The Noun and its Case English Grammar For Class 6

The Noun and its Case

Read the following sentences carefully.
1. This is Seema’s book. 2. Shyam eats a banana.
3. Her mother loves Rajesh.

We see that according to the first sentence, the book belongs to Seema. The second sentence tells us that Shyam is doing something. The third sentence tells the action of her mother loving Rajesh.
In all these sentences, we find that Seema, Shyam and Rajesh have been used in different situations. So, the form of a Noun or Pronoun which denotes its relation with other words in a sentence is called its Case.
The relation in which a Noun or Pronoun stands to some other word in a sentence is called its case.
There are five Cases:
1. Nominative Case
2. Objective or Accusative Case
3. Vocative Case or Nominative of Address
4. Dative Case
5. Possessive or Genitive Case

1. NOMINATIVE CASE
When a Noun or Pronoun is used as the Subject of a Verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case.
Examples:
1. Shekhar has written a book.
2. We sang a song.
3. The stone fell from above.
In these sentences, the words Shekhar, we and stone are the Subjects of the Verbs ‘ has written’, ‘sang’ and ‘fell’ respectively. These are said to be in the Nominative or Subjective Case.
The Nominative Case in a sentence can be identified by asking the question ‘ Who’ or ‘What’ to the verb.
Examples:
1. Who has written?  Shekhar has written.
2. Who sang?  We sang.
3. What fell?  The stone fell.
Hence, Shekhar, we and the stone are in the Nominative or Subjective Case.

2. OBJECTIVE OR ACCUSATIVE CASE
When a Noun or Pronoun is used as the Object of a Verb, it is said to be in the Objective Case.
Examples:
1. He tore a book.
2. Ramesh learnt his lesson.
3. She beats the dog with a stick.
In the above sentences, we see that book, lesson and the dog are the objects of the verbs ‘tore’, ‘learnt’ and ‘beats’ respectively. These are said to be in the Objective Case or Accusative Case.
Objective Case can be identified by putting the question ‘Whom’ or ‘What’ after the verb.
Examples:
1. Tore what?  a book
2. Learnt what?  lesson
3. Beats whom?  the dog
Hence, book, lesson and the dog are in the Objective Case or Accusative Case.

3. VOCATIVE CASE OR NOMINATIVE OF ADDRESS If a Noun is used to name a person or a thing addressed, it is said to be in the Vocative Case.
Examples:
1. Go there, Rohan.
2. Boys, attend to me.
In the above sentences, Rohan and Boys are the names of the persons spoken or addressed to. These are, therefore, said to be in the Vocative Case. Vocative Case is also called the Nominative of Address.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECT
Some verbs like ask, promise, offer, teach, tell and give, take two objects after them. One of these objects refers to some person (living) and is said to be the Indirect Object of the Verb. The other object refers to some thing (non-living) and is said to be the Direct Object of the Verb.
Study these sentences:
1. I gave him a gift.
2. The teacher taught Mohan history.
In the above sentences, both him’, ‘gift’ and ‘ Mohan’, ‘history’ are the objects of the verbs ‘gave’ and ‘taught. Him’ and ‘Mohan’ are the Indirect Objects and ‘gift’ and ‘history’ are the Direct Objects.

4. DATIVE CASE
The indirect object of a verb is said to be in the Dative Case.
Examples:
1. He gave the beggar some money.
2. The teacher asked Mohini a question.
The indirect object in the first sentence is ‘beggar’. In the second sentence, it is ‘Mohini’. Hence these are in the Dative Case. 

5. POSSESSIVE OR GENITIVE CASE
Study the following sentences: 
1. Asha’s dog is called Bobby.
2. Kamla’s ring is precious.
3. Raj Kumar’s cycle is old. 
4. This is Mohan’s book.
In the above sentences, the words Asha’s, Kamla’s, Raj Kumar’s and Mohan’s are in the Possessive Case because each word denotes the possessor or owner of something.

To find the Possessive Case, put the question: ” Whose?”
Formation of the Possessive Case 
1. Read the following sentences:
1. Deepa’s mother is a gentle lady. 
2. The elephant’s trunk is long.
3. The boy’s father is a doctor.
4. Ritik’s shirt is blue.
5. Mansi’s grandmother loves her very much.
In these sentences, nouns in the Possessive Case are in the singular number. Possessive Case is formed by adding an apostrophe () and ‘s’ to the Noun.

2. Now read the following sentences carefully:
1. This is a girls’ hostel. 
2. He saw birds’ nests.
3. We saw the rows of soldiers’ tents. 4. We went to see the teachers’ quarters.
In these sentences, we see that nouns in the Possessive Case are in plural numbers and end in ‘s’, therefore only an apostrophe () is used and not another ‘s’.

3. Possessive Case is chiefly used when the Noun refers to some living thing, so we say ‘the elephant’s trunk’, ‘the dog’s tail’, ‘ Mohan’s house”, ‘Madhvi’s ring. But when the noun denotes anything without life, possession is generally expressed by a Preposition ‘of’ followed by a Noun as in the Objective Case.
Examples:
1. The door of the house is closed. 
2. The cover of the book is torn.

4. Read the following sentences: 
1. She is working in a women’s hostel.
2. Men’s shoes are on the table. 
3. Children’s toys are very costly.
In these sentences, we see that nouns in Possessive Case are in the plural form and do not end in ‘-s’. All plural nouns, which do not end in ‘-s’, form their Possessive Case by taking an apostrophe () and ‘s’ after them.

5. We use apostrophe with Nouns denoting time or space.
Examples:
1. Time- a week’s leave, a month’s holiday, a year’s absence, three years’ service.
2. Space- a stone’s throw, a hair’s breadth, a foot’s length, a hand’s breadth, a boot’s length, a meter’s length.

Exercise 1
Pick out Nouns in the following sentences and write the case of each noun.
Examples:
My sister has written me a letter.
sister – Nominative Case; letter – Objective Case.
The children’s toys are broken. 
children’s – Possessive Case.
1. Girls, go to your classes.
2. The servant caused his master much trouble.
3. Madhu, where is your bike?
4. The little girl has a sweet voice.
5. The baby’s handkerchief is lost.
6. They went to Madan’s house.
7. Throw the dog a biscuit.
8. Many girls’ books are lost.
9. Alladin had a magic lamp.
10. Come on, boys.

Exercise 2
Write the Possessive Form of the following sentences.
1. The dog belonging to the lady.
2. The dresses of women.
3. The fodder meant for the oxen.
4. The books for children.
5. The nests of birds.
6. The blessings of the patients.
7. The seats meant for the class.
8. The flats in which the teachers live.
9. The addresses of my friends.
10. The hostel for boys.

Exercise 3
Change the following Possessive Forms into Plural.
1. The elephant’s trunk.
2. The book for a child. 
3. The policeman’s whistle.
4. A woman’s clothes.
5. Wages of the washerman.

Exercise 4
Tick () the correct Possessive Form of the following:
1. The order issued by the officer.
(a) order of the officer
(b) officer’s order
(c) officers’ orders
2. The poems written by Wordsworth. 
(a) Wordsworth’s poems
(b) poems of Wordsworth
 (c) Wordsworthian poems
3. The experience of five years. 
(a) experience in five years 
(b) five years’ experience 
(c) experienced by five years
4. The palace of the king. 
(a) king’s palace 
(b) palace of king 
(c) kingly palace
5. The house of my principal. 
(a) principal’s house 
(b) principals’ house 
(c) principal house
6. The plays written by Shakespeare. 
(a) Shakespeare’s plays 
(b) plays of Shakespeare 
(c) Shakespearean plays
7. The novels written by Charles Dickens. 
(a) Charles Dickens’ novels 
(b) Charles Dicken’s novels
(c) Charles Dickens novels
8. The office of the President.
(a) President office
(b) President’s office
(c) Presidents’ office
9. The flat of Mr. Dass. 
(a) Mr. Dass’ flat
(b) Mr. Dass’s flat
(c) Mr. Dass flat
10. The uniform worn by doctor.
(a) doctors uniform
(b) doctors’ uniform
(c) doctor’s uniform

Exercise 5
Tick () the correct choice:
1. The pen of my father was stolen.
(a) father pen
(b) father’s pen
(c) fathers’ pen
2. The sheep of the shepherds were sick.
(a) shepherds’ sheep
(b) shepherd sheep
(c) shepherd’s sheep
3. The tails of the apes are long.
(a) ape’s tails
(b) tails of apes
(c) apes’ tails
4. The pen of my brother was lost.
(a) brother’s pen 
(b) brother pen
(c) brothers’ pen
5. The sons of the farmer are lazy.
(a) farmer’s sons
(b) farmer sons
(c) farmers’ sons
6. The troops of the soldiers are marching.
(a) soldier’s troops 
(b) soldiers’ troops
(c) soldiers troops
7. The brother of Sunita is unwell.
(a) Sunita’s brother
(b) Sunitas’ brother
(c) Sunitas brother
8. Are those the books of your sister? 
(b) sisters books
(a) sister’ books
(c) sister’s books
9. The clothes of children are sold here.
 (a) children’s clothes
(b) childrens clothes
(c) childrens’ clothes
10. The father of Mohit is a doctor.
(a) Mohits’s father
(b) Mohit’s father
(c) Mohit father

 

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