aberration?
  3. Why, in the writer’s opinion, is total commitment towards one’s work important?
  4. What are the prerequisites for climbing to the top? Who needs to reorganise his/her life at the earliest?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, the synonym of the word ‘mute’ is

(i) communicative

(ii) silent

(iii) loud

(iv) clear

b. In para 2, which word means ‘a person who compulsively works excessively hard and long hours?

(i) Individual

(ii) Pathological condition

(iii) Workaholics

(iv) Aberration

c. In para 3, the meaning of the word ‘crucial’ is

(i) of great importance

(ii) unimportant

(iii) useless

(iv) low-priority

d. In para 1, the antonym of the word ‘enclose’ is

(i) fence

(ii) encompass

(iii) shut in

(iv) liberate

             


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. One often hears of the high prevalence of child labour in our country. Of the many reports I have read, perhaps the most disturbing, was a report on the condition of children employed by zari factories in Delhi, Mumbai and other parts of India. It grieves me to imagine children exposed to such inhumanity. 2. Robbing children of their childhood is a criminal act, and our society must weed out this malaise from the root Gandhiji said that the greatest lessons in life are learnt from children, and not from learned men. A child will try fearlessly before giving up. As adults, fearing failure, we give up even before we try.
  2. A child is inherently curious about the world, about relationships and about wanting to understand how things work. As adults, our blinkered and conditioned-self prevents us from truly exploring without prejudice. For a child, what it does is meaningful in its own right. As an adult, we usually link every action to an external reward of money or recognition.
  3. I did not learn how to be a father, from manuals. Whatever little I learnt about being a parent, I learnt by observing my children and letting them teach me. Similarly, I think our teachers could grow enormously by learning from their students. We will then refrain from pushing knowledge into their young minds, and begin the democratic process of being joint learners as we discover and understand the world. I believe empowerment is to have motivated teachers who are learners first, teachers second. Only then we will stop trying to mould children into our adult likeness. Only then we will let them blossom.
  4. If India has to develop economically, socially, intellectually, and culturally, we must empower those most vulnerable to social diktat, our children. Let us resolve to give our children the freedom of childhood, let us change our schools from being textbook prisons to laboratories of exploration, and let us change our homes from being tuition centres to playgrounds of art and sport.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. What does the writer talk about?
  2. What were Gandhiji’s observations about children?
  3. How does the writer compare the curiosity exhibited by a child to that exhibited by an adult?
  4. What advice does the writer offer to enable India to develop economically, intellectually and culturally?
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, the synonym of the word ‘prevalence’ is

(i) prevent

(ii) common

(iii)uncommon

(iv) unique

b. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘

(i) suffering from malaria malaise’ is

(ii) feeling of happiness

(iii) an uncomfortable feeling that something is wrong

(iv) a feeling of quietness

c. In para 4, which word means ‘a book giving instructions or information’?

(i) Manuals

(ii) Refrain

(iii) Empowerment

(iv) Mould

d. In para 5, the antonym of the word ‘vulnerable’ is

(i) safe

(ii) endangered

(iii) unprotected

(iv) unguarded

           


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. These are the words inscribed on the Statue of Liberty in New York. But ironically, those who go there are not the poor and the wretched; but the skilled and the highly qualified doctors, engineers, scientists, nurses and technicians, from other countries including India. The urge to go to the West has become compelling in India in post-independence years. Both the World Wars and political upheavals like civil wars and revolutions spawned large migrations during the first half of this century. The migration in the latter half stemmed from economic motivation. People in power like scientists and skilled persons have, from the very beginning, played a key role in international migration. The conscious policy to encourage migration of high quality manpower from other regions and countries is related to the positive contribution made by the immigrants to their country of adoption, resulting in a net advantage to it.
  2. The earnings and remittances from the Indians settled abroad or their eventual return are poor compensation for the lasting and serious loss inflicted by their outflow. The specific objectives of the anti-brain drain policies, within the framework of independent development, are to bring back to a limited extent, the lost talents and skills from abroad and reduce the outflow in the short run and finally end it, except that necessitated by genuine, multi-lateral international dependence.
  3. Brain Drain means professionals going abroad to work. This is not good because nowadays all the good brains are going out to work for other countries. If they had efficiently utilised their brains in this country, India could have been a better country. America has become a developed country because the maximum number employees there consists of Indians only. So if those employees had worked for India, India would surely have become America. So Brain Drain is not good from the economic point of view.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. What kind of people go to America?
  2. When and why did the urge to go to the West become compelling in India?
  3. Who have played a key role in international migration?
  4. What is meant by ‘Brain Drain’?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. Which word from para 1 means ‘to write or carve words or symbols on something?

(i) Inscribe

(ii) Wretched

(iii) Spawned

(iv) Upheaval

b. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘remittances’ is

(i) to spread a rumour

(ii) to send money

(iii) to rejoice

(iv) to help someone in need

c. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘inflict’ is

(i) to infuriate someone

(ii) to cause something unpleasant or painful

(iii) to limit something

(iv) to discuss something

d. In para 1, which word will be the antonym of the word ‘resistable’?

(i) Wretched

(ii) Upheavals

(iii) Conscious

(iv) Compelling

           


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. Frankness may be among the most overrated of virtues! And here’s why. Because unrestricted and unfiltered frankness is a recipe for breaking relationships, even the closest ones. Such frankness is understandable, acceptable and even ‘cute’ only in children under the age of five.
  2. Thinking before one speaks and using restraint are hallmarks of growing maturity and preparations for life. Learning to put a filter between thought and spoken word (and even more importantly written word) is an important life skill. Think is a popular acronym for True, Helpful, Inspiring, Necessary and Kind. This would do wonderfully well as a filter in our minds.
  3. It is good to speak what is true, but only along with the other attributes in the acronym, particularly the last one, kindness. In the righteous glow of speaking what we see as the truth, we often forget to be kind. We blurt out ‘truths’ even when it is totally unhelpful and unnecessary to do so, let alone inspiring! Too often, such truth-telling is destructive rather than noble. Only those who do not care about the consequences can afford the luxury of ‘speaking their minds’ whenever and wherever they please. Whenever relationships are at stake, it is essential to choose the time, place and words appropriately when imparting unpleasant truths. And even then, only when absolutely necessary and with the outmost kindness.
  4. Speaking without forethought can be even more dangerous in other circumstances, for example, when someone has entrusted us with a secret. A sign of maturity is the ability to keep a secret. Very young children are incapable of understanding the concept of a secret. To them, every piece of information is interesting, new and meant to be shared. As we grow older, we all learn to keep a secret, but too often we keep only our own secrets and not those that others confide in us. We may blurt out something a friend told us in confidence, perhaps carelessly but often to appear important in other people’s estimation. It gives us a sense of power to know something that our friends don’t and it requires conscious effort to keep the information to ourselves.
  5. But this is the real test of an important life skill-self-restraint. Revealing a friend’s secret is equivalent to betrayal of the friendship. Indeed, the consequences may well spread way beyond the friendship alone. It may lead to gossip spreading like a forest fire, destroying peace of the mind and even lives.
  6. Words have power to hurt or heal. They are not mere tools for tweeting and messaging. Before tongue speaks, before the fingers fly over the keyboard, it is important to pause and apply the THINK acronym filter. Is this True, Helpful, Inspiring, Necessary and Kind?
  7. Of course it is important to communicate, but it is far more important to be considerate and compassionate. Speaking well is a skill: speaking kindly is a life skill.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How much of frankness is acceptable?
  2. What does the term ‘put a filter’ mean in this context?
  3. According to the writer, what is the best way to reveal the truth?
  4. Why is it important to keep secrets?
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

 a. Which word from para 1 means ‘behaviour showing high moral standards’?

(i) Frankness

(ii) Overrated

(iii) Virtues

(iv) Unfiltered

b. In context of para 2, the word ‘hallmark’ means

(i) a typical characteristic of person or thing

(ii) a mark stamped on articles of gold and silver, certifying their standard of purity

(iii) a hall that is filled with marks

(iv) a statue

c. In para 3, the synonym of the word ‘blurt’ is

(i) bluntness

(ii) exclaim

(iii) blind

(iv) silence

d. Which word in para 4 is the synonym of the word ‘treachery’?

(i) Self-restraint

(ii) Revealing

(iii) Betrayal

(iv) Consequences

          


Read the following passage carefully.

                                          THE NEW YEAR RESOLUTION

  1. The New Year is the time for making resolutions. Mentally, at least most of us compile a formidable list of dos and don’ts. The same old favourites recur year in and year out and the children plan to do a thousand and one jobs about the house we plan to be nice to people we don’t like, drive carefully, and take the dog for a walk every day. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment.
  2. Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our old ways Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolution to myself I limited myself to two modest resolutions. Firstly, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself assiduously to the task.
  3. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out After jumping about in the carpet and having twisted my body into uncomfortable positions, I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me.
  4. The next morning, the whole family trooped in to watch the performance That was really unsettling but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the family good humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned and the time I spent exercising gradually diminished. Little-by-little the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10, I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning, I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I reached home from work. Resisting the hypnotising effect of television, I sat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book titled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words in a Minute Perhaps it will solve my problem but ! just don’t have the time to read it.

 

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. Why do most of the people fail in their efforts at self-improvement?
  2. Was the narrator able to do justice to either of his resolutions?
  3. Was the narrator comfortable when the whole family came down to watch him do exercises? How did he react to them?
  4. What did the narrator’s waning enthusiasm towards daily exercise lead to?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. What is the synonym of the word ‘formidable’ in para 1?

(i) Formation

(ii) Intimidating

(iii) Foregone

(iv) Interesting

b. What is the meaning of the word ‘pitfalls’ used in para 2?

(i) A water fall

(ii) The end of the mountain cliff

(iii) A drawback

(iv) Stumbling

c.Which word in para 3 is the antonym of the word ‘invigorated’?

(i) Exhausted

(ii) Proposed

(iii) Drag

(iv) Betrayed

d. In para 4, which word means, ‘an insulting remark that is intended to make someone look stupid’?

(i) Trooped

(ii) Unsettling

(iii) Fended                (iv) Jibes                                               

            


Read the following passage carefully,

                                                IS PEER PRESSURE GOOD?

  1. Peer pressure is the phenomenon wherein we tend to get influenced by the lifestyles and the ways of thinking of our peers. The thoughts, behaviour and tastes in fashion, music, television and other walks of life of the masses are often seen having a deep impact on the society. The changing ways of our peers life often force us to change our ways looking at life and leading it.
  2. Peer pressure can help us analyse ourselves and make us contemplate on our ways of life. Some of the practices that the masses follow may actually teach us the way of living. We may be able to change ourselves for the better.
  3. Knowing what the masses follow, exposes us to the world outside our home. We understand the things going on around us We are exposed to a wide variety of human behaviour Exposure to peer pressure gives us an opportunity to think about their tastes and their outlooks towards life. It gives us a chance to choose the best from what the masses do.
  4. If we are fortunate to get a good peer group, it can play a vital role in shaping our personality. Their way of looking at life may influence us to change for the better. Some of our peers are our close friends who do not pressurise us to do things but rather inspire us to change ourselves. Our peer group may actually persuade us to bring about a constructive change in our personality. Peer pressure can lead us to make the right choices in life.
  5. A few things a teenager can do to handle peer pressure include
  • Choose good friends who share your values. Good friends use positive peer pressure to help you be your best self
  • Avoid situations where people are doing things you don’t want to do.
  • Think about your reasons for doing things: Are they good reasons? Are you being true to yourself and your values? Think about the consequences of your decisions and actions, such as if an activity might harm your health or get you into trouble.
  • Talk to your parents or a trusted adult about the kinds of peer pressure you face or listen to their advice.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. What is peer pressure?
  2. How can an individual benefit from peer pressure?
  3. What steps can a teenager take to handle peer pressure? (Give any two)
  4. How can parents or an adult help a child to handle peer pressure?
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘contemplate’ is

(i) to compare

(ii) to examine

(iii) to discuss

(iv) to complete

b. In para 4, the synonym of the word ‘vital’ is

(i) indispensable

(ii) virtual

(iii) unimportant

(iv) valuable

c. In para 5, which word means, ‘a result or effect’?

(i) Handle

(ii) Pressure

(iii) Consequences

(iv) Advice

d. In context of para 1, the meaning of the word ‘peer’ is

(i) look with difficulty

(ii) be visible

(iii) a member of the nobility in Britain

(iv) a person of the same age, status or ability

            


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. Elephants wanting to feed on crops are often hit by electric current from the electric fencing around farms, while farmers without any electric protection around their lands suffer huge crop damage. A new idea to use bees to prevent both the loss of elephant lives and the loss of crops seeks to change the way the problem of man-animal conflict is solved. Dr. Lucy King’s ‘Elephants and Bees Project’ has helped reduce the such conflicts.
  2. Dr. King heads the Nairobi-based ‘Save the Elephants’ (STE) charity’s ‘ Human-Elephant Co-Existence Program and its ‘Elephants and Bees Project’, which is active in 11 countries mainly in Africa, Thailand and Sri Lanka. The project has also been adopted in Karnataka’s North Kanara district by the non-profit Wildlife Research Conservation Society ( WRCS). A beehive fence is made up of interlinked real beehives, and ‘dummy’ beehives hung 10 metres apart and interlinked with a plain piece of fencing wire that, if disturbed, causes the whole fence to swing and bees come out of their hives to stop crop-raiding elephants, Dr. King told The Hindu in an email interview.
  3. According to Dr. King, elephants are wary of bees, ‘My studies have shown that elephants will run from the sound of disturbed African bees as they fear being stung around the sensitive parts of their body, like the eyes, inside the mouth, and up the trunk, she said. She said that STE’s studies has found that the fences are effective in 80 per cent of cases, but male elephants are more likely to take the risk of bee attacks, especially in a herd, and cause damage. While Dr. King’s work focuses mainly on Africa, she said that each project was different and beehives were being used for different purposes. For example, ‘South Africa and Gabon are using beehives to protect important tree species from being damaged by elephants; said Dr. King, who completed her D. Phil on the project from Oxford University.
  4. Inspired by Dr. King’s experiment, the STE website quoted WRCS officials as saying, ‘pre-recorded bee

 sounds were broadcast during crop-raiding events and they showed an instant withdrawal of elephants from the crop fields. Following this, they have set up low-cost beehives in clay pots, bamboo structures and wooden logs to stop elephants. Apart from acting as defence mechanism for farms, beehive fences also act as an additional source of income, especially for the poorest farmers. The beehives can generate as much as 50 per cent more income for them in a year from the sale of honey,’ she said.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. What are the problems being faced by the farmers as well as the elephants?
  2. How are beehives being used in South Africa?
  3. Why are elephants cautious of bees, according to Dr. King?
  4. How did WRCS use Dr. King’s experiment?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. Find out the word from the passage which means ‘fight/struggle’. (Para 1)

(i) Raiding

(ii) Trouble

(iii) Conflict

(iv) Protection

b. Find out the word from the passage which means ‘connected with each other’. (Para 2)

(i) Interlinked

(ii) Beehive

(iii) Dummy

(iv) Swing

c. Find out the word from the passage which means ‘hurt with something’. (Para 3)

(i) Stung

(ii) Herd

(iii) Risk

(iv) Protect

d. Find out the word from the passage which means ‘produce’. (Para 4)

(i) Generate

(ii) Mechanism

(iii) Stop

(iv) Inspired

             

9 Read the following passage carefully.

  1. Our beautiful sunbright ecosystem is being systematically damaged by industrial pollution channelled into rivers like the Ganga and the Yamuna, nuclear wastes from atomic plants routed into the world’s oceans, and poisonous gases such as carbon dioxide mixed with ozonosphere. Besides, tropical rainforests and green pastures are disappearing under the pressure of a proliferating population. Dams are being built over rivers like the Narmada to ange nature’s well-balanced surface equations between flora and fauna, and sloping mountainous terrain is being converted into mini oceans to supply electricity to the ever-starving industrial stomach of our age. Elephants, tigers, the wild rhinos of South Africa and many other forest industrialised countries throw out creatures have become endangered species.
  2. Consumerism has created a garbage glut in the world. Consumers in staggering amounts of refuse like cartons, butts of cigarettes, polythene bags and plastic containers which get mixed with the waters of rivers and oceans and fertile crop-yielding soil of the earth. It is estimated that each consumer throws out nearly 1.5 kilogram of refuse each day, and most of these waste materials pollute the water he drinks and the air he breathes. Americans alone toss out 160 million tonnes each year, which is enough to cover a thousand acres of land with mountains of garbage.
  3. Some American environmentalists like Jeremy Rifkin blame the world’s population of cattle for most of the ecological ills. These creatures whom we feed and fatten to get their meat, spoil streams and underground acquifers. Tropical rainforests are turning into pastures for these gluttonous herds. In Saharan Africa, the burgeoning population of cattle is denuding arid lands of fertile vegetation. In the Netherlands, the population of pigs poses a major ecological threat. Their manure pollutes the water supply with excessive nitrates and acidifies local soils.
  4. Building dams over rivers is like clotting nature’s lifeline and stopping its pulse beat. Scientists have proved that dams and embankments cause more floods and do more harm than good. Flooding is a boon of nature. It cleanses and renews river basins; expands feeding and breeding grounds of plants, fish, birds and wildlife; and spreads fresh layers of fertile silt from which we get bumper crops. Philip Williams, President of the International Rivers Network says, ‘We are recognising the value of natural flood plains in slowing down flooding, improving water quality and assisting in protection of the ecosystem. Governments must not allow construction contractors who are largely responsible for man-made floods to plunder the wealth of forests.
  5. Many countries, such as Japan, the US, Germany and England have begun to pay more attention to waste reduction measures and plans to reduce global warming. The Japanese solution to environmental hazards is burning, burying, reducing and recycling waste products. Every Japanese community makes use of incinerators for garbage disposal. In the US, more than 2,000 garbage burning plants work day and night in addition to 125 large incinerators. Another Japanese solution is aqua culture which they have introduced in their industries to keep them clean. An Italian chemical giant has manufactured a plastic substitute which reduces the greenhouse effect.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. How is the Earth’s ecosystem getting damaged?
  2. Why does the American environmentalist Jeremy Rifkin blame the world’s cattle population for most of the ecological ills? What reasons does he put forth?
  3. What damage has been caused by dams built over the rivers? Why is flooding beneficial?
  4. How have the Americans and the Japanese tackled the problem of waste generation to reduce global warming?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, the meaning of the word ‘proliferating’ is

(i) to earn profit

(ii) to increase rapidly in number

(iii) to accumulate wealth

(iv) to possess something

b. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘glut’ is

(i) in excessive supply

(ii) wastage

(iii) in less demand

(iv) gruesome

c. Which word/phrase in para 3 means ‘excessively greedy’?

(i) Ecological ills

(ii) Acquifers

(iii) Gluttonous

(iv) Denuding

d. Which amongst the following is not the synonym of the word ‘plunder’ used in para 4?

(i) Pillage

(ii) Loot

(iii) Rob

(iv) Prize

            


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. In these days of competition when a person makes up his/her mind to surpass what has been achieved by others, without considering his/her strengths and weaknesses, it causes a psycho-social stress. While there is no denying that the world loves a winner, it is important that you recognise your own signs of stress in your behaviour, and be healthy enough to enjoy your success and accept defeat/failure.
  2. Stress has a different meaning depending on the age of an individual and stage of life. The loss of a toy or a reprimand from the parents might upset or build-up stress in a child. An adolescent who fails an examination may feel as if everything has been lost and life has no further meaning. In an adult, the loss of his or her companion, job or professional failure may appear as if there is no reason to continue and this is the end of the world.
  3. Such signs appear in the attitude and behaviour of the individual, as muscle tension in various parts of the body, palpitation and high blood pressure, indigestion and hyperacidity, and ultimately in self-destructive behaviour such as eating and drinking in excess, smoking too much, relying on tranquillisers, trembling. shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing. Periodic mood shifts also indicate the stress a person is under. Other stress diseases like ulcers, hypertension and neuronal disorders, including insomnia, have assumed epidemic proportions in our modern societies.
  4. When stress crosses the threshold peculiar to an individual, it deteriorates his/her performance levels. This may result in a syndrome called chronic fatigue. A person feels lethargic, disinterested and is not easily motivated to achieve anything. This may make the person mentally indecisive, confused and accident prone as well. Sudden exposure to unnerving stress may also result in memory loss.
  5. The best technique to cope with stress is self-control. This arises by having faith in oneself, the usefulness of the job one is doing and in one’s abilities. There are many stress busters. Some of these are hobbies and relaxation techniques, balanced diet and massage from naturopathy, bal medicines and food supplements, homeopathy and modern medicine, etc. Physical exercise and dance too are excellent stress busters.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. What factors lead to stress in one’s life?
  2. Does the age of a person have any impact on stress levels?
  3. What are the symptoms of stress that a human body exhibits?
  4. What are the various ways to cope with stress?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, the meaning of the word ‘surpass’ is

(i) exceed

(ii) subtract

(iii) superior

(iv) short supply

b. Which word in para 3 means ‘a noticeably rapid, strong or irregular heartbeat due to agitation or illness’?

(i) Tension

(ii) Palpitation

(iii) Hyperacidity

(iv) Blinking

c. Which word in para 3 means ‘a wide spread occurrence of an infectious disease’?

(1) Signs

(ii) Disorders

(iii) Epidemics

(iv) Proportions

d. Which word in para 4 is the antonym of the word ‘confused’?

(i) Clear

(ii) Indecisive

(iii) Peculiar

(iv) Lethargic

             


Read the following passage carefully.

  1. You can save and still retire with enough, says a recent report in the New York Times. The conclusion is based on current consumption patterns and the rate of savings in the US, which indicate that individuals could comfortably reduce yearly savings by $10,000, without affecting post-retirement returns.
  2. Higher life expectancy and greying populations have prompted people to invest in more financial instruments and for longer terms to provide for their post-working life. Caution is leading many to live in extreme denial throughout their working life for the sake of ensuring comfort in old age. In India, too, competitive salaries and lucrative enterprises have expanded to unprecedented levels-yet, there is a hesitation to spend, largely because traditional values stress the virtues of frugality.
  3. In the past, to be a spendthrift was tantamount to being irresponsible. Today, non-spending would bring the entire market machinery to a grinding halt. The more we oil the wheels of trade and commerce by encouraging demand and supply, the more vibrant the economy is likely to be, generating more jobs, revenue and prosperity. Investments would appreciate in value, yielding greater return to investors, and so saving less would still mean getting more. Eventually, a buoyant economy would drive prices down, making goods and services more affordable.
  4. Modern economies depend on consumption for their very sustenance. Which is why Japan’s high savings rate has led to negative rate of interest on savings, severely bringing down purchasing power leading to a negative growth cycle Western economies, on the other hand, have fared better, having fallen in step with marked dynamics that assure greater returns on less savings.
  5. With India’s 10 per cent growth rate projection, it makes more sense to spend more and save less. This is not the time to cut corners or tighten belts. It’s time to spend, spend, spend Tomorrow will take care of itself-with your help as a cash-paying customer today.
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.
  2. Why do people invest in more financial instruments and for longer terms?
  3. What does cautiousness in spending lead people to?
  4. Why do people in our country hesitate in spending?
  5. How does spending activate trade and commerce?

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 2, the meaning of the word ‘ lucrative’ is

(i) lubricant

(ii) exciting

(iii) profitable

(iv) costly

b. Which word in para 2 means, ‘the quality of being economical with money or food”?

(i) Greying

(ii) Post-working

(iii) Denial

(iv) Frugality

c. In para 3, the meaning of the word ‘tantamount’ is

(i) virtually the same

(ii) terrified

(iii) enormous

(iv) Appreciate

d. Which word in para 3 is the antonym of the word ‘depreciate’?

(i) Spendthrift

(ii) Irresponsible

(iii) Grinding

(iv) tiring

             


Read the following passage carefully.

                                      POLLUTION DUE TO URBANISATION

  1. Intensive urbanisation has sharply aggravated the problem of water supply in the towns A considerable part of the population of the towns of the developing world, especially the inhabitants of overpopulated slum regions, uses the rivers and reservoirs for daily needs (for washing clothes cleaning utensils, etc) In many countries of Asia and Africa, rivers traditionally serve as the place of burial For example, the high level of pollution of Ganga can be explained to a large degree by the fact that about forty thousand semi-bumt dead bodies of people and animal are cast in it every year. The pollution of environment including that of natural reservoirs is increasing sharply in the towns of the developing countries as a result of expediting the process of industrialisation.
  2. The industrial undertakings often throw wastes into the reservoirs of the towns without appropriate purification. If in the 50s, the river Hoogly in the region of Kolkata was polluted only at then, now the position has changed to the worst.
  3. The intensive industrialisation has also reflected upon the quality of the air basin of the developing countries, especially in the major towns, where the level of pollution has frequently surpassed the maximum international norms permissible. Investigation of the air pollution in Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata, conducted in the 70s, has shown that the concentration of dust here was twenty-five times higher than in the towns of Western Europe and the USA In Pakistan, signs of dangerous pollution of the atmosphere are being marked by the wastes in industrial undertakings primarily in certain regions of Karachi, Hyderabad and Lahore.
  4. The increase in air pollution in towns is due to the result of the growth of industrial units as well as of the steadily increasing number of automobiles. If in Kolkata, one of the towns of India suffering most from the pollution of air, about 23 per cent of the general pollution of air comes from transport fumes (46 per cent from industry), then in Ibadan (Nigeria) the pollution of the air is caused by not less than 90 per cent of transport fumes.
  5. The sound pollution is the other bee in the bonnet. At the peak hours, vehicles blow horns whose sound exceeds the permissible decibel level. In many cases, the vehicles are worn out and produce a jarring effect when their bodies rattle with a strange noise Besides this, video parlours and music shops don’t stop singing latest hits of film songs at any time of the day. It becomes very difficult for a person to sit in a nearby shop when such is the condition. All this tends to make the people deaf due to noise pollution. In a survey it was found that the noise in the cities of India at peak hours crossed 98 decibels, which is sufficient to make a person deat.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

a What has intensive urbanisation led to?

  1. What are rivers and reservoirs used for by the majority of population in the developing world?
  2. How does one account for the high level of pollution of Ganga?
  3. Give the reasons for the rise in the air pollution in towns
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. Which word in para 1 means, ‘made more severe by attendant circumstances’?

(i) Intensive

(ii) Sharply

(iii) Aggravated

(iv) Increasing

b. Which word in para 2 means ‘suitable or proper’?

(i) Appropriate

(ii) Purification

(iii) Region

(iv) Worst

c. In para 3 the synonym of the word ‘intensive’ is

(i) in-depth

(ii) intensity

(iii) force

(iv) summarised

d. In para 4 the antonym of the word ‘irregularly’ is

(i) steadily

(ii) increasing

(iii) regularly

(iv) suffering

            


Read the following passage carefully.

                                                     THE COMPUTER AGE

  1. One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in industries and in universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed into the service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator.
  2. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic accidents, or they can count the number of times the word ‘and has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed, they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us has been called automation. In the future years of automation may enable human beings far more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences too.
  3. Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could think. There is no possibility that human beings will be controlled by machines. Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or rule the world by making decisions of their own.
  4. Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information, Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holidays could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publications. It is impossible to assess the importance of a machine this sort for many international misunderstandings are caused simply due to our failure to understand each other. Machines could also be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will therefore have immediate access to great many facts which will help in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull cencal work for the tedious task of compiling and checking the lists of figures could be done entirely by machines Computers will also be able to tell the exact age a man is going to live, with the help of analysis of his blood Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our lifestyle and life.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each.

  1. Why does the writer say that invention of computers has been one of the greatest advances in modern technology?
  2. What according to the writer are computers used for?
  3. Is it correct to say that computers can think? Give your views.
  4. How useful will computers be in hospitals? Comment
  1. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following:

a. In para 1, which word means of a complex nature’?

(i) Extremely

(ii) Complicated

(iii) Unrelated

(iv) Consequences

b. In para 2, which word is the synonym of ‘many’?

(i) Branches

(ii) Varied

(iii) Count

(iv) Enable

c. In para 4, the meaning of the word ‘access’ is

(i) alternatives

(ii) obtain

(iii) excess

(iv) provide

d. In para 4, which word means ‘to assemble information’?

(i) Valuable

(ii) Compiling

(iii) Alternative

(iv) Enable

             

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