Amazing Earth Questions

Amazing Earth Questions


A mountain is a section of the earth’s surface that stands high above its surrounding. It varies greatly in size and ruggedness. Some mountains are isolated peaks. Generally, they are chained together in a mountain range. Some mountain ranges consist of hundreds of peaks. Mountains rise not only from land areas but also from the bed of the sea. In fact, the deep ocean basins hold some of the mightiest mountains on the earth. If we would estimate the total height of a mountain to include what is below the sea and what is above the sea, the tallest mountain of all would be Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii. It is 4,205 metres above the sea level and 4,877 metres below the sea. So, its total height comes around 9,082 metres or more, thus making it the tallest in the world. This mountain is home to the world’s most powerful observatories and telescopes, including the Keck telescope which has the world’s largest mirror.

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The Earth’s fifth largest and coldest continent is Antarctica. 98% of the larger than Australia. The summer temperature barely rises above continent is covered with ice. With an area of 14 million square km, it is 25°C. The Antarctic ice cap is the thickest. It is about 4,800 m deep. Antarctica is mountainous; its highest point is the Vinson Massit, which population is made up of is 5,140 m high. The Antarctic scientists, pilots and other specialists to do research in the unique polar environment. Since the beginning of the 20″ century, several countries have sent scientific expeditions to Antarctica. They have set up permanent stations where scientists can live and work. Geologists have found coal and the fossils of plants and animals, which show that Antarctica was once a warm continent. The Antarctic cap has 29 million cubic km of ice. This is 90% of all the ice on the planet and between 60-70% of the entire world’s fresh water. Only about 0.4% of Antarctica is not covered by ice.  

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  Glaciers are enormous rivers of ice that are formed in the mountain regions when it is too cold for snow to melt. When new snow falls, the old snow compacts and becomes denser known as firn. The air in the firn snow is squeezed out and looks like white ice. Gradually the fir gets more compact and finally turns into a glacier that flows down the mountain side. Glaciers are usually formed in high AMAZING EARTH mountains and towards the North and South Poles. About 10% of the land area is covered with glaciers. They store about 75% of the world’s freshwater. The longest glacier in the world is the Lambert-Fisher glacier in Antarctica which runs through the Prince Charles Mountains. It is over 600 km long. In some parts, it is up to 64 kilometres wide. It moves at the speeds of up to nearly 1,005 metres per year and is up to 2,499 metres deep.


 Icebergs are giant chunks of ice that break off from the end of glacier summer when the or polar ice caps. They are usually formed during warm climate partially melts the ice. Only a tenth of the iceberg can be seen above water, the rest is hidden in the sea. Icebergs float because the density of ice (around 900 kg per cubic metre) is lower than that of seawater (around 1025 kg per cubic metre). The ratio of these densities tells us that 7/8 of the mass of the iceberg must be below water. Usually, icebergs are 20% to 30% longer under the water than above and not quite as deep as they are long at the waterline. About 15,000 icebergs are calved each year in the Arctic. The biggest iceberg of the Arctic was 11 km long. It was spotted off Baffin Island in 1882. The icebergs of Antarctica are much bigger compared to the Arctic ones. The biggest iceberg was spotted in 1956 by the icebreaker USS Glacier. It was 300 km long. The tallest iceberg more than half as high as the Eiffel was 1 Tower in Paris. The icebergs of the Antarctic last for ten years on an average, whereas the icebergs of the Arctic last for about 2 years.

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 The world’s biggest ocean is the Pacific. It is twice as large as the Atlantic Ocean. With an area of 18 million square km it covers one-third of the Earth. At its widest point between Panama and Malaysia, it is over 24,000 km across, which is almost halfway around the world. The ocean was named Pacific by a 16″ century Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. During his voyage, he was sailing across the South Atlantic Ocean which was very stormy. After some time, he came across a new area of land which was much quieter and calmer. Magellan named this new ocean ‘Pacific’ which meant peaceful On an average, it is about 4,200 m deep. The Pacific Ocean has the maximum number of seamounts or undersea mountains. The floor of the Pacific is spreading along the East Pacific Rise at the rate of 12-16 cm per year. The Pacific contains the deepest ocean- trenches in the world. The Marianas Trench is 11,034m at its deepest point. This is deeper than the height of Mount Everest.  

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  The world’s warmest continent is Alnica. I les almost entirely within the tropics or subtropics. With an area of 30,131,536 square km, it is also the world’s second largest continent. It stretches from the Mediterranean in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south. The world’s lorgest deserts are also found in this continent. The Sahara is in the north of Africa, whereas the Kalahari is in the south The temperature in the Sahara desert often crosses 50 C, making it the highest on the Eodh, Egypt’s copital city, Cairo, is the largest city in Africa with on estimated 9.2 million population. Loke Victoria is Africa’s largestoke with an area of 69,484 square km. This continent also has the worlds second largest river Nile, which is 6,673 km long. The highest mountain range in Africa is Kilimanjaro which is 5,895 m high. Lake Malawi contains the largest number of the species of fish   

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 Rocks are continuolly recycled. They may be formed from volcanoes or sediments. All rocks are broken down into sand by weothering and erosion. This sond is deposited on seo beds and river beds, where it hardens to form o new york This process is ca rock cycle. There are bosid three types of rocks – igneous rod sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks, Igneous rocks are form when hot molten magma or lava cools and solidifies. Granite is a typ oligneous rock which is formed when magma solidities underground Sedimentary rocks are made from the slow hardening of sediments into layers. Mony sedimentary rocks like sandstone are formed when sond, sill and the other fragments of rocks are broken down by weathering ond arosion Metamorphic rocks are formed when older rocks change ofter being heated or squeezed, Marble is a metamorphic rock formed when other rocks, mainly limestone, ore changed by heat and pressure, 

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Coves are giant holes that run horizontally we groundThe most spectacular caves are found in limestone, Limestone is a sedimentary rock which is made of calcium carbonate. Acid or miles through cracks in the rocka and dissolves it forming steps and pillars above me ground and creating passages, potholes and coves underground. The largest cave sistem in the world is the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky USA The park covers an area of 52.830 acres 214 km) located in Edmonson County, Kentucky with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centred around the Green River, with a tributary, the Nolin River, feeding into the Green just inside the park. It is about 560 km long. Inside these limestone caves, rainwater dissolves the mineral calcite dripping from the ceiling and onto the ground to form stalactites (growing downwards) and stalagmites (growing upwards). The world’s longest stalactite is in the Pollan lonion in County Clare, Ireland. It is 6.2 m long. Stalagmites may take 200 years to grow as thick as a finger,   


  Waterfalls are places where rivers fall vertically. Water- falls may also occur at places on rivers where the water passes over a hard rock joined to a softer rock. The river does not erode the hard rock os much as the softer rock and so the harder rock forms a shelf over which the river flows. The world’s highest falls are the Angel Falls in Venezuela, which have a total drop of 979 metres. Angel Falls are named after an American pilot Jimmy Angel who flew over them in 1935. The Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe fall on River Zambezi in Africa. They have a total drop of 500 metres. The roar from the Victoria Falls can be heard as far as 40 km. In the rainy season, water flows at the rate of 550 million litres per minute. Another famous waterfall is the Niagara Falls on the US-Canadian border. These AMAZING EARTH falls were first formed about 12,000 years ago. Since then, the falls have moved 11 km further upriver.

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  The largest continent Asia, with an oreo of 44,680,718 square km stretches from Europe in the west to Japan in the The east. Asio is OVOS continent with wide plains and dark forests in the VC north, separated from the tropical south by the Himalayas. The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. It has 14 peaks which are over 8,000 metres high. Asia has huge climate extremes, from a cold polar climate in the north, to a hot tropical one in the south. The world’s deepest lake is Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is 1,743 m deep and holds about 20% of the world’s fresh water. It is also the world’s oldest lake os it was formed about 2 million years ago. The world’s largest lake is the salty Caspian Sea at 143,200 square miles (370,886 km) which is also found in Asia between Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. It covers an area of 3,78,400 square km and is a saltwater ake. China’s River Yangtze is Asia’s ongest river with a length of 5,520 km. Asia’s highest mountain is also the yorld’s highest mountain which is Mi verest or Sagarmatha in Nepal heasuring 8,848 metres above the sea level.  

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the Official Declaration Ceremony on 070707 are: Therew Seven Wonders of the World as announced in random order at The Great Wall (China) – It is the world’s longest humaade structure, stretching over approximately 000 km from Shanhaiguan in the east to lop Nur in the west Petra (Jordan) – It is considered the most famous and gorgeous site in Jordan Petra was the glittering capital of the Nabataean empire of King Arelas IV . The city is provided with great tunnel constructions and water chambers Chichén Itzá (Mexico) It is the most famous Mayan temple city served as the political and economic centre of the Maya civilization. Ils various structures are demonstrative of an extraordinary commitment to architectural space and composition The Taj Mahal (India) – This immense mausoleum was built by Shah Johan, the fifth Muslim Mughal emperor, in memory of his beloved late wife. It has been built out of white marble and is standing in formally laid-out walled gardens. Machu Picchu (Peru) In the 15th century, the Incan Emperor Pachacútec built a city in the clouds on the mountain known as Machu Picchu. This extraordinary settlement lies halfway up the Andes Plateau. Christ the Redeemer (Brazil) This statue of Jesus stands some 38 metres tall, atop Mount Corcovado overlooking Rio de Janeiro. Roman Colosseum (Italy) – This great amphitheatre built in the centre of the Rome was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re, enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology    


Northern Lights – The Aurora Borealis and Australis are known more familiarly as the northern and southern lights. Particles in a solar wind interact with the Earth’s magnetic field, which cause the shimmering sheets of the light of magic and wonder. Mt. Everest – Mt Everest is the tallest mountain-peak on the Earth, reaching the skies for over 29,000 feet (8,848 metres). Great Barrier Reef – The 2,600 km |(1,600-mile) reef, which sweeps along the northeast coast of Australia, is made up of the skeletons of generations of marine polyps that lived and died just under the surface of the crystal clear sea. Victoria Falls River Zambezi’s gentle roll through Africa is a interrupted abruptly and spectacularly when the flat basalt basin that forms the river-bed suddenly gives way, dropping the placid river over a cliff into a 100- metre (328-feet) deep gash between the Victoria Falls and a matching cliff across the way. Harbour of Rio de Janeiro – On the east coast of Brazil, the city of Rio de Janeiro hugs the sleep hillsides that meet the magnificent Guanabara Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The harbour, punctuated by mountains, LEÍR Portuguese explorers in 1502. Paricutin Volcano Paricutin exploded out of a Mexican cornfield about 322 km 200 miles) west of Mexico City in early 1943, giving the modern world its first opportunity to witness the birth of a volcano. Within a year, the cinder cone of the volcano reached 1,100 feet (335 metres). Grand Canyon – Millions of years of erosion created the Grand Canyon. The Colorado and ? ? its tributaries slowly etch their way through billion a record of the geologic history in the cliff walls of the plus year-old rocks to create broad stripes and leave Canyon 

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  The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, in Africa. li is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is believed to have been built as a tomb for the fourth dynastic Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. When it was built, the Greal pyramid was 145.75 m high. Over the years, it lost 10 m off its top. It ranked as the tallest structure on the Earth for more than 43 centuries, only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. It covers a ground area of 13.1 acres, composed of some 2.3 million limestone blocks which average iwo- and-a-half tonnes each, enough stone to build a wall of fool-square cubes two-thirds around the globe at the equator, a distance of 16,600 miles (26,500km). It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3 m (10 ft) high, 0.3 m (1 ft) thick wall around France The temperature inside the Great Pyramid is at a constant 68 degrees Fahrenheit, which is exactly the same as the earth’s internal temperature. 


 Africa’s River Nile is the world’s longest with a length of 6,695 kilometres. The Nile flows from south to north and is formed by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbora. The Blue Nile begins in the highlands of Ethiopia cnd the White Nile begins ai Lake Victoria. The two branches of the Nile merge at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The Nile ends in a large delia that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through a desen, from Sudan into Egypi, o country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population of Egypt and all of its cities, with the exception of those near the coast, lies along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. Nearly, all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river. There are hundreds of farms along the Nile. Usually, farmers use boats to transport items and animals (such as rice, wheat, catile and hay) between locations on the Nile. Fishing is another main source of income and wealth for the people along the Nile. 90   


Dead Sea is the saltiest sea in the world. It is devoid of life, except er bacteria. Il is so sally that it quickly kills river fish swept by odvolers. The Dead Sea is 67 kilometres long and 18 kilometres wide al its widest point. Il lies in the Jordan Rift Valley and its main mbutary is River Jordan the surface, fed by foydon, is the least saline Down to about 130 feet 140 metres), the seawater comprises about 300 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater. That’s about ten times the salinity of the oceans. Below 300 feet, AMAZING EARTH the sea has 332 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater and is saturated Salt precipitates out and piles up on the bottom of the sea. Unusually high salt-content enables one to float effortlessly The Dead Sea is not only the saltiest sea but it is also the lowest point on the Earth. The lake reaches a depth of 1,300 feet below its surface. The extraction of potash, bromine, gypsum, salt and other chemical products is one of the few effective means of utilizing the Dead Sea as a resource

Amazing Earth Questions



 smallest country in the world. The Vatican City State is sovereign and The Vatican City, one of the most sacred places in Christendom, is the independent and comprises an area of some 44,030 sq km. The west bank of River Tiber and west of the Castel Sant’Angelo. A unique Vatican City is a roughly triangular tract of land within Rome, on the LIIG EARTH collection of artistic and architectural masterpieces lies within the boundaries of this small state. At its centre is St Peter’s Basilica, with its double colonnade and a circular piazza in front and bordered by palaces and gardens. The Basilica, erected over the tomb of St Peter the Apostle, is the largest religious building in the world. Vatican City is the official seat of the Catholic Church, and its head, the Pope, rules through a civil governor. As with any other country, this miniature country sports its own flag, mints its own coins, runs its own postal, transport, telephone systems and radio broadcasting station WILL 


 Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenyo, and the second highest in Africa after Mount Kilimanjaro. Mount Kenya is located in central Kenya, just south of the equator, around 150 km (95 miles) north-northeast of Nairobi. It is on the Equator, but its peak (5,199m or 17,058ft) above the sea level is always covered in snow. The highest peaks of the mountain are Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), Nelion (5,188 m – 17,022 ft) and Lenano (4,985 m – 16,355 ft). The mountain is an extinct (dead) volcano standing alone, which last erupted between 2.6 and 3.1 million years ago. The missionary Johann Ludwig Krapt was the first European to report the sighting of Mount Kenya, in 1849. The first recorded ascent of Mount Kenya was made by Halford John Mackinder, C. Ollier and J. Brocherel on 13th September, 1899. Several types of volcanic rocks make up the mountain. The most common rocks are basalts. The mountain is an awe inspiring sight. Its ragged series peaks are crowned with snow and it slopes are thick with forests. 


 Leaning Tower of Pisa is a bell tower at Pisa, Italy. It is famous for leaning 141/2 teel (4.4 metres) oul of line when measured from the seventh storey. I tilts because its foundation was built on unstable soil. The construction of the tower began in 1173 and ended between 1360 and 1370. The ground beneath the tower first started to sink after the first three storeys had been built. The height of the tower is 55.86 m from the ground on the lowest side and 56,70 mon the highest side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m and at the op 2.48 m. lls weight is estimated at 14,500 tonnes. The top of the Leaning Tower can be reached by mounting the 294 steps which rise in the form of a spiral on the inner side of the tower walls. The tower is cylindrical in shape with six open galleries. A cornice separates one gallery from the other and each presents a series of small arches fitted on the capitals of the slender columns. In the base, there is a series of big blind arcades with her un geometrical decorations,    


The atmosphere is a blanket of gases which extends around the Earth The atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and carbon dioxide and tiny traces of neon, krypton, zenon, helium, methane and carbon monoxide. The atmosphere is divided into five layers exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and froposphere. The exosphere is the highest level of the atmosphere, which means that gas is very sparse. In the thermosphere, temperatures are very high, ranging from – 120 degrees Centigrade to 2,000 degrees Centigrade about 700 km up. The mesosphere contains few gases, but it is thick enough to slow down meteorites. Temperatures range between 10 degrees Centigrade to -120 degrees Centigrade about 80 km up. The stratosphere is completely calm and clear. That is why jet airliners fly in this layer. Temperatures range from 60 degrees Centigrade to 10 degrees Centigrade about 50 km up. Although the troposhere is just 12 km thick yet it contains 75% of the weight of gases in the atmosphere. Temperature drops by height from 18 degrees Centigrade to -60 degrees Centigrade 


Wols built across rivers to hold back the ansaman wer supply goton, electric power deal within the woler and supply the crops with it when Recantolon or the improvement of navigation. Doms than inst Some doms can direct the water into pipelines and ongotomans There are also water supply dams camsul the longe Cities with water: Flood control damskeep the river from overflowing They release the water at the bottom of the dams. In this way, they can control the water below. There are also navigation dams. These are built so that a ship may have the right depth of water. The passage of a river may be blocked by a waterfall or rapids. Some dams are built to generate power. Hydroelectric dams do just the same job. They direct the water into turbines 


  Sond is a rock meienio that has been eroded by riveroction into finy groits. Theoretically, sond could be composed of any eroded rock, but mis orgely mode apo te bec se quartz is a very hard subsionce ond so does not erode ees. So disode of minerals and tiny pieces of rock that have come to the erosion and we sharing of rocks. The composion of sand varies from place to place depending on the sources and condinions of the local rocks. One specific form of sand is the mojor ingredient in glass- moking. Other types of sand are used in foundries to make casting moulds and in ceramics, plosiers and cement. Sond is also used as a grinding and polishing abrasive in the form of sondwater. Brick manufactu-ring plants use sand as an additive with a mixture of clay and other materials for manufaciuring bricks. Sand is sometimes mixed with point to create a textured finish for walls and ceilings or a non-slip floorsuriace.   


 River Hwang Ho in China is the muddiest river in the world. It is also known as Yellow River. It is the second longest river in China alter River Yongle and the sixth-longest in the world at 5,464 kilometres. I originates in the Bayankala Mountains in Qinghai Province in westem MALI China. It flows through the nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. The river gets its yellow colour mostly from the fine grained calcareous silts which originate in the loess Plateau and are carried in the flow. It carries so much silt that you could build a vast wall 40m high and 6 m wide all round the world. Silt deposition and dyking over the centuries has caused the river to flow above the surrounding farmland, making flooding a critically dangerous problem. Yellow River carries 1.6 billion tons of silt into the sea annually. MU IN bey ๓ แล AD TO ONER CHINA SA www MONS 


Add ron refers to any form of predpokon high levels of stricand sulphuric acids. li con orso accur in the form of snow log ondsiny bits of dry material that settle to the Earth Robing vegetoon ond erupting volcanoes release some chemicals that con couse ooid ron, but most ooid roin folis because of humor och mes. The biggest color is the burning of fossil fuels by cool burning power plants, factories and automobiles. When humans bum fossil fuels, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen crides are released into the aimosphere. These chemical gases react with water, anygen and other substances to form the mid solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids. When acid roin reaches the Earth, it flows across the surface and sinks into the soil. Add rain has many ecological effecis; it makes water acidic and couses it to absorb the aluminium that makes its way from soil into lakes and streams. This combination makes woters toxic to crayfish, cams, fish and other oquclic animals. Acid rain also damages forests, especially those of higher elevations. It robs the soil of essential nutrients and releases aluminium in the soil, which makes it hard for trees to take up water 


 The Great Sphinx of Giza is so significant because it is the larges structure created from a single piece of stone. It is 20m high, 57m long and om wide. The Great Sphinx of Gizo is a hall human, half lion Sphinx statue in Egypt on the Gizo Plateau at the west bank of River Nile, near modern-day Cairo. The commonly held belief is that it was created during the 2700s BC. According to others, it is believed to have been created at the will of King Khafra, whose pyramid the sphinx happens to be situated in front. The material of the Sphinx is the limestone bedrock which originated fifty million years ago from sediments deposited at the bottom of sea waters that engulfed northeast Africa during the Middle Eocene period. All of the significant major pyramids were built over a time period of about 200 years. There were three tunnels built in the Sphinx, but the passage of time has left the destinations unreachable and the tunnels themselves eem to stop short, 


  The ocean is made up of 60 different chemical elements that give it its salty toste. The main ingredients; chlorine, sodium, sulphate, magnesium, calcium and potassium, come mostly from river sediments & dumped into the ocean. The temperature of the water differs accor- ding to the intensity of the Sun’s rays hitting it. The surface of water is warmer than that at a great depth. The colours that make up sunlight are absorbed in different ways by water particles. Red, yellow and orange cannot penetrate more than a few feet below the surface of water. Blue can penetrate more than 800 feel. That is why the ocean appears blue. Sometimes water looks green. It is because it contains several tiny plants called phyloplankton. Water puts pressure on the human body. The deeper we go, the greater the pressure. The Black Sea and the Yellow Sea get their names from the colour of sediment floating in their water and lying on their beds   


 A volcano is an opening or rupture in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash and gases to escape from below the surface. The different types of volcanoes are: Composite volcanoes, also colled strato volcanoes, are formed by alternating layers of lavo and rock fragments. Strato volcanoes are usually large and conical Shield volcanoes may be produced by hot spots which loy far away from the edges of tedionic plotes. The eruptions of shield volcanoes are characterized by low-explosivity lavo- fountaining that forms cinder cones and spalter cones at the vent. Cinder cones are not famous as their eruptions usually don’t cause any loss of life. They rarely exceed 250m in height and 500m in diameter. When hot erupting lava contains just enough explosive gas to prevent the formation of a lava – flow, but not enough to shatter it into small fragments, the lavo is torn by expanding gases into fluid hot clois, ranging in size from 1cm to 50cm across. Such volcanoes are called spotter volcanoes. A volcano thai consists of a complex of two or more vents is known as o compound or complex volcano. 


  A simple definition of a hill is a high ground up to 307 m high. Above this height, it is a mountain. Mountains are solid rocks whereas hills can be solid rocks or piles of debris built up by glaciers or wind. Hills that are solid rocks are very old, having been worn down from mountains over millions of years. Hills may be created by faults. Faults are a slight crack in the earth which can cause earthquakes Hills are formed when these faults go slightly upwards. Hills are also formed by the deep erosion of areas that were raised by disturbances in the eadh’s crust. Erosion forms hills by carrying away all of the soil on a mountain, causing a hill to be left behind. Volcanoes form hills when they erupt. During the eruption, volcanic ash is spewed through the air. After the eruption, the lava or molien rock hardens and builds up a thick layer of lava rock. The ash falls on the hardened lava causing a layer of ash to form on the hill. When rain falls, this layer of ash mixes with the rainwater to form black coloured water. This black water freezes causing the lava rock to crack and crumble and eventually erodes to form a hill. 


The Earth’s surface is divided into thick slabs called tectonic plates Each plate is a fragment of the Earth’s rigid outer layer or lithosphere. There are 16 large plates and several smaller ones. The plates are made of rock and are from 50 to 150 km thick. They move both horizontally and vertically. The Pacific plate is the biggest plate which covers the whole of the Pacific Ocean. It is continuously in motion; it moves by about 10 cm a year. It takes hundreds of millions of years for it to move vast distances. The Pacific plate is the only large plate which has no continent situated on it . The movement of the tectonic plates is responsible for several | things, which include the pattern of volcanic and earthquake activity around the world. Most of the Earth’s seismic activity (volcanos and earthquakes) occurs at the plate boundaries as they interact. The top layers of the plates are called the crust. Oceanic crust the crust under the oceans) is thinner and denser than continental crust. 


Wetlands are areas of land where the water level is mostly above the ground. Bogs, fens, swamps and marshes are the main types of werland. Wetlands act like sponges and help to control floods as well as to top up supplies of groundwater. Bogs and fens occur in cold climates and contain plenty of partially rotted plant material called peat. Marshes and swamps are found in cold and warm places. They have more plants than bogs and tens. A swamp is a cross between a lake and land. Although its waters are usually very shallow yet lots of special kinds of trees and plants can be found growing in the water. A marsh is drier than a swamp and water cannot always be seen, but the ground and the plants that grow in it are always soggy or waterlogged. Reeds and rushes grow in marshes. Wetlands provide a safe and lush environment for many different species of fish, birds and insects. There are many types of vegetation in weilands. There are plants such as cattails, bulrushes, sedges, arrowhead, water lilies, blue flag and floaters like common duckweed. 


 Uluru, formerly known as Ayers Rock, is the world’s largest monolith single piece of stone on the planel. Il rises from the broad desert plain in the deep centre of Australia. Uluru/Ayers Rock is Australio’s most recognizable natural icon. The famous sandstone monolith stands 1348 metres high and has an elliptical shope with a circumference of 9.4 kilometres. Like an iceberg, it has most of its bulk below the surface. It is located 440 kilometres south west of Alice Springs in the Uluru Kota Tjuta National Park. Uluru is particularly noloble for its striking appearance of different times of the year as it appears to change colours with the different light angles at different times of the day and year. Sunset is a particularly remarkable sight when it briefly glows red, Although rainfall is uncommon in this semiarid area yet, during wet periods, the rock acquires a silvery-grey colour, with streaks of black algae forming on the areas that serve as channels for water flow. This massive pile of rock dome dates back to 500 million years. 


The uppermost layer of the world’s oceans is called the sunlit zone or the euphotic zone. The depth of this zone depends on the clarity of the water. In clear water, the euphotic zone can be quite deep. In murky water, it can be only 50 feet deep. On average, it extends to about 200 metres, the depth of the ocean averages about 4,000 m. The temperature in this zone ranges from 104 to 27 degrees F. this zone, there is enough light for photosynthesis to take place. Many plants and other photo- synthetic organisms live in this zone and food is abundant. The middle layer of the world’s oceans receives only faint, filtered sunlight during the daytime. This barely- lit ocean layer is called the twilight zone or the disphotic zone. This zone appears deep blue to black in colour. The disphotic zone extends to about 1,000 m deep. On an average, this zone extends from 200 to 1,000 m. There is not enough light for photosynthesis to take place. So, no plants live in this zone. The third zone or the aphotic zone lies beyond 1,000 m. In this region, less than 1% of sunlight penetrates and the temperatures range from 0 – 6°C (32-1 43°F).  


 The aphoric zone begins al o depth of 3,000 ft and continues to the bottom, which usually maxes out at a depth of 18,000 ft. In the aphotic zone, photosynthesis cannot Occur. So, plants and cyanobacteria are absent. Instead, animals have to subsist on carcasses that fall from above. Some animals that live in the aphoric zone include the gulper eel, the giant squid, smaller squids, anglerfish, pire squid and numerous fish. Some of the ugliest most evil-looking fish in world are found here, fluding the viper fish, the glooth, the dragonfish, e lizardfish and many others. These fish often have hinged jaws, ock scales, piercing eyes and extremely sharp teeth. Many of the animals in the aphotic zone are bioluminescent, meaning they can produce their own light in one way or another. This can be used both for navigation and luring small animals into their jaws. The anglerfish is probably the most famous example as it has a lure protruding in front of its mouth from a special appendage on its head. Other bottom-feeders include the aptly named blobfish, coffin fish (which walk along the sea floor using leg-like fins) and the others. At the bottom, one can also find sea cucumbers and giant isopods. 


Coral reefs are massive structures formed from coral polyps, tiny animals that live in colonies. The different types of reefs include: Fringing reefs occur along a rocky coastline where corals remain extended outwards from the shore. They form an outermost line or ridge that runs parallel to the shore. In certain conditions, coral reefs develop far from the continents, around small islands, or towards the edge of the continental shelf. Here, the reefs do not join up to the mainland, but grow upwards on all sides. These large, elongated structures far offshore are called barrier reefs, Coral atolls begin as fringing reefs around active oceanic volcanoes. When the volcanic eruptions cease, an island remains. Over long geological periods, the island begins to sink. The fringing reel continues to grow as the island sinks. Soon, the fringing reef around the shore becomes a barrier reef separated from the shrinking island by a deeper lagoon. After thousands of years, the volcanic island sinks completely below the sea level, but the corals continue to grow, forming a circular coral reef, an atoll. 


 Shwedagon Pagoda is the most popular and well-known pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The legend of the Shwedagon the Pagoda begins with two Burmese merchant brothers who met the Buddha. The 0 Buddha gave them eight of his hairs to be enshrined in Burma. The great Shwedagon Pagoda stands on platform covering over 5 hectares on a hill 58m above the sea level. The platform is full of glittering, colourful stupas, but the huge main stupa is the centre of attention for most pilgrims. The stupa is completely solid, every inch is . covered in gold, and the upper parts are ! studded with diamonds totalling over 2,000 carats. The main stupa is supported on a square plinth that stands 6.4 m above the platform, setting it apart from the other stupas. On this raised platform are smaller stupas: large ones on the four cardinal directions, medium ones at the four corners and 60 small ones around the perimeter. Topping the stupa is the spectacular hti (spire decoration), which has seven tiers. Made of iron and covered in gold plates, the hti weighs well over a ton. Gold bells, silver bells and various jewellery are added to this. 


 When rain falls some of the water goes straight into rivers and lakes, but most of the water is soaked by the soil and reaches the rocks below. If the rock does not allow the rain water to pass through, an underground river is formed. Where the rain water flows through rocks, pockets of water, called aquifers, develop. In other words, an aquifer is a layer of rock or sediment through which water moves easily. Sandstone, chalk and limestone are good aquifers because these tracks have tiny gaps or pores through which water flows. Soma cquifers have been filling up for thousands of years and are like huge underground reservoirs. Wells are drilled into these rocks and water is pumped out. Sometimes the porous rock layers become tilted in the earth. There might be a confining layer of less porous rock both above and below the porous layer. This is an example of a confined aquifer. An oasis is a moist, fertile area of a desert where an aquifer is close to the surface. 75  


Mt Erebus, situated in Ross Island, Antarctico, is the world’s southern only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived lovo lake. Ross most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of Island is entirely volcanic in origin and is formed by four principal volcanoes – Mount Erebus, Terror, Bird ond Terra Nova- as well as numerous smaller volcanoes and lava flows. Of the volcanoes, only Erebus remains active. At 3,794 metres, Mount Erebus is the highest point on Ross Island and the largest, most active volcano on Antarctica continent. It is almost always observed with a cloud of vapour nising from its summit crater. Much eruptive and seismic activity has been observed, including the ejections of volcanic bombs as much as 8 metres across. At the summit, a 100- metre-deep outer crater about 650 metres across, contains a similarly deep inner crater about 250 metres across, in which lies a lake of red, molten lava 16   


Lokes are formed by many geological processen, Some lakes formed long ogo in hollow scraped out by ice. These filled with woteros ice molled.
Many of the world’s great lakes were formed by glaciation, for example: the Seven Rila Lokes in Rila, Bulgaria, are glacial
in origin. Some lakes are formed on the top of volcanoes, for example: the Crater Loke in the US state of Oregon. This
lake was formed about 6,850 years ago when a volcano collopsed, Lakes are also formed by the buckling of stratified rock
into large folds or by the displacement of large masses of rock due to faults and blocking of valleys by landslides. The source of lake water is
atmospheric precipitation that reaches the lake directly or by means of springs, brooks and rivers. A lake may evaporate as the climate
becomes more acid or it may fill up with sediment leaving a bog or swamp nin its place 1


Air pressure is the constant bombardment of billions of air molecules as they zoom about. Air pressure varies consianily from
place to place and from time to time as the Sun’s heat varies Difference in air pressure is whal causes winds. Air usually moves
from an area of high pressure or anti-cyclone to an area of low pressure or depression. Depressions are usually associated with bad weather
conditions and rain. A barometer is a device to measure the changes in air pressure. It also helps to forecast weather because change in oir
pressure is linked to weather conditons. A fallin air pressure wars thato stormy weather is ahead, whereas a steady high pressure indicates cleor
weather. Air pressure changes with altitude. When you move to a place of high altitude, say a tall mountain, air pressure decreases because there are
fewer air molecules up there. Air pressure is greatest at the sea level because that is the bottom of the atmosphere.


Ar pollution is mostly caused by human activities. One of the main pollutants of air is the exhaust fumos from molor
vehicles. A large amount of pollution is produced in factories, power stations and waste burners, as well as in the buming of coal
as and oil in homes, These cause a large amount ol damage health and environment A farmer’s crop sprays. farm animals, mining and
volcanic eruptions are other factors which contribute to air pollution The air pollution contains greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide etc.) which are
thought to contribute to global warming. It also contains substances such as sulphur and nitrogen oxides that can cause damage to our lungs. Life
on the Earth depends on the layer of ozone gas in the air which protects the Earth from the Sun’s ultraviolet rays. Air
pollution destroys the ozone layer. When exhaust gases react in strong sunlight, they form toxic ozone,


Rubber is a natural or synthetic substance characterized by elasticity, water repel- lence and electrical resistance. It is of
two kinds – natural and synthetic. Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex which is found in many plants. It is extracted from
plantation trees through a diagonal cut made downwards on the bark. The sticky substance which oozes out is called latex The latex is strained,
diluted with water and, then, treated with acid to cause the suspended rubber particles within the latex to
clump together. After being pressed between rollers, the rubber is made into thin crepe sheets of 0.6cm. Then, it is air or smoke dried
Synthetic rubber is produced by chemical reaction known as condensation or polymerization of certain unsaturated hydrocarbons
Today, Asia is the main source of natural rubber. It accounted for around 94% of the total output in 2005. The three largest rubber
producing countries are Indonesia,Malaysia and Thailand which together account for around 72% of all natural rubber production


The ozone layer of the on the Earth from the severe from 19 to 48 km above the on oxygen. The loss of ozone almosphere protects the lite
force of the Sun’s ultraviole radiation. The ozone layer forms the region of atmosphere Earth’s surface. This layer is
formed by the action of sunlight is caused by manufactured gases like chlorofluoro carbons or CFCs which move up through the air and
combine with the ozone. CFCs are used in refrigerators and aerosol sprays. CFCs were banned in 1996 because of the growing damage to the ozone layer. Besides
CFCs, carbon fetrachloride (used in dry cleaning), and methyl bromide (used as an insecticide for soil fumigation) are also responsible for
the depletion of ozone. CFCs reach the stratosphere and are broken down by ultraviolet radiation. The chlorine atoms within them are released which
directly attack ozone. The ozone- destroying reactions take place most rapidly under conditions like extreme cold, darkness and isolation, followed
by exposure to light. These conditions occur over the polar regions after the long polar winter is over and the first spring sun has appeared.?


Change Humidity is defined as the moisture content of the atmosphere. The almos- phere always contains some moisture in the form of
water vapour. The amount of water vapour that will saturate the air increases with a rise in the tempera ture. For example, at 4.4°C,
454 of moist air contains a maximum of 2 kg of water vapour, and at 37.8 °C the same amount of moist air contains a maximum of 18 kg
of water vapour. Hygrometer is a device which is used to measure humidity. Humidity is expressed in several ways.
Absolute humidity is the weight of water vapour in a particular volume of air. It is expressed in grams of water per cubic metre. The ratio of the
weight of water vapour to the total weight of air including water vapour is known as specific humidity Relative humidity is expressed as a
percentage of the total amount of water in air as compared to the amount of water the air could hold when saturated ve ol m


Deep beneath the oceans,there’s a landscape which is more beautiful than the one we see above. There are lorge mountain ranges (larger than
the ones above the sea level) steeper slopes, deeper volleys and wider plains. The ocean ridges form o great mountain
range, almost 64,000 km long, that weaves its way through all the mojor oceans. It is the largest single feature on the
Earth. The undersea is roughly edged and changes slowly to wear away the rocks because of the lack of wind, rain orice. The ocean floor is like a basin and its rims
called the continental shelf. From the shelf, a slope descends to a huge plain of oceanic crust. When the moving oceanic crust hits a continent, it is
forced below the continental crust forming o deep ocean french. Also, hidden beneath the waves are thousands of volcanoes, more than
those on the continents. When these volcanoes are completely covered by water, they are called underseo mountains. Mauna Kea, Hawaii, rises
10,203 m from its base on the ocean level. floor, only 4,170 m is above the sea


About one third of the world’crude oil and natural gas comes from deposits beneath the ocean.They were formed millions of years ago
S by decaying plankton buried under the sediment To locale potential areas,engineers use seismic surveying. Then, they
analyze the data they receive to decide whether or not drilling in the area would have the chance ol containing oil or gas. In
order to extract these underwater resources, large drilling platforms are set up in the oceans. A deep well is dug into the sea-bed
from the drilling platform. A rotating drill belt at the end of a long tube bores through the undersea rock until it
reaches the crude oil deposits. Then, the oil is pumped up to the platform and an oil tanker or underwater pipeline
brings it to the shore. Some of the drilling platforms are so huge that they can accommodate about 100 workers at a time. The platforms are designed
to withstand the waves of more than 100 feet in height and winds with speeds of 140 miles per hour as well as tsunamis, earthquakes and fires.
978-81-8341-4734 978-81-36?


A coral looks like a plant but is actually a finy animal called polyp. Polyp are soft, delicate animals with tentacles that capture small particles on
food from the seawater. Corals often grow on the shores of volcanic island where the water is shallow, warm and rich in minerals. They grom
together with tiny plants called algae. Some of these polyps which have no skeleton secrete limestone, a hard substance that acts like
protective armour. The coral waste serves as tertilizers to help the algo grow. In return, the algae provide oxygen and food necessary for the
growth of corals. When a polyp dies, its limestone armour survives intact. The great reels of the world consist of
thousands of generations of dead polyps piled up one on top of the other. Coral reefs provide food for the large variety
of sea animals. Coral reefs are estimated to have covered 284,300 square kilometres with the Indo-Pacific region (including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean,
Souheast Asia and the Pacific). Thus, hey account for 91.9% of the total area of the water on the earth.


or a large, usually saline lake that lacks a natural outlet such as the Asea is either a lorge expanse of saline water connected with an ocean
Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea. Seos are shollower than oceans and hove no major currents flowing through them. There are three kinds of
seas . Firstly, there are Intercontinental seas. These are connected to the ocean by a narrow strait or passage like the Mediterranean Sea
that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates Europe from Africa. Another type of sea is called the arm of
the ocean because such a body of water has a wide opening into the ocean. The third type is the inland sea in which the sea has no link with the
ocean. Inland seas are gigantic saliwater lakes. An example of the inland sea is the Caspian Sea which lies completely inside the Eurasian
continent. The Caspian Sea is the world’s largest inland body of water, bordered by Russia, Iran, Turk- menistan, Aerbaijan and Kazakhstan.


There are thousands of islands scattered over the oceans world. Some are in the process of being born, whereas ollen
GOUT slowly disappearing Islands are formed in several ways. Some islands near the shore may be large pieces of land which have
broken away from a continent. Some are parts of the mainland cut off by the rising sea levels. An aioll is a type of land formed
from a coral reel thathas grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island. The res rises to the surface of the water and forms a new island. Atolls ar
typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples include the Maldives in the Indian Ocean and Line Islands in the Pacific. Ocean islands
tar away from any land, are usually the tops of underwater volcanoes.Underwater volcanoes are formed when magma forces its way through
weak spots in the ocean crust. The lavo solidifies when it comes into contod with cold water. Over a period of time,
this rock builds up to form an undersen volcano. If the volcano grows big enough, it breaks the surface and on island is born. The Hawaiian Island
and the Galapagos Islands were formed in this way n34


studying fossils, palaeon-Fossils are the remains of living things preserved for million of years. By tologists (scientists who
study fossils) predict what kind of life there was on the Earth long ago. Most ossils are the remains of living things such as
bones, shells, eggs,leaves, seeds etc. But the question arises howb fossils are formed. When on animal dies, its body
falls to the bottom of the sea The body decomposes, but the hard parts like the shellsor bones are preserved and are slowly buried in the mud or
จากกา cm sediment. Over the period of time, minerals in the water dissolve the shells. New minerals fill the mould to
form a fossil. Each layer in the sedimentary rock has fossils which belong to a particular time period. The most recent fossils are found in
the upper layers and the most ancient in the lowest layers. The oldest fossils are called stromatolites. They are fossils
of big, pizza-like colonies of microscopic bacteria over 3,500 million years old.


Oceans are freated like a giant garbage dump that can make waste disappear. But the fact is that the waste does not Oy
About hall of the pollution in the ocoon comes from lond. Since sowoge, industrial waste, fertilizers and chemical products. Any
crack in the concreto containers which contain the nuclear waste could cause on ecological disaster All kinds of poisons
ore dumped into the oceans like dangerous metals such as mercury and pesticides (likeDDT). These harmful substances are absor
bed by the plankton Sea creatures feeding on plankton are, in turn, contaminated. When an accident of an oil tanker occurs, thousands of
tons of crude oil are spilt over, causing a kind of pollution called black tide. The thick layer of oil on the surface of the ocean prevents the Sun’s
rays from reaching the water. Thus, it offects the algae and, in turn, the entire food chain


De defined by how dry they are they are simply Oreos which=Voss than 10 inches 25 cm of precipitation froin or snow per
en other words, deserts are simply and dry) oreos and are more ocky with scattered vegetation rather than areas with large
311-476-0 sand dunes The term desert usually refers to areas that have high daytime Temperatures, parti cularly in summer in
addition to being edemely dry. Most of the earth’s greatest deserts are found in the subtropics. The subtropical deserts
cenire on the tropic of Concer and the tropic of Capricorn. The aridity of these areas is primarily due to the general circulation of air around the
earth. Subtropical areas have consistently high atmospheric pressure because of descending air- currents and are swept by hot, dry
winds. Such conditions keep moisture-bearing winds from entering the region and prevent the formation of clouds. The absence of cloud cover
is largely responsible for the high temperatures that occur in subtropical deserts. Without the protection of clouds, the land receives the full heating effect of the sun’s rays.


measured relative to something out how fast the earth You cannot measure the speed of an object by itself. It has to be
else. Motion cannot be measured without a reference point. We can find moving with respec to its own axis – the Sun, the Milky Way
Galaxy or our Local Group of galaxies. The Earth spins around its axis as it orbits the Sun. Our entire Solar System slowly orbits around the
Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy belongs to the local Group of galaxies, where it is also moving. At the equator, the Earth’s surface moves
about 40,000 kilometres in 24 hours.In other words, it is a speed of about 1040 miles/hr (1670 km/hr or 0.5km/sec). This is calculated by dividing
the circumference of the Earth at the equator (about 24,900 miles or 40,070km) by the number of hours in a day (24).


Even though mosphere is invisible, se essence on this planet. The amos Sunce Fict phere are capable absorbing cerempeso
radiation in the some absortester. Secondly, by reeding action in the same manner os marros reeds grt. As a result, very little UV
rodoton from the Sun ever gets to the Earth’s surface. Ultraviolet radionon or UV radiation is a type of radion from the
sun which, in high doses, con be dangerous for living organisms. UV radiation con couse serious sunburns Too much of this rod onion couses sain
cancer. Heat is also absorbed or reflected by the gases in the atmosphere. Some of the heat from the Sun is reflecied by the atmosphere
so that the Eorih may not get too hot Besides, during night, the atmosphere prevents the Earth’s heat from escoping into space. As a result, the zurface does not get too cold at night.


Soil is normally formed of three types of particles sand, silt and clay. Sand particles are quite large, between 0.5mm and
0.05mm in diameter. If there is too much sand in the soil, water drains through the soil too quickly. This means that
plant roots do not have enough time to absorb the water. Clay is formed of we much clay in the soil, it does not allow water to drain through it
much smaller particles, below 0.002mm in diameter. If there is tos well. This means that plant roots may lack oxygen. Silt particles de
between 0.05mm and 0.002mm in diameter. Hence, soil is formed a mixture of all these three types of particles. Besides, the soil must also
contain humus. Humus is the left ove of the organic material, such as dead leaves, which is broken down by decomposer organisms. When
humus is mixed with clay, soil crumbs are formed. Soil crumbs are rich in minerals and they improve the drainage of the soil. Soil crumbs also allow more air to circulate through the soil.



Marble is a metamorphic rock. It is formed when other rocks, mainly lime- stone, are changed by heat and pressure from
the cooling magma. This process is called re crystallization Fossilized materials in the limestonealong with its original
carbonate minerals re- crystallize and form large ngrains of calcite. Marble can easily be carved. It ranges in colours from white to pink, red, green
or grey. Nevertheless, it is easily damaged by pollution and acid roin. is capable of giving out a high gloss and is used mainly for building
purposes Pure white marble is the result of the metamorphism of very pure limestones. The characteristic swirls and veins of many coloured
marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay,silt, sand or iron oxides, which were originally present as grains or layers in
the limestone. Extensive deposits ol marble are found in Italy, Great Britain and in the United States


 The Earth rotates 15 degrees tongude per hour. Hence, the Earth’s 360 degrees are divided into 24 zones. Each measures about 15 degrees in width. The 0 degree longitude line or meridian is defined as aline munning through the Old Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England. Time in each of the 12 zones ast of Greenwich increases by one our for each zone. Time in each of the 2 zones west of Greenwich decreases by one hour. This is how the time differs around the world. The daily rotation of The Earth is somewhat irregular and is slowing down slightly. Atomic clocks constitute a much more stable time- base. On 1st January, 1972, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was replaced as the international time, reference by Co-ordinated Universal Time, maintained by an ensemble of atomic clocks around the world,


Gemstones are also known as precious stones. They are minerals the are prized not only for being rare and beautiful but also for their hardness and toughness. Most of the gems are crystals that are formed when magma cools slowly in the Earth’s crust . They are found by mining and quarrying or by sitting the mud from the bed of rivers and streams. Gemstones in- clude diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires. The beauty of gems depends to a large extent on their optical properties. Agem cannot be identified by merely looking at it. It is, therefore, necessary to measure its optical properties. The gemologist uses a refractometer to measure the refractive index, which is the relative ability of a gemstone to refract light. In addition to this, another instrument called polariscope is employed to determine whether a gem is doubly or singly refracting. Emeralds, rubies and sapphires are doubly refracting, whereas diamonds are singly refracting.


  Diamond is the most prized gems of all. It forms when carbon crystallizes under tremendous heal and pres- sure, about 100 km below the Earth’s surface. The world’s largest diamond mine is located in eastern Siberia. It is 525 m deep and 1200 metres in diameter, Diamond is the hardest of all materials and is used not only in ewellery, but also has industrial uses such as drilling and molishing. When a diamond first mined, it is called a rough diamond. Diamonds vary in shape. Sometimes they have to be split before they are cut and polished. A method called brilliant cutting is employed in cutting most diamonds. This method was invented in the 17th century by an Italian jeweller. The diamond is cut by a revolving metal plate, covered in diamond dust. The faces are angled to reflect as much light as possible. 


Isunomis are gigantic waves that begin when the sea floor is violently shaken by on earthquake, a landslide or a volcanic eruption. Tsunamis travel almost unnoticeably in deep water. As they reach shallow coastal areas, the water piles up into massive waves which can be as high as 30 m and 200 km long. Tsunamis are formed as the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity and radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. The word Tsunami’ means harbour wave’ in Japanese because of the way the waves crash into the harbour. Tsunamis usually come in a series with a gap of five minutes or even an hour. When a tsunami hits land, it smashes down onto the shore and washes away houses and people. A tsunami can travel across the sea at a very high speed. Some of these race along at the speed of 900 km/hr, which is as fast as a jet plane. There is often no advance warning of an approaching tsunami. However, an earthquake felt near a body of water may be considered as an indication that a tsunami may shortly follow, 


The sea is laden with gold. Where does gold come from? It is leeched out of the place where tectonic plates spread, cold water seeps down into the earth and comes into contact with hot rocks. Unfortunately, it is so dilute that its concentrations Wall of Alaska or orders of magnitude are smaller than the parts per million. It’s more like parts per trillion (ppi). The oceans contain an average gold concentration of about 13 billionihs of a gram per litre of seawater (13 ppt). Actually, gold concentration varies between 5 to 50 ppt, depending on location. The Bering Sea contains the highest reported concentration. There are huge deposits of undissolved gold – solid stuff along the mid-ocean ridges of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. But the sad part is that it costs too much to mine or extract gold from the sea to make a profit. The concentration of gold in seawater is small. But the cost of pumping the water is greater than the value of the gold. For Knox gold mine in Alaska ha produced nearly 3.5 million ouncesc gold since it went into operation in lat 1996. 


Sik is obtained from sileworms. The species bombyx mori is usually cultivated and raised under con- trolled environmental and nutri tonal conditions. The life cycle of a siloworm is as follows egg, the Silkworm, the pupa and the moth The silkworm which feeds on mulberry leaves forms a covering around a by secreting a protein like substance through its head This stage is called cocoon, a desirable stage for silk producers. The cocoons are sent to o factory where they are first sorted according to their colours, sizes, shapes and textures. Then, they are put througho series of hot and cold immersions so that the sericin or silk gum maybe oftened. Then, the process of unwinding the silk filaments from this Cocoons and combining them together to make a thread of raw sikis done. Finally, the silk filaments are reeled into skeins, which are packed in small bundles called books. Each bundle weighs 2 to 4.5 kg  


Coal is defined as a black or brownish-block solid combustible substance, formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without free access of air and under the continuous influence of moisture and often increa- sed pressure and tempe- rature. It is composed primarily of carbon along with other elements, including sulphur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide. There are four types of coal:- 1. Anthracite – This kind of coal has the highest carbon-content. It is a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating 2. Bituminous – Bituminous cool has a carboncontent ranging from 45 to 86 per cent. It is a dense coal, usually block, sometimes dark brown, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation 3. Sub-bituminous – Ranking below bituminous is sub-bituminous coal with 35-45 per cent carbon-content. It is used primarily as fuel for steam electric power generation 4. Lignite – Lignite is a geologically young coal which has the lowest carbon content, i.e. 25-35 per cent. It is also referred to as brown coal  


 If you think that the clock in the tower of the Houses of Parliament in Westminster, London, United Kingdom, is called Big Ben, you are wrong. The tower itself is colled St. Stephen’s Tower, while the clock is called the West- minster clock. It is the bell that strikes the hour which is called the Big Ben. This bell weighs thirteen tons. The tower was built as a pan of Charles Barry’s design for the new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster was destroyed. The tower is 96.3 metres high. The tower is founded on a 15 by 15 metre raft, made of 3-metre thick concrete, at a depth of 7 metres below the ground level. The four clock faces are 55 metres above the ground. The interior volume of Big Ben is 4,650 cubic metres. The four dials of the clock are 23 square feet, the minute hand is 14 feet long and the figures are 2 feet high. The first 61 metres with stone cladding. The remainder of (250 feet) of the structure is the clock tower, consisting of brickwork the height of the tower is a framed spire of cast iron  


 An oyster is a mollusc. It has a soft and very sensitive body inside its hinged shell . Its shell is made of two parts or valves. As the oyster grows in size, its shell also grows. The mantle is an organ that produces the oyster’s shell by using minerals from the oyster’s food. The material created by the mantle is called nacre. Nacre lines the inside of the shell The formation of a pearl begins when a grain of sand or any other substance gets into the soft part of the oyster In order to protect itself, the Oyster covers the irritant with the layers of the nacre the same substance which makes the shell. The oyster continues to add more and more nacre. Finally, it results in the formation of a pearl. The main component of nacre is the thin layers of the mineral arogonite which is translucent Light interacts with these overlapping layers to give the finished pearl its lustrous appearance. 


The driest place on the Earth is the Atacama Desert in South America. This desert covers on area of 966 km, bet ween the Andes Moun- tain and the Pacific Ocean. Rarely, you can find any vegetation here as the land is blocked from moisture on both sides – one side by the snow-capped Andes Mountains and the other side by the Pacific coastal ranges. As a result, there are salt basins where sand and lava flows. In some parts of the Atacama Desert, no rain has been ever recorded. Very little precipitation (1 cm/0.3in per year) that does fall comes from fog. The Atacama Desert covers a total area of 181,300 square km, mostly in Chile, but parts in Peru, Argentina and Bolivia. Still, more than a million people live in the Atacama and crowd around the coastal cities, mining compounds and fishing villages. 


The world’s highest navigable lake is Lake Titicaca. The first steamer to move on the lake was prefabricated in England and carried in pieces on muleback up to the lake in 1862. The lake is about 12,500 feet above the sea level in the Andes Mountains of South America. The lake is the remnant of a vast area of water formed in the Ice Age known as Lake Bolivian. Lake Titicaca is led by rainwater, i.e. the water which melts from the glaciers. The lake covers about 8,300 square km and extends in a northwest-lo-southeast direction for a distance of 190 km. At its widest, it is 80 km across. The average depth of the lake is over 100 m with its deepest point at 281 m. About 25 rivers empty their waters into Lake Titicaca. River Ramis, which drains about two-fifths of the entire Titicaco Basin, is the largest. Titicaco’s waters are transparent and only slightly brackish, with salinity ranging from 5.2 to 5.5 parts per 1,000. Surface temperatures average 56°F (14) degrees C).  


from the town of Quito, in Ecuador In 1539, a large Spanish force store find out what they could discover towards the east. As their supplie were running out, Gonzalo Pizarro, ordered a small group of people brother of the conqueror of Per retrace their route by boat and retur with fresh supplies. Headed Francisco de Orellano, the titty me set off . A strong current hit their bo and forced them eastwards in the opposite direction. They reached a place where trees fringed the edg of the water. There, they were attacked by more than 2,000 natives After some time, they met a fleet of canoes filled with tall, fair-haire women who shot arrows of them and killed seven of their members Due to this incident, Orellana name the river ‘Amazon’ after the race legendary women warriors. Finall- after a voyage of nearly 4,000 miles they came to the Atlantic Ocean an became the first men to cross Sout America at its widest part.  


  In the olden days, the depth of the ocean was measured by the means of a lead line. A long piece of rope with six foot markings (having a lead weight at the end) was dropped into the water. Then, the depth was measured by noting how much line went down when the lead weight reached the bottom. Later, the depth of an ocean would be determined by sound waves. Modern day ocean- ographers use sonar instruments to determine the depth of the ocean. A combined transmitter and receiver, called a transducer, sends a sound pulse straight down into the water. The pulse moves down through the water and bounces off the ocean bottom. The transducer is able to pick up the reflected sound. With the help of computers, the time taken for the sound pulse to reach the bottom and return is measured. The depth of the ocean is calculated by knowing how fast sound travels in the water. The sound travels in the water at approximately 1,500 metres per second. This method of seafloor mapping is called echo-sounding. 


A delta is a fertile piece of land near the mouth of some rivers. is made of the sediments, dumped there by rivers. The world’s largest delta is formed by two Himalayan rivers, the Ganges and the Brahmaputro. These two rivers drain into the combined Bay of Bengal as a river carrying the largest amount of sediments. Along with River Meghna, these two rivers have formed one of the largesi delta in the world. It is called the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta or the Bengal Delta This low-lying fertile plain lies partly in Bangladesh and parily in India. It is also known as the Sunderbans and stretches in a total area of 10,000 square km. Two-thirds of the Sundarbans, i.e. 6,000 square kilometres lies in the southwestern delta regions of Bangladesh, whereas the remaining one-third is in India. This delta contains the world’s largest area of mangrove forests. It is one of the world’s most densely populated areas. Sunderbans is home to the largest number of wild tigers in the world and the biggest colony of the Royal Bengal Tigers 


A volcano is an opening in a planet’s surface or crust which allows hot, molten rock, ash and gases to escape from below the surface. The different types of volcanoes are: 1. Composite volcanoes, also called strato volcanoes, are formed by the alternating layers of lava and rock fragments Strato volcanoes are usually large and conical. 2. Shield volcanoes may be produced by hot spots which lay far away from the edges of tectonic plates. The eruptions of shield volcanoes are characterized by low explosivity and lava-fountaining that form cinder cones and spaltercones at the vent. 3. Cinder cones aren’t famous as their eruptions usually don’t cause any loss of life. Cinder cones grow rapidly and soon approach their maximum sizes. They rarely exceed 250m in height and 500m in diameter 4. When hot erupting lava contains just enough explosive gas to prevent the formation of a lava-flow, but not enough to shatter it into small fragments, the lava is torn by expanding gases into fluid hot clots, ranging in sizes from lcm to 50cm across. Such volcanoes are called spatte volcanoes. 5. A volcano that consists of a comple of two or more vents is known as compound or complex volcano. 


The theory of plate tectonics explains movement of the Earth’s plates. This the was developed in the 1960’s. This theon explains the movement of the tantis plates and also explains the cause de frenches, the formation of mountain earthquakes, volcanoes, oceanic range and other geologic phenomeno The Earth’s crust is divided into huge, thick plates that drift atop the soft mantle also. Tte plates are made of rock and are about 80 to 400 miles (50 to 250 km) thick. They move both horizontally and vertically Over long periods of time, the plates also change in sizes as their margins are added to, crushed together or pushed back into the Earth’s mantle. The plates are moving at a speed that has been estimated at 1 to 10 cm per year. Most of the Earth’s seismic activities (volcanos and earthquakes) occur at the plate boundaries as they interact. The top layers of the plates are called the crust. Oceanic crust (the crust under the oceans) is thinner and denser than destroyed continental crust. Oceanic crust is more active than continental crust. Crust is constantly being created and  


Hwang Ho is the muddiest river in the world. It flows in Chino. It cames so much silt that you could use to build a vast woll 40m (131ft) high and 6 m (20ft) wide all round the world River Hwang Ho is also known as Yellow River. It is the second-longest river in China after River Yangize. It originates from the Bayankala Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China; it flows through the nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. The river gets its yellow colour mostly from the fine-grained calcareous silts which originates at the Loess Plateau and are carried in the flow. Silt deposition and diking over the centuries have caused the river to flow above the surrounding farmland, making flooding a critically dangerous problem. River Yellow carries 1.6 billion tons of silt annually at the point where it descends from the Loess Plateau. Due to its heavy load of silt , River Yellow is a depositing stream, that is, it deposits the part of its comed burden of soil in its bed in stretches where it is flowing slowly. These deposits elevate the riverbed which flows between natural levees in its lower reaches. 


The Great Sphine a single piece of stone Giza is the large structure created from It stands at 66.34 (20.22 m) high. W 241 ft (73.5 m) long and 20 ft (6 m) wide The Great Sphinx of Giza is a half-human half-lion statue located in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of River Nile, near modern day Cairo. The commonly held belief that it was created during the 2700s B.C. Most of the pyramids were believed to have been created at the will of King Khafra whose Pyramid happens to be situated there. Some Egyptologists are of the opinion that the Great Sphinx represents the likeness of King Khatra who is often credited as its builder as well. The time of its construction is speculated to have been somewhere between 2520 B.C. and 2494 B.C. Because the limited evidence giving the origins of Khafro is ambiguous and circumstantial, the idea of the builder of the Sphinx and the exact date of its construction continue to be the subject of debate. The material of the Sphinx is the limestone bedrock, which originated fifty million years ago from the sediments deposited at the bottom of sea waters that engulfed northeast Africa during the Middle Eocene period. 40  


No one knows exactly as to when the Earth was formed. Scientistsbelieve that the Earth was formed about 4.65 billion years ago, fi rom matter left over from the Sun’s creation Clouds of space dust whirled around the young Sun. In the beginning, the planet was so hot that it was in a molten state. Gradually, the surface cooled turning into a hard crust. As the Earth cooled down, it gave off clouds of steam and gas. The moisture in these clouds eventually turned to rain. As a result, the first seas were formed. The atmosphere contained different gases which swirled like clouds and caused huge electrical storms. The poisonous gases in the atmosphere must have reacted to produce oxygen which triggered off the first beginnings of life on the Earth.


The source of a river is usually high up in the mountains. There are two main ways in which rivers begin. Some rivers start when a natural spring releases water from underground. These are often small trickles of water which develop into small streams. Gradually, these streams increase in size until they become rivers. Some rivers begin when continuous rain makes a groove or a channel in a piece of land. As more and more rain falls into this channel, flow of water slowly begins. Just like the springs, a stream can soon become a river. All the rivers in a certain area, called a catchment area, flow down to join one another like the branches of a tree. These branches are called tributaries. As they flow downhill, they are joined by several tributaries and grow bigger. Every river carries sediments which consist of large stones, sand and fine silt.


A drought is a long period when there is little or no rain at all. During a drought, the soil dries out, streams stop flowing, groundwater sinks and plants die. Many tropical places have a seasonal drought with long dry seasons, whereas deserts suffer from permanent drought. Droughts are often accompanied by high temperatures which increase water-loss through evaporation. The Atacama Desert which lies in Northern Chili between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean is the driest place in the world. This region is very dry because it lies in a region where there is constant high air-pressure with little air movement. The longest drought is recorded in Calama in the Atacama Desert. There had been no rain for four centuries. After 1571, there was no rainfall. Finally, rainfall was recorded in 1971.


A mirage is an optical illusion that occurs due to atmospheric conditions by which reflected images of distant objects are seen. In other words, it’s a refraction phenomenon in which the image of some objects appear displaced from its true position. Mirages form when light rays emitted from a source or reflected off an object are bent, as the path of the light ray crosses the air layers of different densities. Common examples of a mirage are the appearance of water some distance down the highway on a hot summer day and seeing a lake in the desert. An oasis or viewing a lake in the desert happens when light passes through two layers of air with different temperatures. The desert sun heats up the sand which in turn, heats up the air just above it. The hot air, then, bends light rays and reflects the sky. When you see it from a distance, the different air masses colliding with one another act like a mirror. The desert ahead seems to have become a lake which is actually areflection of the sky above.


Tiny droplets of water which condense from moist air cause fog and mist to rise. Fog forms near the ground. Mist forms when the air cools to the point, where the water vapour it contains, condenses to water. Fog is nothing but cloud on ground. Fog is composed of minute water droplets sus pended in the atmosphere near the surface. These droplets scatter the light rays. Thus, the visibility is considerably reduced. When visibility is less than 1,000 metres, fog is said to prevail. Also, the huge amounts of moisture transpire from the leaves of forest trees. It condenses on a cool night to form a thick morning mist. There are 3 main kinds of fog: radiation fog, advection fog and upslope fog. Radiation fog forms on a cold, clear, calm night. The ground loses heat that is absorbed during the day. So, it cools the air above. Advection fog forms when warm, moist air flows over a cold surface. This cools the air so much that the moisture it contains condenses. Upslope fog forms when warm, moist air rises up a mountain and cools.


Mountains are solid rocks. Mountain building is a slow process and happens over centuries. They can be formed in three different ways. When volcanoes erupt, lava from deep inside the Earth cools and hardens on the surface forming mountains. Some mountains are formed when two plates move towards each other under pressure or where an oceanic plate is pushed under a continental crust. The pressure causes the ground near the joining plate-margins to fault and fold. Hence, the ground is forced upwards to form mountains. Big mountains like the Himalayas, the Andes, the Alps, the Rockies and the Urals were all formed in this way. A third way in which mountains are formed is when the Earth’s crust creates faults. A fault is a fracture in the land which moves large blocks of land upwards or downwards. Faults in the rocks normally occur when there is a lot of pressure on the rocks.


An earthquake simply means shaking of the ground. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Some are slight tremors and some are so devastating that they pull down mountainsand cities. Small earthquakes may occur due to landslides, volcanoes or even heavy traffic. Large earthquakes occur due to the grinding together of the vast tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s surface. Tectonic plates slide past one another all the time. Sometimes they stick. The rock bends and stretches for a while and then snaps. This makes the plate jolt which sends out shock waves that cause the earthquake. Shallow earth quakes begin 0-70 km below the ground. These are the ones that cause the major damage. Intermediate quakes begin 70-300 km down. Deep quakes begin over 300 km down. The deepest earthquake recorded took place 720 km down.


About 220 million years ago, all the continents were joined in the supercontinent of Pangaea. It was surrounded by a single giant ocean called Panthalassa, meaning all seas. It was 200 million years ago that Pangaea split into two huge landmasses, namely Laurasia and Gondwanaland. These landmasses were separated by the Tethys Sea. These landmasses began to divide further about 135 million years ago. Later, Australia and Antarctica separated. India broke off from Africa and drifted north into Asia. About 60 million years ago Europe and North America began to move apart. The continents have not stopped moving. North America is still moving farther away from Europe. This slow movement of the continents around the world is knownas continental drift.


A seismograph is a device to measure earthquakes. Earthquakes generate seismic waves which can be detected with a sensitive instrument called a seismograph. Even though an earthquake may be minor, this device gives a complete record of the earthquake. The study of earthquakes is known as seismology. The seismograph picks up the vibrations which are caused by one rock mass rubbing against the other. The energy of this rubbing is changed to vibration in the rock.The Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake on a scale of 1-10 using a seismograph. The Richter scale tells us how much energy an earthquake has. Each step in the scale indicates a ten-fold increase in the energy of the earthquake. The most powerful earthquake ever recorded was an earthquake which occurred in 1960 in Chile. It was 9.5 on the Richter scale. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake registered 7.8.


The gradual breakdown of rocks when exposed to air is called weathering. Weathering is the mechanical and chemical hammer thai breaks down and sculpts the rocks. The surface rocks are affected the most by weathering. Even the rocks 200 m below the surface are affected by weathering when water trickles into the ground. Weathering takes place when there is extreme climate, either too hot or too cold. Weathering occurs in three ways chemically, mechanically and organically. Chemical weathering is when gases dissolve in rainwater to form weak acids that corrode rocks such as limestone Mechanical weathering takes place through changes in temperature, for example, frost. In deserts, where extreme temperature prevails, both chemical and mechanical weathering is intense. Desert rocks get hot and expand during the day which causes cracks. In the night, they cool and contract. This is called thermoclastis.


Snowline is the lowest level on a mountain where snow remains throughout the summer. The location of the snowline depends uponthe height of the sun, latitude, winds, temperature and moisture. The snowline on the same mountain range may change from year to year due to changes in the climate. The snowline is 5,000 m above the sea level in the tropics, 2,700 m in the Alps, 600 m in Greenland and at the sea level near the Poles. The highest point of a mountain is much colder than the lower points. The snow which falls on higher regions never thaw because it is so cold. In the summer, the warm climate begins to melt some of the snow. This causes the snowline to move up the mountain. As the summer months pass by and the winter months return, the snowline moves further down the mountain once again.


A hurricane is a powerful, whirling tropical storm which begins overo warm sea. It is also called a cyclone or typhoon. Hurricanes mostly occur during the late summer as clusters of thunder-clouds build up over the warm sea. As the hurricanes grow, they swirl into a spiral with a calm ring of low pressure called the eye at the centre. The eye is usually 16-32 km in diameter. Officially, a hurricane is a storm with winds exceeding 119 km/hr. In the eyewall, large changes in pressure create the strongest winds in the hurricane. These winds can reach speeds of 320 km/hr. Damaging winds may extend 400 km/hr. Hurricanes move westwards. They strike the east coasts bringing torrential rains. Hurricanes may last 3-14 days on average. Every year about 85 hurri canes occur around the world.


Water Cycle is a series of movements of water above, on and below the surface of the Earth. It is how water evaporates from the oceans, then rises in the air to form clouds. In areas of low pressure, the clouds release the water as rain which falls into the seas again. This is a continuous process. However, in some parts of the world, where there is no rainfall for long periods, there is a break in the cycle. If we consider the world as a whole, with one big water cycle, the processes involved are always occurring somewhere. It means that this cycle never stops. The Water Cycle consists of four stages – storage, evaporation, precipitation and run-off. Water is stored temporarily in the ground in oceans, lakes andrivers. It evaporates from the Earth’s surface, condenses in clouds and falls back to the Earth as precipitation (rain, snow, hail). This eventually runs into seas or re-evaporates.


Canyons are deep cliff-sided gorges. They are deep valleys between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. They are formed when the rocks are continuously eroded by a river Canyons are most likely to occur in semi-arid or arid regions where river erosion deepens the canyons faster than the weathering of the sides can widen it. The deepest and steepest canyons are formed in regions with flat lying, alternating beds of hard and soft rock. In such cases, the sides of the canyons resemble a staircase with layers of harder rocks forming cliffs and the layers of softer rocks forming gentler slopes. Canyons are particularly abundant across large areas of Arizona and Utah in the south-western UnitedStates where there is an optimal combination of climate and rock structure.


Most rivers end their journeys at the sea. The flow of a river becomes slow and it carries a heavy load of sediments. On the coast, if the tides are strong, much of the sediment is washed away into the sea. But some of it may build up into a new piece of land called a delta. Delta comes from a Greek word meaning triangular shape. In other words, delta is a deposit of soil or silt formed whenever a river empties into a lake. It is usually cha racterised by highly fertile soil. The shape of the delta depends on how much water and sediment is carried by the river and its speed. It also depends on the speed, strength of the waves, currents and tides on the coast. Deltas vary enormously in scale and complexity, ranging from small lacustrine deltas with lobate shapes and tripartite structures to large, composite bird-foot deltas formed along ocean shorelines. The delta of River Mississippi forms likeabird’s foot because a lot of sedimentis carried out into the calm seawater.


A geyser is a hot body of water that erupts in a column of steam and hot water. Geysers erupt when the base of a column of water resting in the Earth is vapourised by a hot volcanic rock. The force with which the column of water is expelled depends on its depth. The entire column instantly vapourizes causing the geyser to erupt. The geyser Usually happens in places with lots of volcanoes. The red-hot rocks heatunderground water for below the surface until its so hot that it shoots through a rock. The water from a geyser is hot because it is boiled by the heat of underlying rocks. Some geysers erupt at regular intervals but the majority erupt irregularly, The intervals may range from a matter of minutes to years. The height of the column ranges from about 1 m to about 100 m. While most geyser-eruptions last only a few minutes, some last for days Some geysers almost never stop Others erupt violently, then stay dormant for years or even decades.


Sunlight is composed of light of varying wavelengths. While the shorter wavelength light appears as blue, violet and indigo in colour, the longer wavelength light appears as red, orange and yellow in colour. When this sunlight passes through a raindrop in the air, it takes a complicated path. Initially, light splits into the VIBGYOR’ colours. This light, then, reflects off the back surface of the raindrop and then goes back to the other side in which the light first passed, forming an arch. The light, thus emerging from several raindrops, creates a rainbow. The pre-requisite for rainbow formation is a brightly shining sun from one side and rain coming from the other direction. When you look at a rainbow, you would see that the sun is behind you. A rainbow may look like a half circle when it is formed at sunrise or sunset because the light, at that time, travels almost horizontally towards the Earth. However, as the sun rises high in the sky, the shape of the rainbow would be like an arch rather than a half circle.


About three hundred years ago, the Mughals ruled over India. ShahJahan (1592-1666) was the fifth ruler of Mughal Empire. He built the Taj Mahal in 1631, in memory of his wife Mumtaz who died in childbirth. The white marble mausoleum at Agra has become the monument of a man’s love for a woman. It is raised upon a marble platform and framed on either side by handsome mosques and stately minarets. In the foreground, spacious gardens enclose a pool in whose waters the inverted palace becomes a quivering dream. Every portion of the structure is made of white marble, precious metals or costly stones. The Maharaja of Jaipur sent the marble as a gift to Shah Jahan. For about 22 years, more than 20,000 workmen built the magnificent monument. This tomb was only one of the hundreds of beautiful buildings that Shah Jahan erected.


The Himalayas are the highest and one of the youngest mountain ranges in the world. Their origin can be traced in the Jurassic Era, which is about 80 million years ago. The Himalayas, literally translated as the lond of Snow, are the great mountain range of Asia, home to the highest (allest ) peaks in the world. They form a 1500-mile broad crescent through northeastern Pakistan, Northern India, Southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. The Himalayas range averaging 320 to 400 km in width rises sharply from the Gangetic Plain. There are more than 30 peaks of the Himalayas each rising to the height of 7,620 m (25,000 ft) or more. The Himalayas contain 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world. Among these peaks are the world’s highesi mountain-peak, Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is on the Nepal-Tibet border; the second highest peak, K2 or Mount Godwin Austen (8,611 m), located on the border between China and Jammu and Kashmir. The third highest peak, Kanchenjunga (8,598 m) is on the Nepal-India border. The others are Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna 1, Nanga Parbat and Nanda Devi.


The Alps are a great mountain range of South Central Europe. They form an arc of 1.200 km in length from Nice to Vienna. They cover about 1,92.000 km? The Alps stretch across 8 different countries: France, Monaco, Italy, Switzerland, Liech- tenstein, Germany, Austria and Slovenia. The Alps are a complex told mountain system. Sedimentary deposits of vast thickness, mainly limestone and dolomite, were laid down in the ancestral Tethys Sec during the Triassic and Jurassic periods. Subsequently, enormous pressure generated by a collision between the African and Eurasion plates thrust these rock strata upwards and northwards to form the enormous mountain range. The os are generally divided into Western Alps and Eastern Alps. The vision is along the line betwee Lake Constance and Lake Como. The highest peak of the Alps, Mor Blanc (4807 m/15,771 ft), is on the Franco-Italian border. The Ala ore the highest and most densely settled mountain belt of Europe inhabited by some 20 million people


The Leoning Tower of Piso or simply The Tower of Piso is locoted in the cry of Piso in toly. It is the Freestanding bell tower of the cothedral of the Holion city of Piso. It is situated behind the cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa’s Cathedral Square after the cathedral and the baptistery. The construction of this imposing mass was started in the year 1174 by Bonanno Pisano. When the tower had reached its third storey, the work ceased because it had started sinking into the ground. This was due to a mere sel in weak, unstable subsoil. Construction three-metre foundati was subsequently hot for almost a century. This allowed time for the underlying soil to set otherwise the tower would almost certainly have toppled. The height of the tower is 55.86 m from the ground on the lowest side and 56.70 m on the highest side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m and 2.48 m at the top. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons. The tower has 294 steps and leans of an angle of 3.97 degrees.


Venice, an Italian city is con sidered among the most beautiful and best preserved cities in the world. It is unique in the fact that it is the only cily in the world built on water. It is built on about 115 islands in the Adriatic Sea, 4 kilometres east of the mainland, to which it is connected by rail and road, The city is intersected by canals, the chief of which is the Grand Canal which has nearly 400 bridges. Today, the peaceful atmosphere of the city is due to the complete absence of cars, boats provide the only means of transport along a system of over one hundred and fifty canals. In addition to its canals and bridges, Venice is renowned for its churches and polaces. The most famous of these are St. Mark’s Cathedral Piazza San Marco and Doge’s Palace, Gondolas are one of Venice’s most famous symbols worldwide. These typical Venetian boats are extremely ancient and are the result of a series of extremely complex craft techniques. A gondola is 11 metres long and weighs 600 kilograms. In spite of its considerable weight, it is quite easy to be manoeuvred by just one person using a single oar


The Victoria Falls are waterfalls situated in southern Africa on River Zambezi between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are, by some measures, the largest waterfalls in the world. They also seem to be the most unusual in form and have the most diverse and easily seen wildlife beyond doubt. The Victoria Falls are 1,708 metres wide, making them the largest curtains of water in the world. They drop between 90m and 107m into the Zambezi Gorge. An average of 550,000 cubic metres of water plummets over the edge every minute. Victoria Falls are one of Africa’s major tourist attractions, and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Falls are shared between Zambia and Zimbabwe. Each country has a national park to protect them and a town serving as a tourism centre: Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park and Livingstone in Zambia, and Victoria Falls National Park and the town of Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe,


The world’s longest wall is the Great Wall of China which was built over 2,000 years ago by Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China during Qin Dynasty (221 B.C 206 B.C.). The Great Wall is one of the largest building construction projects ever completed. It streiches across the mountains of northern China, winding north and northwest of Beijing. The Great Wall of China is 25 feet high and 25 feel thick at its base, tapering to a thickness 5 feet at the top. The wall, which took 300,000 men ten years to build, was constructed completely by hand. During Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the Great Woll was enlarged to 6,400 kilometres (4,000 miles) and renovated over a 200-year period, with watch-towers and cannons added to it The Great Wall of China was built mainly to protect the Chinese empire from the Mongolians and other invaders. The Great Wall of China is the only man-made structure that astronauts have seen with the naked eye from space.


The Ganges, also called the Ganga, is a major river in the Indian sub- continent flowing east through the eponymous plains of northern India into Bangladesh. The 2,510 km river begins al the Gangotri Glacier, a an elevation of 7,756 m (25,446 ft) in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, in the central Himalayas, and drains into the Ba- of Bengal through its vosi della in the Sunderbans. The Gange originates in the Himalayas after the confluence of six rivers: th Alaknanda meets the Dhauliganga at Vishnuprayag, the Nandakini Nandprayag, the Pindar at Karnaprayag, the Mandakini Rudraprayag and, finally, the Bhagirathi at Devprayag (after this poir the river is known as the Ganges) in the Indian state of Uttarakhan The Bhagirathi is considered to be the source-stream. The streams a fed by melting snow and ice from glaciers including glaciers from peaks such as Nanda Devi and Kamet.


The Tedona Grandis free or just Tectono is also known as Teak. It is a tall evergreen tree, grown mainly in the south and southeast of Asia. It has hard, heavy, durable yellowish-brown wood. Tectona is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forests vegetation Tectona trees grow only in the dense forests of equatorial regions. It is difficult to transport the trees from these forests. Due to this reason, teak is very expensive. A tectona tree is large and grows to 30-40 m tall in the dry season. The wood of this tree is used, especially for furniture and in shipbuilding. The oil which it contains gives it a greasy feeling and makes it immune to the attack of insects. Burma produces most of the world’s supply of teak, with India, Thailand, Indonesia and Sri Lanka coming next. 


The most famous waterfalls in the world are the Niagara Falls Straddling the border between the United States and Canada, the Falls actually consist of three separate components – Horseshoe Falls, American Falls and BridVeil Falls. The volume of water approaching during peak flow sease may sometimes be as much as 202,00 cubic feet or 5,720 m per sec. About 90% of the volume is over the Horseshoe Falls. The landscape seen today at the Niagara Falls was formed by glacial movements during the ice age. When the ice retreated and the water began to flow mgain, the changed landscape forced he water to carve out a new route for River Niagara. Today, the Niagara Falls pre split between two cities – Niagara Falls, Ontario; and Niagara Falls, New ork. The Horseshoe Falls and the ridal Veil Falls are separated by a uge rock called Goat island. ngineers have bored a tunnel in the ock through which people can go to ee the marvellous spectacle, i.e. the agara Falls 


The world’s largest forests are the Amazon rainforests, often known span reaches throughout 9 countries: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombi the lungs of the World”. The Amazon rainforests are so vast that the Ecuador, Guinea, French Guinea, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. This evergreen woodland rainforest infrastructure covers over 3.7 million square miles. It is estimated that more than 20 per cent of the Earth’s oxygen is produced in this area. The Amazon rainforests cover more than 1.2 billion acres, representing two-fifths the enormous South American continent. The life-force of the Amazo rainforests is the mighty River Amazon. The Amazon rainforest coniain the largest collection of living plant and animal species in th- world. The diversity of plant species in the Amazon rainforests is th- highest on the Earth. It is estimated that a single hectare (2.47 acres) C Amazon rainforests contains abou 900 tons of living plants, including more than 750 types of trees and 1,500 other plants.


above the sea Nechu pre Columbian Inco site located 2.400 metres nige above the the bombe Volley in Perus who 80 km northwest of Chen referred to as The Lost City of the Incas” Motu Pechu is probably the est familiar symbol of the Ince Empire The Inca people originated around A.D. 1750 in the Cuzco valley (what is now modem-day Peru). It is one of the most important archaeological centres in South America and the most visited tourist attraction in Peru. Machu Picchu was constructed around 1450 during the golden period of Inco Empire Machu Picchu’s 150 dwellings include palaces, rooms carefully carved from the grey granite of the Andes and filled with magnificent freasures. The site wos brought to worldwide attention in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, an American historian. It was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. It is also one of the new Seven Wonders of the World. 


Japon deepest part of the world The Mariana Trench is the oceans and the deepes Earih’s crust. The Mariano location on the surface of the Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, just east of the 14 Mariana Islands near Morong Trench is the Challenger Deep, so named ofier the exploratory The deepest part of the esse HMS Challenger ll which was a fishing boat converted into o seo ob by Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard. The Mariana Trench is 11,033 meres deep. I Mount Everest, which is the tallest point on the earth at 8,850 metres 29,035 feet), were set in the Mariana Trench, there would still be 2,183 metres 7,166 feet) of water left above it. The trench forms the boundary between two sectonic plates, where the Pecitic Pilote is subducted beneath the Philippine Plate. At the bottom, the water column exerts a pressure of 108.6 MPa upwards which is over one thousand times the standard atmospheric pressure at the sea level. Of course, the deepest recorded fish ocean surface). was also found in the Mariana Trench (at 27,460 H or 5.2 miles below the 


The aurora polaris is a natural coloured light display in the sky, usually observed at night in the polar zone. It occurs in the upper atmosphere at altitudes between 100km and 1,000km. In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis. Aurora is named after the Roman goddess of dawn, whereas boreas is o Greek name for north wind. The aurora borealisis also called the northem polar light as it is only visible in the north sky from the northern Hemisphere. Its souther counterpart is known as the aurora australis/southern polar light. Auroras are produced by the collision of charged particles from the Earth’s magnetosphere, mostly electrons but also protons and heavier particles, with the atoms and molecules of the Earth’s upper atmosphere (at altitudes above 80 km). The particles have energies of 1 to 100 keV. The collisions in the atmosphere electronically excite atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere. The excitation energy can be lost during light emission or collisions.


Chat the Aedeemer is e Aus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . It is of the pook of the 700 metres (2,300 ) Cound mountain in the Tuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. The sou stands 38 metres (120 to weighs 700 short fons 605 tonnes) and measures almost 30 metres from one hand to the other. It is the ymbol of Christianity and has become an icon of the city. The arms show the welcome and warmth of the Brazilian people. On 12th Oct 1931, this Statue of Christ was inaugurated. The final design of the monument was authored by the fine artist Carlos Oswald. The French sculptor Paul Landowski was placed in charge of executing the sculpture. The cost of the monument was $250,000. It is the tallest of its kind in the world. The Statue took five years to build and is made of reinforced concrete. One has to climb about 220 steps to take a close look at the Statue


The Statue of Liberty is a huge sculpture that is located on Liberty Island in New York Harbour. The Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy. Ils formal name is Liberty Enlightening, the World. The Statue depicts a Women escaping the chains of tyrannych lie at her feet. Her right hand holds olott a burning torch that represents liberty. Her left hand holds a tablet inscribed with the date ” 4th July 1776″ in Roman numerals), the day the United States declared its independence. She is wearing flowing robes and the seven rays of her spiked crown symbolize the seven seas and continents. The Statue of Liberty is 46 m high. lis base and pedestal increase the height of the monument to 93 m The surface of the statue is composed hammered copper sheets (2.4 mm thich that are riveted to an iron framework.


The Peronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, are the to esthin build cings and office buildings in me world Eoch is 452 metres fall 11.483-having 88 storeys. Both the buildings were completed in 1998. They had been the world’s les since 1998 until 2004. In 2004, Taipei 101 in Taiwan fook over the twin buildings with a height of 509m/1,671 ft. Combined, the twin towers have 1,000,000m of floor space. Ai the 41st and 42nd levels, a skybridge connects the two towers 170m above the ground. This bridge is 58.4m long and weighs 750 tons. The whole complex was built on a former horse-racing track. The complex of the twin towers includes an art gallery, an 840-seat concert hall, and an underground parking lot. The main occupant of the buildings is Peironas, the national oil-company. The 88-floor towers are made up of reinforced concrete with a steel and glass façade which has been designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art. It is the reflection of Malaysia’s Muslim religion.


Rahast bridge, the Millau Viaduct is located in southern The bese connects the motorway from Paristo Barcelona at rrupted by River which runs through a gorge behreen to plous. The Millou aduct is an artistic and overing marvel. It Currently holds the record for having the highest pilers (the pilers rising from the ground and supporting the bridge from below). The tallest piler is 244.96 metres 803.7 feet) and the highest mast (the piler rising up from the top of the bridge and holding the suspension cables) measures 343 metres 11,125 feet) above the roadbad of the bridge. It also claims to have the highest roadbed which reaches 270 metres (885.8 feet) above the river below. However, the roadbed of the Royal Gorge Bridge in Colorado in the United States tops this with its roadbed which towers 1,053 feet (321 metres) above the river below. Based upon the height of the roadbed, the Royal Gorge Bridge is the highest in the world. In terms of the height of the mast, the Millau Viaduct is the highest in the world.


The Colosseum is probably the most impressive building of the Roman empire. Originally known Flavian Amphitheatre, it was the largest building of the era. The monu 7-umental structure has fallen into – ruins. Even today, it is an imposing and beautiful sight. Emperor Vespasian, . founder of Flavian Dynasty, started the construction of the Colosseum in AD 72. It was completed i AD 80. The emperor built the Colosseum for the fights between the gladiators and the fierce animals. The elliptical building is immense measuring 188m by 156m and reaching a height of more than 48 metres (159 ft). The Colosseum accommodated some 55,000 spectators who could enter the building through no less than 80 entrances. Above the ground are four storeys; the upper storey hac seating arrangements for lower classes and women. Games which lasted for a hundred days were held by Titus, Vespasian’s successor, to mark the inauguration of the building in AD 80.