Target 10-Repeating and Rephrasing

In a well-written essay, there is a clear relationship between sentences and between

ideas. They all fit together well. This is coherence. Repeating words and rephrasing

ideas are two ways to provide coherence to an essay.


Repeating words and phrases add rhythm to a paragraph and links similar ideas. In

the paragraph below, notice how the phrase it gives is used several times.


Physical education teaches children much more than the rules of a few sports. it gives children the opportunity to learn some important life skills. It gives them experience with teamwork. It gives them the chance to know how it feels to win and to lose. These are things that have importance in all areas in life, not just on a sports field.

Repeating and

When you rephrase an idea, you say it again in a different way. This gives the reader a

second chance to understand your idea and helps connect one idea to the next. Using

synonyms is one way to rephrase.


One problem that older people face is isolation. Many of them are widowed,

and their children are no longer living with them. Serious physical and mental

health problems can arise when people feel lonely.

Notice how the two italicized phrases in the paragraph above essentially mean the

same thing. Now, look at another example, noticing the meaning of the two italicized



Family members can provide much-needed companionship. Even if an elderly parent does not live with his or her grown children, they can all spend important time together.


Choose which phrase or sentence best completes the paragraph and makes it cohesive. Use the

Italicized preferer the up and make its codes. 

The best thing about is that there is a very old program here are has pros

for serious There are times and carry for people who want to be entertained

I ………………… The variety of TV programs needs to

be protected even if it means allowing some of them to show violence.

I A people also enjoy watching baseball and soccer games.

B There are baseball and soccer games for people who enjoy sports

C We can see baseball and soccer games, too.

I am responsible for my finances Sour records will show that I have always paid

Credit  card bills on time my 2…………………….. makes

me a desirable customer, and I am sure you wouldn’t want to lose my business

2.A punchline

B financial know-how

C hones

by the year 20050, the suburban population will have increased to almost 60% of the pop-

ulation of the entire region. This 3………………………will

put heavy demands on public services. The regional government will have to start making

adjustments now to meet the4………………….

of the future

3. A area

B number

C growth

4. A people

B needs

C services

Art brings beauty into our lives. It enriches us in many ways. It nourishes our minds. It

nourishes our spirits 5…………………………Without access

to art, our lives would be greatly impoverished.

5. It is good for our bodies, too.

B It also contributes to our physical health.

C You could even say it nourishes our bodies.

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