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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry are provided here which will enhance the concepts of the students. These NCERT Solutions are provided here for all users so that they can learn online and download free as PDF for more practice during Board Exams. Moreover, these solutions will help you to make a higher score in competitive exams. We have provided the best solutions for all chapters as per latest CBSE Board Syllabus. The target is to direct individuals towards reactions-solving strategies rather than to solve questions in one prescribed format.  

We have covered the entire syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions. Chemistry is much more than the language of Science. We have made sure that our solutions reflect the same. The NCERT Solutions provide sample material to enable students to form a good base with the fundamentals of the subject. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry have been carefully designed by our team of trainers to provide students with the perfect way to solve the questions in the examinations. 

To collaborate with you, we are here to provide you with the most considerable and well-established NCERT Solutions for Class 12.  NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry are easy to understand and help you to recognise all the fundamental concepts in a better way. At EDUGROSS, students are provided chapter-wise and exercise-based solutions from all the topics in the NCERT Chemistry Book. 

A list of chapters provided in Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions free PDF

Download PDF For Free | Click On The Links Given Below

1) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 The Solid State

Solid state materials form the basis of many areas of modern science and technology, ranging from long-established materials, such as glasses and cements, to materials associated with the newer technologies, such as advanced ceramics, optoelectronics and thin film devices. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 The Solid State is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 The Solid State Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • General Characteristics of Solid State
  • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
  • Number of Atoms in a Unit Cells
  • Close Packed Structured
  • Packing Efficiency
  • Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimension
  • Imperfections in Solids
  • Electrical Properties
  • Magnetic Properties

Some important points from the chapter ‘The Solid State’ are given below-

                                Analysis of Cubical System

             Property                                           SC                     BCC                      FCC       

·         Atomic radius (r)                             a/2                    (3)1/2a/4           a/2(2)1/2

·         No. of atoms per unit cell (Z)        1                         2                            4

·         C No.                                                  6                         8                          12

·         Packing efficiency                          52%                   68%                      74%

 

2) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase. A solution consists of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent. The amount of solute that can be dissolved in solvent is called its solubility. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Types of Solutions
  • Expressing concentration of Solutions
  • Solubility
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
  • Ideal and Nonideal Solutions
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
  • Abnormal Molar Masses

Some important formula from the chapter ‘Solutions’ are given below-

  • Mass percentage of a component (w/w) = (Mass of component in solution × 100) / Total mass of solution
  • Volume percentage of a component (v/v) = (Volume of the component × 100) / Total volume of solution
  • Mole fraction of a component (x) = Number of moles of the component / Total number of moles of all components
  • Molarity = Number of moles of solute / Volume of solution in litres
  • Molality = Number of moles of solute / Mass of solvent in kilograms
  • Normality = Number of gram equivalent of solute / Volume of solution in litres
3) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Galvanic Cells
  • Nernst Equation
  • Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
  • Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Corrosion

Some important formula from the chapter ‘Electrochemistry’ are given below-

  • Nernst Equation E = E0 – (2.303RT / nF) log10 [1 / Mn+]
  • Conductance = 1/ R
  • Molar Conductance (µ) =  k × V
  • Faraday First Law of Electrolysis m = ZIt
4) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics

Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a process occurs but in itself tells nothing about its rate. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
  • Integrated Rate Equations
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
  • Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Some important formula from the chapter ‘Chemical Kinetics’ are given below-

  • A rate law expresses a mathematical relationship between the reaction rate and the molar concentration of one or more reactants.
  • Rate = dx/dt = k[A]m[B]n
  • Half-life period is the time required for the initial concentration of the reactant to be reduced to half its value.
  • For first order reaction      t1/2 = 0.693/k
  • The integrated rate equation for a first order reaction is given as:  k = 2.303/t × log10 {[A]0 / [A]t}  
5) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry

It is the study of the chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two surfaces which can be solid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-vacuum, liquid-gas, etc. There are various phenomena taking place on the surface of a substance and out of them some are : Adsorption, Heterogeneous Catalysis & Corrosion. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Adsorption
  • Catalysis
  • Colloids
  • Classification of Colloids
  • Emulsions
  • Colloids Around Us

Some important formula from the chapter ‘Surface Chemistry’ are given below-

  • In a homogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is present in the same phase as the reactants. For example-  CH3COOCH3 (aq) + H2O (aq) –> CH3COOH (aq) + CH3OH (aq)
  • In heterogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is present in a different phase than that of the reactants. For example-  2SO2(g) + O2(g) –[Pt(s)/V2O5(S)]>  2SO3(g)
  • Enzymes also called biological catalysts are proteins which catalyse the reactions in living systems. For example-  Sucrose > Glucose + Fructose
  • Lyophillic colloids(solvent loving) are those substances that directly pass into the colloidal state when brought in contact with the solvent, e.g., proteins, starch, rubber, etc.
  • These sols are quite stable because of the strong attractive forces between the particles and the, dispersion medium.
  • Lyophobic colloids(solvent hating) are those substances that do not form the colloidal sol readily when mixed with the dispersion medium. These sols are less stable than the lyophilic solution.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

The extraction and isolation of metals from ores involve the following major steps- Concentration of the ore, Isolation of the metal from its concentrated ore, and Purification of the metal. The entire scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores is known as metallurgy. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements is provided here for students to learn better and also prepare well for exams. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Occurrence of Metals
  • Concentration of Ores
  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
  • Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
  • Oxidation Reduction
  • Refining
  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

Some important points and formula from the chapter ‘General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements’ are given below-

  • Calcination involves heating the ore below its fusion temperature in the absence of air. It can remove moisture from hydrated oxide or COfrom carbonates. It makes the ore porous. For example-  CaCO3 —> CaO + CO2(g)
  • Roasting is the heating of the ore in the presence of air below its fusion temperature. For example-  2CuFeS2 + O2 —> Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2
  • Smelting involves the reduction of the ore to the molten metal at a high temperature. For the extraction of electropositive metals such as Pb, Fe, Sn, powerful reducing agent like C, H2CO, Al, Mg, etc. are used.
  • Self-reduction process are also called auto-reduction process.
  • The oxides’ of highly electropositive metals like Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, etc., are extracted by electrolysis of their oxides, hydroxides or chlorides in fused state. For example, Al is obtained by the electrolysis of alumina mixed with cryolite.
  • Refining is the process of purifying the extracted metals is called refining.
  • Chromatography is based on the principle that the different components of a mixture are adsorbed to different extents on an adsorbent.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements

Consequently, there are six groups of p–block elements in the periodic table numbering from 13 to 18. Boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and helium head the groups. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 The p-Block Element Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Group 15 Elements
  • Dinitrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Nitric Acid
  • Phosphorus — Allotropic Forms
  • Phosphine
  • Phosphorus Halides
  • Oxoacids of Phosphorus
  • Group 16 Elements
  • Dioxygen
  • Simple Oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur — Allotropic Forms
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Group 17 Elements
  • Chlorine
  • Hydrogen Chloride
  • Oxoacids of Halogens
  • Interhalogen Compounds
  • Group 18 Elements

Some important points and formula from the chapter ‘The p-Block Elements’ are given below-

PREPARATIONS-

Boron Family 
  • By electrolysis of fused mixture of boric anhydride (B2O3) and magnesium oxide (MgO) & Magnesium fluoride at 1100 0C
  1. 2 MgO  -> 2Mg + O2(g)
  2. B2O3+ 3Mg  -> 2B + 3MgO
Carbon Family
  • By heating oxides of heavy metals e.g. iron, zinc, etc with carbon.
  1. Fe2O3 + 3C ->  2Fe + 3CO
  2. ZnO + C ->  Zn + CO
  • By passing steam over hot coke: C + H2O ->  CO + H(Water gas)
  • By passing air over hot coke: 2C + O2+ 4N2  -> 2CO + 4N2 (Producer gas)
Nitrogen Family
  • 3CuO + 2NH3+ Heat -> N2 + Cu + 3H2O
  • CaOCl+ 2NH3+ Heat -> CaCl2+ 3H2O + N2
  • NH4NO2+Heat -> 3H2O + N+Cr2O3
Halogen Family 

All the three acids are reducing agents. HCl is not attacked by H2SO4.

  • 2HBr + H2SO4 -> 2H2O + SO2 + Br2 ­
  • 2HI + H2SO4 -> 2H2O + SO2 + I2
The Noble Gases

The noble gases are inert in nature. They do not participate in the reactions easily because they have

  • Stable electronic configuration i.e. complete octet
  • High ionization energies
  • Low electron affinity
8) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d- & f- Block Elements

The names transition metals and inner transition metals are often used to refer to the elements of d-and f-blocks respectively. The two series of the inner transition metals, (4f and 5f) are known as lanthanoids and actinoids respectively. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d and f Block Elements is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d- & f- Block Elements Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Position in the Periodic Table
  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
  • General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
  • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
  • The Lanthanoids
  • The Actinoids
  • Some Applications of d- and f- Block Elements

Some important points from the chapter ‘The d- & f-Block Elements’ are given below-

  • The elements lying in the middle of Periodic Table between s-block and p-block elements (i.e. between group 2 and 13) are called d-block or transition elements.
  • There are three transition series each of 10 elements.
  • First transition series involves filling of 3d-orbitals. It starts from scandium (Z = 21) and goes upto zinc (Z = 30)
  • Second transition series involves filling of 4d-orbitals. It starts from yittrium (Z=39) to cadmium (Z = 48).
  • Third transition series involves filling of 5d-orbitals. The first element of this series is lanthanum (Z = 57). It is followed by 14 elements called lanthanides which involve the filling of 4f-orbitals. The next nine elements from hafnium (Z = 72) to mercury (Z = 80) belong to third transition series.
  • The f-block elements are calledinner-transition elements.
  • Most of the transition metals are sufficiently electropositive. They react with mineral acids liberating H2
  • Transition elements and many of their compounds are paramagnetic.
9) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds are molecules that poses one or multiple metal centers that is bound to ligands (atoms, ions, or molecules that donate electrons to the metal). These complexes can be neutral or charged. When the complex is charged, it is stabilized by neighboring counter-ions. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compound is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Some important points from the chapter ‘Coordination Compounds’ are given below-

  • Two coordination compounds are called geometrical isomers, when they differ in the arrangement of their ligands in space. When two identical ligands occupy adjacent position, the isomer is called ‘cis-form’ and when they arranged opposite to one another, the isomer is called ‘trans-form’.
  • Optical isomerismshown by the chiral molecule, i.e., the molecules which do not have plane of symmetry. For example-  [Cr(ox)3]3-.
  • Linkage isomerismoccurs in complexes when an ambidentate ligand is present in the coordination sphere. For example-  [CO(NH3)5N02]2+ and [Co(NH3)5(-ONO)]2+.
  • Coordination isomerismoccurs in those complexes which are made of cationic and anionic coordination entities due to the interchange of ligands between the cation and anion entities. For example-  [CO(NH3)6] [Cr(CN)6] and [Co(CN)6] [Cr(NH3)6].
  • Ionisation isomerism, is due to the exchange of ions in coordination sphere of metal ion and the ions outside the coordination sphere. These two isomers give different ions in aqueous solution. For example-  [Co(NH3)5Br]2+S042- and [Co(NH3)5(S04)]+ Br
  • Solvate or hydrate isomerismoccurs when water is a part of coordination entity or is outside it. For example-   CrCl3-6H20 has three isomers.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes are the hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with halogen atoms. The primary difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes is that haloalkanes are derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) whereas haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalknes is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Nature of C-X Bond
  • Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes
  • Preparation of Haloarenes
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Polyhalogen Compounds

Some important points from the chapter ‘Haloalkanes and Haloarenes’ are given below-

  • Haloalkanes are classified as fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo compounds according to the type of halogen present and as mono-, di- tri-, tetra- haloalkanes, etc. According to the one, two, three, four, etc. Halogen atoms respectively present in their molecule.
  • Alkyl halides are further classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) according to the halogen atom attached to primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms, respectively.
  • Due to electronegativity difference between the carbon and the halogen, the shared pair of electron lies closer to the halogen atom. As a result, the halogen carries a small negative charge, while the carbon carries a small positive charge. Consequently, C-X bond is a polar covalent bond.
11) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols and phenols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic and aromatic respectively, is replaced by –OH group. … The subsitution of a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or aryloxy group (R–O/Ar–O) yields another class of compounds known as ‘ethers’, for example, CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether). 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Structures of Functional Groups
  • Alcohols and Phenols
  • Some Commercially Important Alcohols
  • Ethers

Some important points from the chapter ‘Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers’ are given below-

  • Alcohols and phenols may be classified as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric or polyhydric according to number of hydroxyl groups they contain one, two, three or many respectively in their molecules.
  • Primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) alcoholsare those in which as the OH group is attached to a primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atom respectively.
  • Ethers are classified as simple or symmetricalethers if the alkyl or aryl groups attached to the oxygen atom are same, and mixed or unsymmetrical ethers if the two groups are different.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

The carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond) is the key structure in these classes of organic molecules: Aldehydes contain at least one hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl carbon atom, ketones contain two carbon groups attached to the carbonyl carbon atom, carboxylic acids contain a hydroxyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
  • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Some important points from the chapter ‘Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids’ are given below-

  • The classes of organic compoundscontaining carbonyl group (CO) as the functional group are aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivates. These are collectively called carbonyl compounds.
  • Oxygen atom in carbonyl group is far more electronegative than carbon atom. As a result, the oxygen atom tends to attract the electron cloud of the π-bond towards itself, i. e., the π-electron cloud of >C = O is unsymmetrical.
    Hence carbonyl carbon acquires positive charge and carbonyl oxygen carries negative charge. Thus, the carbonyl group is polar in nature.
  • Methods of preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones:
    (a) Aldehydes and ketones are produced by controlled oxidation of primary and secondary alcohol,
    (b) Primary alcohols on dehydrogenation produce aldehydes while secondary alcohols produce ketones.
13) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines

Amines are organic compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. Structurally amines resemble ammonia in that the nitrogen can bond up to three hydrogens, but amines also have additional properties based on their carbon connectivity. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines is provided here for students to learn better and also prepare well for exams. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Structure of Amines
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Some important points from the chapter ‘Amines’ are given below-

  • Aminesare the derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by alkyl groups.
  • Amines are classified asprimary, secondary or tertiary according as one, two or three hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule have been substituted by alkyl groups.
  • Diazonium salthave the general formula RN2+ X, where R stands for an aryl group and X ion maybe Cl, Br, HSO2, BF4, etc.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules

Biomolecule, also called biological molecule, any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Vitamins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Hormones

Some important points from the chapter ‘Biomolecules’ are given below-

  • The molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6. It is prepared by boiling sucrose with dil HCl or dil H2SO4in alcoholic solution or by the hydrolysis of starch with dil H2SO4 at 393 K under pressure.
  • A pair of stereo isomeric ring forms of any sugar differing in configuration only at carbon 1 (the anomeric carbon) are calledanomers.
  • The spontaneous change that takes place in specific rotation of an optically active sugar when dissolved in water is known as 
  • The cyclic structure of glucose was proposed by R. D. Haworth. The six-membered cyclic structure of glucose is called as pyranose structure (α or β).
  • The hydrolysis of sucrose brings about a change in the sign of rotation, from dextro (+) to laevo (-). Such a change is known as inversion of sugar.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers

Polymers are materials made of long, repeating chains of molecules. The materials have unique properties, depending on the type of molecules being bonded and how they are bonded. Some polymers bend and stretch, like rubber and polyester. Others are hard and tough, like epoxies and glass. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers is provided here for students to learn better and also prepare well for exams. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Polymers
  • Types of Polymers
  • Uses of Polymers

Some important points from the chapter ‘Polymers’ are given below-

  • A polymeris a large molecule of high molecular mass formed by the repetitive bonding of many small molecules called monomers. The process by which the monomers are transformed into polymers is called polymerisation. 
  • Natural rubberis cis 1,4-polyisoprene. It is a linear 1,4-polymer of isoprene. It is manufactured from rubber latex which is a colloidal suspension of rubber in water.
  • The process of heating a mixture of raw rubber and sulphur at 373 K to 415 K is known as vulcanisation of rubber. The process of vulcanisation is accelerated by adding additives such as ZnO.
  • Biodegradable polymers: PHBV and Nylon 2- Nylon-6 are developed to minimize the environmental hazards of synthetic polymeric wastes.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry is a big part of our everyday life. One can easily observe this branch of science in different spheres of human life such as in the food we eat, the air we breathe, the various cleansing agents we use, so much so that even human emotions are sometimes a result of chemical reactions within our body. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday in Life is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. NCERT Solution Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life Download free pdf.

The list of topics from this chapter are given below-

  • Drugs and their Classification
  • Drug-Target Interaction
  • Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
  • Chemicals in Food
  • Cleansing Agents

Some important points from the chapter ‘Chemistry in Everyday Life’ are given below-

  • Antihistamines are the drugs used to treat allergy such as skin rashes.
  • Tranquilizers are the chemical compounds that are used for the treatment of stress and mental diseases. Also known as psychotherapeutic drugs.
  • Analgesics are the drugs used for relieving pain.
  • Antibiotics are the chemical substances which are produced as metabolic products by some specific organisms (bacteria, fungi and moulds) and can destroy or inhibit growth of some other micro-organisms.
  • Antiseptics are those chemical compounds that prevent the growth of micro-organism or may even kill them. For example – Dettol.
  • Disinfectants kill micro-organisms. They are not safe to be applied to living human tissues.
  • Artificial sweetness is the chemical compounds that are added to foods to make them sweet.

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