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Word Meaning, Summary, Important Questions Of Chapter 1 The Last Lesson | Class 12

Chapter 4 A Thing of Beauty

Hindi Meaning Of Difficult Words | Chapter 1 The Last Lesson

S.No.WordMeaningsMeanings (in hindi)Synonyms
1Sawmilla factory for cutting woodयंत्र से लकड़ी चीरने का कारख़ानाlumber mill
2Drillingexercisingअभ्यासpractice, training
3Temptingattractingआकर्षकseductive, absorbing, nice looking
4Resist to stay awayअप्रभावित रहनाbypass, escape
5bulletin-boarda notice board for putting up the latest news and communicationबुलेटिन बोर्डnotice board, ebb
6Apprenticetraineeशिक्षुlearner, probationer, novice
7a great bustlea lot of noise created by many peopleएक बड़ी हलचलrush, scuttle
8in unisonat the same timeएक सुर मेंsimultaneously
9rappingstrikingमारनाkill, hit, pummel
10counted ondepended uponभरोसा करनाremain, bank on, confide in
11commotionnoise and confusionहल्ला गुल्लाballyhoo, blaring, clamour
12Blushedface turned red in colour due to shameशरमानाabash, scruple, be shy
13Solemnserious.गंभीरgrave, deep, sedate
14Primerbasic reader of any languageप्रथम पुस्तकheader, inlet
15Thumbedtorn and damagedबिगड़ा हुआdefaced, deteriorated, rusty
16Gesture a signalइशाराpointing, steer, sign
17Thunderclapused in comparison to refer to something startling or unexpectedवज्रपातthunderbolt, wallop
18Wretcheshere, it refers to an unfortunate happeningबेचाराunblessed, unhappy, unlucky
19Saara river which passes through Franceसार…………
20Nuisanceproblem, burdenबाधाobstacle, handicap, obstruction
21Crankystrange, short – temperedचिड़चिड़ाill-tempered, nervous, irritable
22Sunday clothesthe best dress that a person has.रविवार के कपड़े……………
23Dreadfulfrighteningभयानकterrible, eerie, dire
24mixed upconfusedमिश्रितmuddled, perplexed
25Pretendshowto ढोंग करनाprofess, dissimulate
26reproachblameदोषारोपणdenunciation, diatribe, incrimination
27beetles a large sized insectबीट्लसscurry, rush
28Cooed the sound made by the pigeonsगुटरगूँ………..
29Gazinglooking intentlyदेखते हुएstare, ogle, gloat
30twinedtwistedलिपटा हुआwrapped, clad
31Trumpetsa musical instrument.तुरहियांbugle, brass wind
32Chokedbecame unable to speak due to strong emotionsसांस रुकने की स्थितिgasp, block

About The Poet | Alphonse Daudet | Chapter 1 The Last Lesson

Alphonse Daudet is a French author, famous for his short stories and novels that depict realism, human sentiments and humour in a simple way. “The Last Lesson”, one of his best-known stories, is a story about national pride, the significance of education and how education is a privilege for some. The story emphasises on not taking education for granted. It is a powerful story with contemporary approach which is weaved in a simple narrative.

Short Summary Of Chapter 1 The Last Lesson In English

The narrator of the story is a little school boy Franz. The story opens with Franz being late for the school on a beautiful warm morning. He was scared that his teacher M. Hamel would scold him because he was late and had not learned his French lesson on participles. As it was a beautiful day, he was tempted to run away from school and spend it outdoors but he decides to go to school finally On his way to school, he passed through the town hall, there he saw a crowd gathered around a bulletin board. In the past, all the bad news had come from that board during the war. Franz wondered what the news was, this time but hurried to school.

When Franz reached school, unlike other days there was an unusual silence. He hurried towards his classroom. Franz was surprised to see that everybody was already in their seats and the last benches were occupied by the elders of the village and all of them looked sad.

  1. Hamel also seemed kinder than usual. He was dressed in his special clothes which he wore only on special occasions. As Franz sat wondering about what was happening, M. Hamel announced that it was his last French class. There had been an order from Berlin that only German would be taught in schools of Alsace and Lorraine. After this announcement Franz was overcome with feelings

of regret for he had wasted his time in petty things. M. Hamel tells everybody that French is a very beautiful language. He further added that they would be made fun of by people for calling themselves French because they could not write or speak their own language.

Then M. Hamel asked Franz to recite the rules of participles but he was very kind when Franz was unable to recite the rules. He also remarked that many parents preferred to send their children to work rather than to school. As the class progressed M. Hamel taught the grammar for the last time very patiently followed by writing lesson. The elders came to show their respect towards M. Hamel for his hard work and dedication of forty years.

At twelve, the church bell struck and it was the end of their last lesson. M. Hamel was filled with strong emotions and wrote on blackboard, Vive La France!- Long live France!

Important Previous Year Questions From Chapter 1 The Last Lesson

  1. How is the mother tongue important t8 person? What does M. Hamel, the teacher say about it? (2020)
  2. What tempted Franz to stay away from school? (Delhi 2014)
  3. Why were the elders of the village sitting in the classroom? (AI 2014)
  4. What words did M. Hamel write on the blackboard before dismissing the last class ? What did they mean ? (Delhi 2014 C)
  5. What made M. Hamel cry towards the end of this last lesson? (AI 2014 C)
  6. What was unusual about M. Hamel’s dress on his last day in the school? (AI 2014 C)
  7. How did Franz react to the declaration that it was their last French lesson? (Delhi 2013)
  8. “What a thunderclap these words were to me!” What were the words that shocked and surprised the narrator? (Delhi 2013)

 

  1. What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why? (Delhi 2013)
  2. What was the order from Berlin and what changes did it cause in the school? (AI 2013)
  3. What changes did the order from Berlin cause in the school ? (Delhi 2012)
  4. How did M. Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town ? (AI 2012)
  5. What was Franz expected to be prepared with for the school that day? (Delhi 2011)
  6. What had been put up on the bulletin board? (Delhi 2011)
  7. Who did M. Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz?

(Delhi 2011)

  1. Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” What does this tell us about the attitude of the Frenchmen (AL 2011)
  2. “What a thunderclap these words were me!” – Which were the words that shoes and surprised Franz? (AI 2011)

SA II (3 marks)

  1. Why were the old men of the village sitting in the classroom on the last day of the lesson? (AI 2019)
  2. Who did M. Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz? (Delhi 2019
  3. Why was Franz not scolded for reaching the school late that day? (Delhi 2015)
  4. Who occupied the back benches in the class room on the day of the last lesson ? Why (Delhi 2015) 22. Why did M. Hamel write ‘Vive La France on the blackboard? (Delhi 2015)
  5. “We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with,” said M. Hamel. Comment. (Delhi 2015)
  6. Whom did M. Hamel blame for Frana inability to answer his questions? (Delhi 2015)
  7. How did M. Hamel display his love for the French language? (Delhi 2015)

LAI (6 marks)

  1. The order from Berlin created a gred enthusiasm in the school. Comment. (2020)
  2. Our language is part of our culture and wz are proud of it. Describe how regretful M. Hamel and the village elders are for having neglected their native language, French. (Delhi 2016)
  3. Our native language is part of our culture and we are proud of it. How does the presence of village elders in the classroom and M.Hamel’s last lesson show their love for French ? (AI 2016)
  4. The entire classroom, M. Hamel as well as those present in the class, is full of regret. For what and why? (Foreign 2016)
  5. Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. Comment. (AI 2015)
  6. The order from Berlin aroused a particular zeal in the school. Comment. (Foreign 2015)

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Answer Of Chapter 1 The Last Lesson ​ For The Above Questions

  1. Mother tongue is important because it is first and foremost that unites people and gives them an identity and it is their strength, key to freedom in times of enslavement. M. Hamel was a patriot and regarded mother tongue to be a means of holding one’s identity and self-respect.
  2. Franz was tempted to stay away from school because he was running late, he had not revised his lessons on participles and was dreading a scolding from his teacher, M. Hamel. Moreover, it was a warm, bright day, the birds were chirping at the edge of the woods. The Prussian soldiers were drilling in the open field at the back of the sawmill. Altogether, the outdoor seemed more interesting to Franz than going to school.
  3. The elders of the village were sitting in the classroom to attend the last French lesson by M. Hamel. They were there not only to pay their respect to M. Hamel, but also to their country and mother tongue that was perhaps being taught for the last time in the village.
  4. Before dismissing the last class, M. Hamel wrote “Vive La France!” on the blackboard. The French expression means “Long Live France”
  5. Towards the end of the class, M. Hamel cried because he was deeply saddened by the thought that France was no longer a free country. Alsace and Lorraine had been occupied by the Germans and from now on his beloved language French would not be taught in the schools.
  6. On his last day in the school, M.Hamel put on his beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and a silk cap. It was an attire he would wear on important occasions.
  7. German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. He wished that he hadn’t spent so much time in trivial pursuits like seeking birds eggs, or going sliding in the Saar. The books that seemed such a nuisance earlier appeared like old friends now.
  8. The narrator was shocked and surprised to hear from M. Hamel that it was going to be their last French lesson. The order had been sent from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine and the new teacher was expected to arrive the very next day.
  9. M. Hamel said that the French was the most beautiful language in the world-the clearest and the most logical
  10. He asked the students and the village elders to gu it and never forget because it would give them a cultural identity, a sense of freedom and would also help them to remain united.
  11. The order from Berlin was to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. As this was going to be his last day at the school M. Hamel had put on his best clothes, which he wore only on special occasions, The whole school A seemed so strange and solemn. On the back benches that were always empty, the elderly village people were sitting quietly with a sad visage. Some of them were even crying. The students paid a great deal of attention during their last French lesson, even the little ones. Most affected was M. Hamel. Although he taught every lesson with dedication, he looked sombre and pensive with tears in his eyes.
  12. Refer to answer 10.
  13. M. Hamel announced in the class that it was going to be the last French lesson. He regretted not being stricter when there was enough time to teach French. He asked everybody to preserve their language, French, since it was the most beautiful of all languages. He also said that their language was the key to their freedom. At last, he stood up on his chair to say something. However, his melancholy made him choke. So, instead, he wrote “Vive La France!” on the blackboard and making a gesture with his hand, he said, “School is dismissed, you may go.”
  14. Franz was expected to be prepared with the rules of participles for the school that day.
  15. There was an order from Berlin that only German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace
  16. and Lorraine
  17. M. Hamel blamed the pupils, their parents and to quite an extent, himself too for the neglect of learning French Everybody, at some point of time, thought that there was still time to learn the language
  18. It shows the pitiable state of the Frenchmen. They feared the German atrocity. They thought that they would be forced to learn and read German and no one will be spared
  19. M. Hamel announced in the class that this would be the last French lesson he would be teaching them. He disclosed that an order had come from Berlin. All the schools of Alsace and Lorraine would now teach only German. The new teacher was to come the next day. The news left everyone shocked and grieved.
  20. The village people, including the former Mayor, the former postmaster, old Hauser and several others, occupied the back benches in the classroom on the day of the last lesson. They had come to pay respect to the teacher, M. Hamel for his faithful service and also to the country that was no longer theirs. Being present for the last lesson was an opportunity for everybody to bid farewell to their mother tongue and also to rid the conscience of the guilt of not having learnt the language when there was still time.
  21. Refer to answer 15.
  22. On reaching the school late that day, Franz was not scolded because the atmosphere in the school was sombre; order had come from Berlin that German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine from now on. Everyone, was sad that it was going to be their last French lesson.
  23. Refer to answer 18.
  24. M. Hamel wrote ‘Vive La France!’ on the blackboard because of the love for his country It could also be considered as an expression of rebellion against imposition of the German.
  25. M. Hamel blamed himself, the students and the parents of his students for neglecting the study of French language. They had all needlessly postponed the learning. He himself had sent his students to water his flowers and sometimes gave them a holiday when he had wanted to go fishing
  26. M. Hamel blamed the students, their parents and to some extent, himself too for Franz inability to answer his questions. M.Hamel expressed his deep regret that for various reasons, especially thinking that there was plenty of time to learn. studying French was not given due importance by the adults, let alone the children.
  27. M. Hamel taught French for last forty years Knowing that his students and the village elders would never again learn a word of French, M Hamel wanted to teach them everything in the last class. According to him, French was the most beautiful language in the world. It was the clearest and the most logical language. M. Hamel wanted the French people to preserve it as it would help them to be free from the foreign rule. Before ending his last French lesson, M. Hamel wrote “Vive La France!” on the board.
  28. The order from Berlin had stopped the teaching of the French language in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This shocking development suddenly aroused a great deal of enthusiasm in the school. When the order had come from Berlin that thenceforth only German would be taught in schools, people were awaken to the fact that they might not get to learn their mother tongue again. The villagers regretted that they wasted the opportunities given to them for learning French while they could. With this remorse they turned up in full strength for the last lesson. To show their affection for the language many elderly people came, occupying the last benches, which had usually remained vacant earlier. M Hamel, the French teacher, changed his behavior from being a cranky and strict teacher to that of a very kind person, as it would be his last lesson. He also taught with more understanding and patience. Everyone paid great attention to the last lesson.
  29. M. Hamel blames himself and the natives for neglecting their native language, French. He laments that the village elders and he himself too, did not give much importance to learning French. On many occasions, he gave the students holiday because he wanted to go fishing. He even asked the students to water his flowers.
  30. Hamel also found fault with the parents who sent their children to work instead of making them attend school. The village elders too were regretful. On the last day of the French lesson, they all sat silently crying on the back benches of the classroom. They came to learn French from M. Hamel and expressed their sadness and regret they felt in their heart. A deeply disheartened M.Hamel appealed to the class that they hold fast to French, their language, a key to their freedom.
  31. The order from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine left a deep impact on M. Hamel as well as the villagers. Everybody was extremely hurt by the announcement because it meant that they could no longer teach, learn or speak in their native language, French. This made the last lesson, taught by M. Hamel, all the more significant and memorable. The village people who always neglected learning French felt sorry for not having gone to school more often. M. Hamel too expressed regret for not having been stricter with his students when there was still time. On the day of the last French lesson, amidst the strange solemnity, the students and the village elders present in the classroom listened to M. Hamel quite attentively. While he carried on with the lesson, he appealed to everyone to preserve French not only because it was the most beautiful language in the world, but also because holding on to their mother tongue would always keep them united. Before the class ended, overwhelmed by emotions, M. Hamel wrote ‘Vive La France on the blackboard to express his undying love for French
  32. Refer to answers 27 and 28
  33. Refer to answers 27 and 28.
  34. The order from Berlin, to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine from now on, aroused a particular zeal in the school on the day of the last French lesson.
  35. The air that day, was mixed with pride and sorrow. Students as well as elderly members of the village came to attend the class. The ambiance was quite sombre as the children were serious and some of the elders, sitting at the back benches, were crying. M. Hamel, who was dressed in his best attire, appeared to be in a pensive mood. His students and the village elders too paid great attention to everything that was being taught in the class. They hoped to learn as much as possible. Even Franz seemed to love his books. M. Hamel told those present in the class to hold on to French as was the most beautiful language in the world. He said that their mother tongue was the key to their freedom.
  36. A feeling of oneness and immense love and respect for the mother tongue showed on everyone’s face. The class ended with M. Hamel writing Vive La France!’ on the board.

 

 

 

 

 

For more chapters word meanings click on the links given below.

Prose

Poem

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