Word Meaning, Summary, Important Questions Of Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist | Class 10
Hindi Meaning Of Difficult Words | Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist
|1||Former||having previously been a particular thing.||भूतपूर्व||erstwhile, late, quondam|
|2||Astronomer||an expert in or student of astronomy.||खगोल-विज्ञानी||cosmologist, uranologist, astrochemist.|
|3||County||region||प्रदेश||province, diocese, terrain|
|4||Migrations||seasonal movement of animals from one region to another.||स्थानांतरगमन||transmigration, resettlement, rehousing|
|5||Purplish||having purple colour||थोड़ा बैंगनी||grape, magenta, majestic|
|6||Research||the systematic investigation into and study of materials||अनुसंधान||quest, scrutiny, finding|
|7||Room mate||a person occupying the same room as another.||रूम मेट||friend, mate, bedfellow|
|8||Scout||a member of the Scout Association or a similar organization||स्काउट||outrider, advance guard, vanguard|
|9||Variegated||having lines of diffirent colours||तरह तरह का||versatile, multifarious, various|
|10||Adhesive||able to stick fast to a surface or object, sticky.||चिपकने वाला||tacky, gluey, gummy|
|11||Admire||regard with respect or warm approval.||प्रशंसा||extol, exalt, compliment|
|12||Adult||fully grown||बालिग||mature, grown-up, fully-fledged|
|13||Assumed||suppose to be the case, without proof.||कल्पित||presume, suppose, take it|
|14||Basement/Caterpillar||larva of a butterfly||एक तितली का लार्वा||moth, nympha, woolly-bear|
|15||Beetle||an insect||भौंरा||bhaunra, black beetel, cockchafer|
|16||Blueprint||a design plan or technical drawing.||खाका||compages, Figuration, lay out|
|17||Canoeist||A canoeist is someone who is skilled at racing and performing tests of skill in a canoe.||केवट||ferryman, oarsman, bargee|
|18||Cells||a very minute unit of living matter||प्रकोष्ठों||dungeon, oubliette, prison|
|19||Chase||follow||पीछा||pursuit, chivy, backside|
|20||Collector||a person who collects things of a specified type, professionally or as a hobby.||एकत्र करनेवाला||representative, collection agency, customs official.|
|21||Competitive||relating to or characterized by competition.||प्रतियोगी||ruthless, merciless, aggressive|
|23||Crescent||shaped like the half moon||अर्धचन्द्राकार||demilune, semicircle, arc|
|24||Culture||a process of testing||संस्कृति||civilization, traditions, heritage|
|25||Curiosity||a strong desire to know or learn something.||जिज्ञासा||pry, demand, eagerness|
|26||Debater||a person who argues about a subject, especially in a formal manner.||विवाद करनेवाला||orator, raconteur, announcer.|
|27||Determination||firmness of purpose||दृढ़ निश्चय||resolve, pledge, solemn vow|
|28||Development||growth||विकास||evolution, maturing, expansion|
|29||Device||an instrument||युक्ति||tactics, contrivance, stratagem|
|30||Display||show||प्रदर्शन||exhibit, show, unveil|
|31||Encouraged||give support, confidence, or hope to (someone).||प्रोत्साहित||uplift, inspire, motivate|
|32||Entomology||science dealing with insects||कीटविज्ञान||insectology, historical development.|
|33||Equipment||the necessary items for a particular purpose.||उपकरण||apparatus, paraphernalia, articles|
|34||Eventually||tedious, tough, boring||फलतः||therefore, accordingly, in consequence|
|35||Excellent||surperb||अति उत्कृष्ट||transcendent, sublime, best|
|36||Excited||ecstatic||उत्साहित||thrilled, exhilarated, animated|
|37||Exhibits||manifest clearly (a quality or a type of behaviour).||प्रदर्श||reveal, manifest, betray|
|38||Fed||gave food||फेड||nourish, sustain, breastfeed|
|39||Feedback||response||प्रतिपुष्टि||response, reaction, comment|
|40||Flock||a number of birds of one kind feeding, resting, or travelling together.||झुण्ड||group, flight, congregation|
|41||Fossils||the remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rocks.||जीवाश्मों||mould, remnant, reliquiae|
|42||Gossamer-winged||having very thin wings||गोस्सामर-पंख वाले||frothy, gauzy, gossamery|
|43||Hackberry||a butterfly species||हैकबेरी||…................|
|44||Hairstreak||a butterfly species||हेयरस्ट्रेक||…...........|
|45||Heredity||the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.||वंशागति||ancestry, descent, extraction|
|46||Hormone||a substance in your body that influences growth and development||हार्मोन||estrone, insulin, steroid.|
|47||Identify||to know||पहचानना||discern, cognize, recognise|
|48||Ingredients||a component part or element of something.||सामग्री के||additive, element, factor.|
|49||Insect hormone||hormone of an insect||कीट हार्मोन||…..........|
|50||Journal||a newspaper or magazine that deals with a particular subject or professional activity.||पत्रिका||mag, serial, bookkeeping|
|51||Kindergarten||school for children||बाल विहार||babysitter, kindergarten, nursery school.|
|52||Life cycle||the series of changes in the life of an organism including reproduction.||जीवन चक्र||biorhythm, circuition, life process.|
|53||Melissa||a butterfly species||मेलिसा||…...........|
|54||Microscopes||device to see very minute objects||माइक्रोस्कोप||eyeglass, hand lens, lens.|
|55||Molecule||smallest units||अणु||particle, bit, minim.|
|56||Monarch butterflies||a large migratory orange and black coloured butterfly that occurs mainly in North America.||मोनार्क तितलियां||Danaus plexippus, milkweed butterfly.|
|57||Neat||clean||स्वच्छ||fresh, cleanly, spotless|
|58||Nucleus||the central part of an atom or of certain cells||नाभिक||core, centre, nub|
|59||Ornamental||serving or intended as an ornament; decorative.||सजावटी||attractive, pretty, artistic|
|60||Physical||relating to body||शारीरिक||bodily, corporeal, fleshly|
|61||Preventing||hindering||रोकथाम||stop, avert, fend off|
|62||Probably||perhaps||शायद||maybe, presumably, obviously|
|63||Proceedings||a published report of a set of meetings or a conference.||कार्यवाही||Chance medley, prmopt action|
|64||Pupa||early stage of a butterfly||प्यूपा||…..........|
|65||Puzzle||problems||पहेली||riddle, conundrum, enigma|
|66||Recaptured||caught again||पुनः कब्जा||reclaim, recover, retake.|
|67||Researcher||a person who carries out academic or scientific research.||शोधकर्ता||analyst, investigator, scientist.|
|68||Slides||small thin glass strips||स्लाइड्स||coast, plane, skid|
|69||Sophisticated||advanced||परिष्कृत||worldly, experienced, enlightened|
|70||Species||a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of interbreeding.||जाति||race, caste, kind|
|71||Spots||marks||स्पॉट||mark, patch, pop|
|72||Stack||a pile of objects, typically one that is neatly arranged.||ढेर||pile up, heap, dump|
|73||Starling||a gregarious Old World songbird with a straight bill||मैना||procuress, gracula religiosa, bard|
|74||String||line||तार||wire, chord, telegraph|
|75||Structure||construction||संरचना||framework, skeleton, draft|
|76||Subject||a person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with.||विषय||theme, topic, issue|
|77||Tagged||attached string||टैग||marked, stained, spotted|
|78||Tedious||too long, slow, tiresome or monotonous.||थकाऊ||boring, monotonous, dull|
|79||Telescope||device to view far away objects||दूरबीन||binoculars, lorgnette, lorikeet|
|80||Tiny||small||छोटे||small-scale, mini, baby|
|81||Tissues||mass of cells||ऊतकों||web, network, nexus|
|82||Viral||of the nature of, caused by, or relating to a virus or viruses.||वायरल||energetic, fervid, growing.|
|83||Zoology||the scientific study of the behaviour, structure, physiology, and distribution of animals.||प्राणि विज्ञान||anthropology, ecology.|
About The Poet | Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist
This lesson is an account of the achievements of the great scientist Richard H Ebright when he was a growing student. He was interested in collecting butterflies, rock fossils and coins. He had a constant support, as his father died when he was in third grade, of his mother who took him on trips and bought various things for him. His interest in science began with a failure and his later understanding of how real science is all about real experiments and not a neat display. Afterwards he experimented on various things. He won various awards and was also able to discover a hormone that monarch pupa produces for its full development. This study helped him find how cells read their DNA. He had all the other qualities also. A good speaker, debater and a photographer were more stars to his personality.
Short Summary Of Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist
Richard has all qualities that make him a true scientist. He has curiosity and a first-rate mind. He wants to win R for the right reasons. Richard had earned the honour of publishing research work of college student. The article of Richard and his friend was published in the proceedings of the National Academy of science. He was only twenty two years old at that time. Richard grew up at reading in Pennsylvania, USA. Richard’s mother was constantly with him. She encouraged him by taking him on trips and bought him telescopes and other equipment. She found work challenge him and helped him to learn a lot. Soon he started collecting things – rocks fossils and coins. He even gazed at stars. Collecting butterflies became his hobby. He became interested in the world of science after reading a book titled The Travels of Monarch X’. The book asked the readers to study butterfly migrations. Richard came in contact with the scientist Dr. Urquhart through this book, who influenced him greatly.
Richard decided to keep butterflies at home to study their migration pattern. He started catching a female monarch and takes her eggs. He watched all the stages of development of the butterfly. Later he tagged their wings and frees them. He did this for many years and raised thousands of butterflies in the basement of his home. Richard displayed his slides of frogs at the county science fair, and realized that he needed to carry out real experiments to win an award. He took suggestions from Dr. Urquhart. As a result of his many experiments, he won many prizes at the county and international science fairs in the following years.
Ebright tried to find the cause of a viral fever in his eighth grade project that kills thousand of monarch butterflies. He thought that a beetle may carry the virus that causes viral fever, he won a prize for his project. Richard experimented on viceroy butterflies. He tried to prove that viceroys copy monarchs. Viceroys do it to protect themselves from birds as birds don’t eat monarchs. The project won the first prize in the zoology division in the county science fair.
Richard did not stop there. He continued his explorations. He was curious to know the reasons behind twelve gold spots on a monarch pupa. He and his friends built a device to prove that the spots were producing a hormone necessary for its full development. The project got him first prize in the county fair. He got third prize for zoology in the international science and engineering fair.
Richard grew cells from the wings of monarch butterfly. He further proved that cells grow into scales of wings only when they were injected with the hormone from the gold spots. He carried on his work at the Army Laboratory and laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture at Harvard He returned to the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture to identify the chemical structure of hormone and there he got the idea about cell life. He believed that his study could tell how cells read their DNA. He wrote a paper explaining theory on this with his roommate James R. Wong Richard graduated with second position in a class of 1510 students. He started experimenting to prove his new theory to prevent some types of cancer and other diseases. Richard Ebright is not only a scientist but also an all founder. He is a good debater and a public speaker. He is also a photographer and an outdoors person. His social studies teacher, Richard A. Weiherer, praises him for his will to work hard, do his best and win.
The title of the story is “The Making of a Scientist” which aptly suits it as it is a journey of a student who tries to experiment and moves on to have a discovery. A scientist is not somebody who knows science but one who is curious to experiment and discover something new. Thus it is not something one may achieve in a day but a gradual process which one sees Richard Ebright undergoing.
This lesson is the journey of a scientist whose interest and pursuing the same led him to discovery and bring some great changes in the world of science. His constant hard work could fetch him great opportunities and make him win different awards. The story tries to showcase how a failure doesn’t pull one’s motivation down rather motivates the person to move further and go into the intricacies of things by following one’s passions and interests. It also reflects how a person need not be limited to a single quality but may carry different aspects of a personality. It tries to depict how education is not a product of a beautifully wrapped mind but is a picture of a messed brain which struggles to reach goals.
The lesson gives the story message that hard work always pays off. If one shows dedication, preservance and determination, success can’t be left behind. Richard was an exceptional child with rare qualities of intelligent observation and keen interest in the nature of things. The traits of his successful career were nurtured and honed during his childhood itself. These qualities are definitely desirable in every child and the curiosity should never be curbed or discouraged. Providing logical answers to the of queries goes a long way to develop a scientific way of thinking and problem solving. Children learn to analyse the things and come to logical conclusions and this is indeed the correct learning procedure.
- Richard H Ebright
He is a great scientist who has the urge to know more and more. He used to collect butterflies, rock fossils and coins. He was curious and his will to conquer for the right reasons made him successful. He is not only a scientist but a good speaker and debater too. He is an overall student.
- Richard’s mother
She played the role of both the parents as Richard’s father died when he was in third grade. She gave herself credit of being Richard’s companion only till he started school. She guided him through the initial phase of his learning and encouraged him for the same.
- Dr. Frederick A. Urquhart
He is a great name in the field of science. Richard read “The travels of Monarch X” in which the readers were asked to help the study of butterfly migrations and for the same to tag butterflies for research of Dr. Urquhart Richard participated in the same and once wrote to him for ideas on insect work. The humble and supportive scientist sent Richard a stack of suggestions which helped him achieve many county and international science fairs.
- Richard A. Weiherer
He taught Richard social studies but did not limit his teaching till there only. He was a constant guide for Richard Ebright and helped him to develop his skills He helped him to become a good speaker and debater
Former- of the past,
Cells-enclosed cavities in an organism;
Proceeding- records of activites;
Leagues-sports club group;
Fossils- petrified remains;
Monarch-a kind of butterfly;
Adhesive- apt to stick;
Tedious- energy taking,
Beetle- name of a large insect;
Starling- a bird;
Zoology-the science of animal life.
Hormone-a chemical secretion from certain glands of the body;
Entomology- scientific study of insects;
Eureka-I have found; Substances the essential part;
Heredity- natural tendency,
Molecules- minute particles;
Eventually- in the final issue;
Canoeista- person travelling in a canoe.
TYPE I: REFERENCE TO CONTEXT (VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS)
TYPE II: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS EACH)
Answer the following questions:
- Write a short note on the role of Richard’s mother in his success.
Ans. Richard’s mother considered him her world and constantly supported him in his learning. She initiated his learning and bought microscopes, telescopes and books. She even arranged trips for him which helped him to learn a lot.
- The travels of Monarch X’ proved to be a turning point in Richard’s life. How?
Ans. This book was gifted to Richard by his mother. It entered in his life when he got bored with collecting butterflies. He read about migration of butterflies and the world of science was opened to him through this book.
- Why was Richard not interested anymore in collecting butterflies?
Ans. While tagging butterflies, Richard raised thousands of them and studied their migration. He lost any interest in the same because only two of the butterflies returned and they had travelled only seventy-five miles.
- Which project was undertaken by Richard in eighth grade?
Ans. Richard tried to find the cause of a viral, which killed thousands of butterflies, under his project. He thought it was caused by the beetle which carried the virus. However, he was not able to prove it.
- List any two contributions by Ebright in the field of science.
Ans. Richard Ebright discovered the insect hormone that is instrumental in the growth of monarch pupa. Further, he contributed through his study that how cells can read the blueprint of its DNA.
- What did Mr. Weiherer say when he paid a glowing tribute to Richard?
Ans. Mr. Weiherer was not only a social studies teacher of Richard but a guide as well. He helped Richard in becoming groomed by helping him to be a good speaker and debater. He appreciated Richard for his inquisitiveness and having a will to win for the right reason. He praised his tendency to put in all the efforts in the work he did.
- How did Richard study his tagged butterflies?
Ans. Ebright wanted to study the migration of butterflies. He raised a flock of butterflies by catching female monarchs, taking their eggs and raising them in his basement through their life cycle. He would then tag the butterflies’ wings.
- What findings could Richard have from his project on birds eating monarchs?
Ans. Richard’s project was to see whether, in fact, birds would eat monarchs. He found that a starting would not eat ordinary bird food. It would eat all the monarchs it could get.
- The viceroy butterflies copy the monarch butterflies. Why?
Ans. The monarch butterflies did not taste good to the birds whereas the viceroy butterflies are a food to them. Therefore, in order to be protected from the birds, the viceroy butterflies copied the monarch butterflies.
- What project did Richard take in his senior year?
Ans. Richard moved a step further in his earlier experimentation and started to grow cells from a monarch’s wings in a culture. He then showed that these cells divide and develop into normal butterfly wing scales only if they are fed the hormone from the gold spots.
- What did Richard do after his freshman year at Harvard?
Ans. Richard went back to the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture. He worked more on the hormone from the gold spots. He was able to find the chemical structure of the hormone by working there.
- What will be the importance of Richard’s theory, if it is correct?
Ans. If his theory proves to be correct, it will help in decoding the processes of life. It might also aid in the prevention of some types of cancer and other diseases.
- What are the ingredients in the making of a scientist?
Ans. The most important thing in becoming a scientist is not only having a scientific temper but a bright mind. Besides curiosity and the will to win for right reason are the significant things to make a successful scientist.
- How did Richard earn a rare honour’?
Ans. Richard sincerely engrossed himself in research and thus earned the rare honour. His article was published in the proceedings of the National Academy of Science.
- What was the role of his mother in changing his life?
Ans. Richard’s mother constantly guided him and was a companion. She supported him in his work. He was the only son, so she spent more time with him.
TYPE III: LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (100-120 WORDS EACH)
Answer the following questions:
- Richard Ebright was a successful scientist.’ How?
Ans. Ebright was a bright student with inclination towards research in science. He tried experiments on butterflies for a science fair. In his project, in the second year of high school, he tried to explain the
purpose of twelve tiny gold spots on a Monarch pupa. He found out that those spots produced a hormone necessary for the full development of a butterfly. He continued with his experiments even after graduation using sophisticated instruments of the university. He discovered the chemical structure of the hormone. He came across his new theory of cell life. It gave an answer to one of the questions – “How a cell can read the blue print of DNA”. His success is his continuous and sincere effort. It made a difference in his life.
- Who was Richard A. Weiherer? How did he help Richard Ebright?
Ans. Richard A. Weiherer was Ebright’s social study teacher. He had a strong influence on Ebright. He was also the adviser of two clubs – debating and Model United Nations Club. He was full of ideas and opened Ebright’s mind to new ones. A. He was pleased by Ebright for putting extra effort to prepare his debate. He said, “Here was a person who put in three or four hours at night doing debate research besides doing all his research with butterflies and other interests”. Weiherer also appreciated Ebrights’ competitive spirit. He knew the caliber and enthusiasm of Ebright to excel in whatever he does.
- How did the golden spots of Monarch butterflies lead to Ebright’s great theory?
Ans. Ebright had a sharp intellect. He had keen observation and thus won prizes in county science fair on butterflies. He tried experiments on butterflies for science fairs. In his project, in the second year of high school, he tried to explain the purpose of twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa. He found out that those spots produced a hormone necessary for the full development of a butterfly. He continued with his experiments even after graduation using sophisticated instruments of the university. While looking at the X-ray photos of the chemical structure of the hormone, he came across his new theory of cell-life.
- Ebright study of monarch pupas had a far reaching impact. Elaborate.
Ans. Ebright was researching on butterflies for a long time. For a long time the scientific community had regarded the bright spots on a monarch pupa as purely ornamental. He started his experiments on the monarch pupa. He built a device with the help of another excellent students. This led to the discovery of a hormone. Richard proved that the hormone was necessary for the growth of the butterfly. This discovery got him many honours. Also it led to another important study. He began working on how cells read their DNA. DNA is the corner of heredity and is called the blueprint of life. His theory could find answer to many cancer diseases. His inquisitive and never to die faith won him stature of a scientist.
- Dr. Urquhart played a vital role in helping Ebright to become a scientist. Elaborate.
Ans. Richard was enthusiastic child who was eager to learn yet he became bored of collecting butterflies. His mother got him a book on the migration of butterflies. Richard came in contact with Dr. Urquhart through the book. Dr, Urquhart directed him to study the migration pattern of butterflies.
When he did not win any prize in the science fair in seventh grade, he again wrote to Dr. Urquhart to guide him. The scientist gave him many suggestions for new experiments. Richard performed these experiments throughout his high school and won many prizes. Motivated by Dr. Urquhart, he worked on why bright spots are found on a monarch pupa. It led to the discovery of a new hormone. The discovery of the new hormone further led to discovery of an important theory. The theory was about how cells can read their DNA. In this way, Dr. Urquhart proved to be his true mentor.
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE
- What was Richard Ebright’s hobby?
- How did Ebright’s mother help him?
- What did Ebright decide to find for his eighth grade project?
- ‘Richard Ebright was a true scientist and great human being.’ Elucidate.
- Richard Ebright was a born scientist.’ Justify the statement.