NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology is one of the best learning guides students can use for their exam preparation. It covers important questions with comprehensive answers. Furthermore, all solutions are presented in an easy-to-understand format. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology is a very crucial study material and one of the most important factors which contribute a lot in achieving higher marks in Class 11 examinations. Also, solutions of Class 11 play a very important part in competitive exams like JEE and NEET.
These solutions have been designed by our team of professionals to help students grab deep concepts with minimum stress and maximum interest. These solutions explain all the important concepts such as Biological Classification, Animal and Plant Kingdoms, Morphology, Structural Organization, Biomolecules, Cell Division, Transport in Plants, Nutrition, Photosynthesis in the easiest way possible. NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology pdf download for free and access the contents offline as well.
In most cases, students read a concept and try to memorize it. They might not even understand the topic properly. This is where NCERT Solutions for Class Biology comes in light – the most accurate answers are redesigned into a method that makes these solutions very simple to understand and easy to remember. The study material provided here is designed by a team of highly skilled teachers.
A list of chapters provided in Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions free pdf
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1) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. This chapter explains fundamental concepts like Diversity in the Living World, Taxonomic Categories, Taxonomical Aids, etc. The living world varies from place to place. Millions of animals, insects and a lot more creatures have been discovered and still countless of them are yet to be discovered. The taxonomic studies of different varieties of plants and animals are beneficial in agriculture, forestry, industry and also for our general knowledge.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- What is living?
- Need for Classification
- Three domains of life
- Taxonomy and systematics
- Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy
- Binomial nomenclature
- Tools for study of taxonomy
- Zoological parks
- Botanical gardens
- Keys for identification
Some important points in ‘The Living World’ are as follows-
- Species are the natural population of individuals or a group of population which resemble one another in all essential (morphological and reproductive) characters so that they are able to interbreed freely and produce fertile offspring.
- Genus is a group of related species which resemble one another in certain correlated characters. All species of genus presumed to have evolved from a common ancestor. For example – Lion, Tiger, Leopard are closely related species and placed in same genus i.e. Panther.
- Family is a taxonomic category that contains one or more related genera. All genera of a family share a few common features or correlated characters.
- Order is the category which includes one or more related families.
- A class is made up of one or more related orders.
- The term phylum is used for animals whereas the term division is used for plants.
- Phylum/Division are formed of one or more class.
- Kingdom is the highest in taxonomic category. For example – all plants are included in the kingdom ‘Plantae’ while all animals belong to the kingdom ‘Animalia’.
- Herbarium is a place where dried plants specimens are mounted on sheets and kept systematically according to a widely accepted system of classification. The herbarium sheets carry a label providing its information.
- Botanical garden are specialized gardens having a wide collection of living plants for reference purpose.
- Plants in botanical gardens are grown for identification purpose and plants are labelled indicating its scientific name and family.
- Some of the famous botanical gardens-
- Royal Botanical Garden, Kew (London)
- Indian Botanical Garden, Kolkata
- National Botanical Garden, Lucknow
2) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. In this chapter, we will study the characteristics of Kingdoms Monera, Protista, and Fungi of the Whittaker system of Classification. The Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia, also known referred to as plant and animal kingdoms, respectively, You will also learn about Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia, Viruses, Viroids, and Lichens.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Five kingdom Classification
- Salient features and Classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups
Some important points in ‘Biological Classification’ are as follows-
- Two kingdom : Plantae Animalia
- Three kingdom : Plantae Protista Animalia
- Five kingdom : Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animaila
- Two kingdom system of classification was proposed by Linnaeus( father of taxonomy), in which organisms are grouped on the basis of presence and absence of cell wall.
- Three kingdom systems was proposed by Haeckel who separated unicellular animals, algae and fungi on the basis of lack of tissue differentiation. As a result of which, new kingdom ‘Protista’ was introduced.
- Five kingdom systems was proposed by R.H.Whittaker who divided all the organisms into five kingdoms in order to develop phylogenetic classification.
3) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. In this chapter, we will study into detail with Classification within the Kingdom Plantae or the ‘plant kingdom’. Also, you will learn some of the more concepts like Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycles, and Alternation of Generations.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Reproduction in Bryophytes
- Numerical Taxonomy
- Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
- Classification up to Class, characteristic features and examples
Some important points in ‘Plant Kingdom’ are as follows-
- Plantae is a taxonomic group that includes land plants and green algae.
- Vegetative Reproduction in Algae is carried out by fragmentation.
- Algae are divided into following classes-
- Asexual Reproduction is carried out by flagellated zoospores in Chlorophycease, biflagelated zoospores in Phaeophycease and by non-motile spores in Rhodophycease.
- Sexual Reproduction in Algae is carried out by isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous in Chlorophycease and Phaeophycease.
4) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. When we look in our surroundings, we see various animals with a lot more different structures and forms. More than a million species of various creatures have been described until now, the Classification have become the necessity for research. The Classification also helps in providing a systematically arranged position to newly discovered species. It also teaches more topics such as Basis of Classification, Classification of Animals, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Salient features and Classification of animals
- Non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to Class level
Some important points in ‘Animal kingdom’ are as follows-
- The animals in which developing embryo has a third germinal layer- Mesoderm besides Ectoderm and Endoderm are called triploblastic. For example- Platyhelminthes, Chordates.
- Incomplete digestive system has one opening while complete digestive system has two opening i.e. mouth and anus.
- In open circulatory system, blood is pumped out of heart and cells and tissue are directly bathed in it.
- Millions of animal species have been discovered and therefore, it becomes more necessary to classify them in order to assign a systematic position.
- Animals are classified on the basis of arrangement of cells, symmetry of body, nature of coelom, digestive pattern, circulatory and reproductive system.
- In closed circulatory system, blood is circulated through arteries, veins and capillaries.
- Coelom is the body cavity which is lined by mesoderm and the animals possessing coelom are called coelomate. For example- Annelida, Chordates and Mollusca.
5) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. This Chapter contains detailed and easily understandable explanations about the possible variations in different parts, found as adaptations of the plants to their environment, e.g. adaptions to various habitats, for protection, climbing, storage. It also provide the accurate and reliable explanation to the topics such as the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed, semi-technical description of a typical flowering plant, detail of some important families, and more.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Morphology and modifications Morphology of different parts of flowering plants root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed.
- Description of families Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae
Some important points in ‘Morphology of Flowering Plants’ are as follows-
- Knowledge of morphology is necessary for identification of plants.
- Morphology of flowering plants give information about the range of variations found in species.
- Morphology is that branch of biological science which deals with the study of form, size, colour, structure and relative position of various parts of organisms.
- All the flowering plants have-
- The underground parts of flowering plant form the root system while the portion above the ground forms the shoot system.
- Simple leaf are those leaves which have a single or undivided lamina. Example- Mango, Guava, etc.
- Phyllotaxy is the pattern of arrangement of leaves on the stem or branch.
- Alternate type of Phyllotaxy – single leaf arise at each node as in China rose.
- Opposite type of Phyllotaxy – a pair of leaves arise from each node opposite to each other as in Guava.
- Whorled type of Phyllotaxy – more than two leaves arise at a node and form a whorl as in Alstonia.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. This chapter explains about the internal structure and functional organization of higher plants. Anatomy can be defined as the study of the internal structure of plants. Cells are the basic unit of plants and are organized into tissues and in turn, the tissues are organized into various parts of the plant. The monocots and dicots are anatomically different in angiosperms. Internal structures also show adaptations to different surroundings. It includes topics such as The Tissues, The Tissue System, Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants, Secondary Growth and more.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems in dicots and monocots.
- Secondary growth
Some important points in ‘Anatomy of Flowering Plants’ are as follows-
- Meristematic tissue – Simple tissue composed of group of similar and immature cells which can divide to form new cells.
- Apical meristem – the meristem which occurs at tips of roots and shoots.
- Primary xylem is of two types-
- In plants, this type of primary xylem is called endarch in which Protoxylem lies in centre and Metaxylem towards periphery.
- In roots, this type of primary xylem is called exarch in which Protoxylem lies in periphery and Metaxylem lies towards the centre.
- albuminous cells and sieve cells in gymnosperms lack sieve tube and companion cells.
- The outermost layer of dicot root is epidermis which contain unicellular root hairs.
- The cortex consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells.
- The cambial ring becomes active and begins to cut off new cells, both towards the inner and the outer sides.
- The cells which are cut off towards the pith mature into secondary xylem.
- The cells which are cut off towards the periphery mature into secondary phloem.
- Secondary growth takes place in stems and roots of gymnosperms.
- No secondary growth occurs in monocots.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. In the preceding chapters, we came across a large variety of organisms, both unicellular and multicellular, of the animal kingdom. In unicellular organisms, all functions like digestion, respiration and reproduction are performed by a single cell. In the complex body of multicellular animals, the same basic functions are carried out by different groups of cells in a well-organized manner. All complex animals consist of only four basic types of tissues. These tissues are organized in specific locations to form organs – such as the stomach, lung, heart and kidney.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Animal tissues
- Morphology, Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect-cockroach
Some important points in ‘Structural Organisation in Animals’ are as follows-
- The simple epithelium is composed of single layer of cells. They function as lining of body cavities, ducts and tubes.
- The compound epithelium consists of two or more layers of cells. It has protective function.
- The squamous epithelium is comprised of single layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries.
- Squamous epithelium are present in lining of blood vessels and air sacs of lungs.
- Cuboidal epithelium is made up of single layered cube-like cells. They are found in ducts of glands and tubular part of nephron of kidney for absorption and secretion purpose.
- Columnar epitheliums are made up of tall and slender cells whose nuclei are located at the base.
- Glandular epithelium are the columnar and cuboidal epithelium which are specialized for secretion.
- Glandular epithelium may be unicellular as in goblet cells of alimentary canal or multicellular as in salivary gland.
- Loose Connective Tissues includes areolar tissue and adipose tissue.
- Specialized connective tissues are cartilage, bones and blood.
- Blood is fluid connective tissue which is comprised of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
- Blood helps in the transportation of various substances throughout the body.
- Pheretima and Lumbricus are the common Indian Earthworms.
- Cockroaches are pests which destroys the food by contaminating it with smelly excreta.
- Fertilisation is external and takes place in water.
8) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell : The Unit of Life
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. When we see in our surroundings, we see both living and non-living things. There is a question that is – “What’s that which makes an organism living?” or “What is it that an inanimate object does not have which a living thing has?” The answer to this question is the existence of the fundamental unit of life – the cell in all living organisms. Every organism is composed of cells. Some of them are made up of a single cell and are called unicellular organisms.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell : The Unit of Life Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life
- Structure of prokaryotic cells
- Structure of eukaryotic cells
- Plant cell
- Animal cell
- Cell envelope
- Cell membrane
- Cell wall
- Cell organelles – structure and function
- Endomembrane system
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi bodies
Some important points in ‘Cell : The Unit of Life’ are as follows-
- Cytology is the study of form, structure and composition of cell.
- Cell is said to be the structural and functional unit of life.
- Single cell performs all the essential functions of life in unicellular organism like amoeba, paramecium, yeast & bacteria.
- Different kinds of tissues perform different function and have division of labour.
- Anton Von Leeuwenhoek first described a live cell but later, Robert Brown discovered the nucleus.
- Metthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann(1938) proposed the cell theory which was later modified by Rudolf Virchow(1855).
9) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. This chapter include the concepts of Biomacromolecules, Proteins, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Structure of Proteins, Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer, Dynamic State of Body Constituents – Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis for Living, The Living State, Enzymes, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Chemical constituents of living cells
- Structure and function of proteins
- Nucleic acids
- Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action
Some important points in ‘Biomolecules’ are as follows-
- Chemicals (or molecules) present in the living organism are known as biomolecules.
- Biomolecules are categorized into two types- inorganic and organic.
- Inorganic biomolecules include minerals, gases and water.
- Organic biomolecules include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins.
- Aldehydes, ketones and aromatic compounds are classified as chemical forms.
- The amino acids, nucleotides and fatty acids can be classified as biochemical forms.
- Macromolecules are formed by polymerization of sub-units called monomers. [Exception – lipids]
- Polysaccharides are infact long chain of sugar containing different monosaccharaides as a building block.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. This chapter provide a detailed explanation about Cell Cycle, M Phase, Significance of Mitosis, Meiosis, Significance of Meiosis, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Cell cycle
- Mitosis and their significance
- Meiosis and their significance
Some important points in ‘Cell Cycle and Cell Division’ are as follows-
- Cell cycle is the sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its genome, synthesizes the other constituents of cells and eventually divides into two daughter cells.
- Synthesis of DNA occurs in one specific stage of cell division while distribution of chromosome in cells occurs in complex series of events during cell division.
- During synthesis phase, amount of DNA get doubles per cell as the replication or synthesis of DNA takes place.
- Protein is synthesized in preparation for mitosis during G2 phase .
- Some cells of adult animals do not divide or may divide occasionally.
- In animals, mitotic division is present in only somatic diploid cells.
- In plants, mitotic division is seen in both haploid and diploid cells.
- The division of cytoplasm of a cell after karyokinesis (division of chromosome) into two daughter cells is termed as cytokinesis.
11) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. This chapter gives you an in-depth understanding of the concepts about Means of Transport, Plant-Water Relations, Long Distance Transport of Water, Transpiration, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, Phloem, Transport Flow from Source to Sink, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Movement of water, gases and nutrients
- Cell to cell transport
- Facilitated diffusion
- Active transport
- Plant-water relations
- Water potential
- Long-distance transport of water
Some important points in ‘Transport in Plants’ are as follows-
- Translocation through mass flow is the long distance transport that occurs through vascular system, xylem and phloem.
- In case of water, the direction of translocation is unidirectional and in minerals and organic solutes, it is multidirectional.
- Unlike the hydrophilic solutes, lipid soluble particles easily pass through cell membrane.
- Movable carrier proteins are called pumps in active transport.
- Water is essential for all physiological activities of plants because it provides medium for most substances to dissolve in it.
- Protoplasm of cells contains water dissolved and suspended with different molecules.
- The shrinkage of the cytoplasm of the cell away from its cell wall under the influence of hypertonic solution is termed as plasmolysis.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. This chapter is all about inorganic plant nutrition, where you will also learn the methods to identify elements which are necessary for the growth and development of plants and the criteria for establishing the essentiality. You will also study the function of the essential substance, their major deficiency symptoms and the absorption mechanism of all essential elements. The chapter also gives introduction to the significance and the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Essential minerals
- Macro and micronutrients and their role
- Deficiency symptoms
- Mineral toxicity
- Elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition
- Nitrogen Metabolism
- Nitrogen cycle
- Biological nitrogen fixation
Some important points in ‘Mineral Nutrition’ are as follows-
- Hydroponics methods is used for commercial production of vegetables like tomato and cucumber.
- Macronutrients are present in plants tissues in larger quantity while micronutrients (or trace nutrients) are required in very small quantity.
- Nitrogen- required by plants in greatest amount, it is absorbed by plants as NO2–, NO3– and NH4+ . It is one of the major constituent of proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.
- Phosphorus- Absorbed by plants from soil in the form of phosphate ions. It is the constituent of cell membrane. All nucleic acids and nucleotides require phosphorus.
- Potassium is absorbed as potassium ions (K+).
- Calcium is absorbed by plants from soil in form of Calcium ions (Ca2+).
- Magnesium is absorbed by plants in form of Mg2+ ions.
- Sulphur is obtained by plants in form of sulphate (SO42-).
- Iron is obtained in the form of ferric iron (Fe3+).
- Manganese is absorbed in form of Mn2+ ions.
- Zinc is obtained as Zn2+ ions.
- Copper is absorbed as cupric ions(Cu2+).
- Boron is absorbed as BO33- or B4O72- ions.
- Chlorine is absorbed in form of Cl– ions.
13) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 is provided here for students so that they can have a better understanding of the chapter. All animals, including human beings, are dependent on plants for their food. Green plants carry out ‘photosynthesis’, a physicochemical process which needs light energy, to produce the synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is important because of two reasons, first one is that it forms the basis for all known food chains in the world and second one is that it is also responsible for the production of oxygen by green plants. This chapter explains about the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and the various reactions that convert light energy into chemical energy.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition
- Site of photosynthesis
- Pigments involved in photosynthesis
- Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
- Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
- Chemiosmotic hypothesis
- C3 and C4 pathways
- Factors affecting photosynthesis
Some important points in ‘Photosynthesis in Higher Plants’ are as follows-
- Joseph Priestley in 1770 showed the essential role of air in growth of green plants. He discovered Oxygen gas in 1774.
- Julius Von Sachs, in 1854, discovered that green part in plants produces glucose which is stored as starch.
- T.W.Engelmann (1843-1909) discovered the effect of different wavelength of light on photosynthesis (action spectrum).
- Light reaction is the reaction in which light energy is absorbed by grana to synthesis ATP and NADPH.
- Dark reaction is a light-independent process in which sugar molecules are formed from the carbon dioxide and water molecules. It occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
- RuBP carboxylase – RuBisCO
- Reduction – It is the series of reaction that leads to formation of glucose.
- The generation of RuBP molecules for the continuation of cycle is known as regeneration and the whole process require one molecules of ATP.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. This chapter explains about cellular respiration or the mechanism of breakdown of food materials within the cell to release energy and the trapping of this energy for the synthesising ATP. This chapter also provide the explanation for topics such as glycolysis, the respiratory balance sheet, fermentation, aerobic respiration, amphibolic pathway and respiratory quotient.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Cellular respiration
- TCA cycle
- Electron transport system
- Energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated
- Amphibolic pathways
- Respiratory quotient
Some important points in ‘Respiration in Plants’ are as follows-
- Living organism require energy for all activities like absorption, movement, reproduction and breathing.
- Breaking down of complex molecules takes place to produce energy in cytoplasm and mitochondria.
- The mechanism of breaking down of food materials within the cell to release energy for synthesis of ATP is called Cellular respiration.
- Respiration is the breaking down of C-C bond of complex compounds in cells through oxidation leading to release of energy. The compounds that get oxidized are known as respiratory substrates.
- ATP is called energy currency of cells becaues energy released during oxidation is not used directly but utilized in synthesis of ATP which is broken down when energy is required.
- Oxygen is required for the process of respiration. Oxygen is taken in by stomata, lenticels and root hairs in plants.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. This chapter is all about the Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Seed germination
- Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate and conditions of growth
- Differentiation – Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation
- Sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell
- Growth regulators
- Seed dormancy
- Photoperiodism and Vernalisation
Some important points in ‘Plant Growth and Development’ are as folows-
- Growth is a permanent increase in dry weight, size, mass or volume of cell, organ or organism.
- In plants, growth is accomplished by cell division. Therefore, it is a quantitative phenomenon which can be measured in relation to time.
- Plant growth is generally indeterminate because of its capacity of unlimited growth throughout the life.
- Open form of growth – The plant growth in which new cells are always being added to plant body due to meristem .
- Primary growth and elongation of plant body along the axis is possible due to the root apical meristem and shoot apical meristem.
- Intercalary meristem produce buds and new branches in plants.
- Increment in growth per unit time is called growth rate. It can either be arithmetic or geometrical.
- Arithmetic Growth is found in root and shoot elongation.
- Cells produced by apical meristem become specialized to perform specific function and this act of maturation is called differentiation. While dedifferentiation is when the living differentiated cells that have lost ability of division can regain the capacity of division.
Development is the sequence of events that occur in the life history of cell, organ or organism. It includes seed germination, growth, differentiation, maturation, flowering, seed formation and senescence.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. This chapter lights up the concepts of Alimentary canal and digestive glands, Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis, Digestion absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Alimentary canal and digestive glands
- Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
- Digestion absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- Calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- Nutritional and digestive disorders
Some important points in ‘Digestion and Absorption’ are as follows-
- Liver is the largest gland in human body. It lies in upper right side of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm.
- The wall of alimentary canal from Oesophagus to rectum consists of four layers-
- Alimentary canal begin with anterior opening mouth and opens out posteriorly through anus and comprises of following parts-
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
- Disorder of Digestive System-
17) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. Some major concepts that are discussed in this chapter are Respiratory organs in animals, Respiratory system in humans, Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans, Exchange of gases, Transport of gases and regulation of respiration, Respiratory volume, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Respiratory organs in animals
- Respiratory system in humans
- Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans
- Exchange of gases
- Transport of gases and regulation of respiration
- Respiratory volume
- Disorders related to respiration
- Occupational respiratory disorders
Some important points in ‘Breathing and Exchange of Gases’ are as follows-
- The process of exchange of O2 from the atmosphere with CO2 produced by the cell is called breathing. It occurs in two stages of inspiration and expiration.
- During inspiration, air enters the lungs from atmosphere.
- During expiration, air leaves the lungs.
- Human respiratory system consists of a pair of nostrils, pharynx, larynx, bronchi and bronchioles.
- Nasal chamber open into pharynx that leads to larynx.
- Larynx contains voice box ( or sound box) that help in the production of sound.
- Each bronchiole terminates into alveoli which are an irregular walled, vascularized bag like structure.
- Disorder of Respiratory System
- Occupational Respiratory Disorders
18) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. These solutions for Class 11 Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation are reliable and easy to understand. They contain topic like Composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood, Composition of lymph and its function, Human circulatory system, Structure of the human heart and blood vessels, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Composition of blood
- Blood groups
- Coagulation of blood
- Composition of lymph and its function
- Human circulatory system
- Structure of the human heart and blood vessels
- Cardiac cycle
- Cardiac output
- Double circulation
- Regulation of cardiac activity
- Disorders of the circulatory system
- Coronary artery disease
- Angina pectoris
- Heart failure
Some important points in ‘Body Fluids and Circulation’ are as follows-
- Body fluids are the medium of transport of nutrients, oxygen and other important substances in the body.
- Blood is the most commonly used body fluid in most of the higher organisms.
- Lymph transports certain substances like protein and fats.
- Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of a fluid matrix, plasma and the blood corpuscles.
- Blood forms about 30-35% of the extracellular fluid and is slightly alkaline having pH 7.4.
- Formed elements are composed of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets.
- WBC Neutrophils – most abundant
- WBC Basophils – least abundant
- Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic cells which destroy foreign organisms.
- The plasma of an individual contains two antibodies produced in response of antigens (antigen A and antigen B).
- During flow of blood through capillaries, some water soluble substances move out in the space between cells of tissues. This fluid released out is called Lymph (interstitial fluid or tissue fluid).
- Lymph is similar to the blood but has fewer blood proteins, less calcium and phosphorus and high glucose concentration.
- Double circulation is the flow of same blood twice through the heart – once in oxygenated form and other in deoxygenated.
19) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. The chapter covers topics like Human Excretory System, Urine Formation, Function of the Tubules, Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate, Regulation of Kidney Function, Micturition, Role of other Organs in Excretion, Disorders of the Excretory System, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Modes of excretion
- Human excretory system -Structure and function
- Urine formation and Osmoregulation
- Regulation of kidney function
- Atrial natriuretic factor
- Diabetes insipidus
- Role of other organs in excretion
- Disorders of the excretory system
- Renal failure
- Renal calculi
- Dialysis and artificial kidney
- Kidney transplant
Some important points in ‘Excretory Products and their Elimination’ are as follows-
- Excretion is the elimination of metabolic waste products from the animal body to regulate the composition of body fluids and tissues.
- Human waste products include ammonia, uric acid, urea, carbon dioxide and ions.
- Ammonia is the most toxic while uric acid is the least toxic.
- The process of removing ammonia is called ammonotelism.
- Organisms that excrete ammonia are called ammonotelic. For example – bony fishes, aquatic amphibians and insects.
- The organisms such as mammals and terrestrial amphibians release urea as nitrogenous wastes and are called ureotelic.
- The organisms such as reptiles, birds and land snails excretes uric acids and are called uricotelic.
- Human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and urethra.
- Different types of Tubules
- Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT)
- Henle’s Loop
- Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT)
- Collecting Duct
20) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. The chapter covers topics like Types of movement, Ciliary, Flagellar, Muscular, Skeletal muscle, Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction, Skeletal system and its functions, Joints, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Types of movement
- Skeletal muscle
- Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction
- Skeletal system and its functions
- Disorders of muscular and skeletal systems
- Myasthenia gravis
- Muscular dystrophy
Some important points in ‘Locomotion and Movement’ are as follows-
- Red fibres are also known as aerobic muscles
- Red fibres contain myoglobin that has plenty of mitochondria in order to use large amount of oxygen stored in them.
- White fibres are the muscle fibres which contain less number of myoglobin.
- Skeletal System is the framework of bones and cartilage.
- Skeletal System in human beings consists of 206 bones and some cartilages.
- There are three middle ear bones – Malleus, Incus and Stapes which are collectively called Ear Ossicles.
- Fibrous joints do not allow any movements. This type of joint is present in flat skull bones to form cranium.
- Cartilaginous joints are the joints in which bones are held together with the help of cartilage present in vertebrae. This type of joint permits limited movements.
- Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
- Myasthenia gravis
- Muscular Dystrophy
21) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students in getting more efficiency. Coordination can be defined as the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. This chapter contains detailed concepts about Neuron and nerves, Nervous system in humans, Central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system, Visceral nervous system, Generation and conduction of nerve impulse, Reflex action, etc.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Neuron and nerves
- Nervous system in humans
- Central nervous system
- Peripheral nervous system
- Visceral nervous system
- Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
- Reflex action
- Sensory perception
- Sense organs
- Elementary structure and functions of eye and ear
Some important points in ‘Neural Control and Coordination’ are as follows-
- The process through which two or more organs interact and complement the function of each other is termed as coordination.
- Neural system provides an organized network of point to point connection for quick coordination while the endocrine system provides chemical integration through hormones.
- Neural system of animals can detect, receive and transmit different kinds of stimuli through specialized cells called neuron.
- In hydra, neural system is composed of network of neurons.
- In insects, neural system consists of brain and a number of ganglia.
- Central nervous system (CNS) is the site for information processing and control. It includes brain and spinal cord.
- Based on number of axon and dendrites neuron are of three types-
22) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. This chapter includes detailed explanations to the topics like Endocrine glands and hormones, Human endocrine system, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, etc. This chapter plays a very important role to build the foundation for higher studies. These solutions provide you with the most accurate and reliable answers. If any student will go through these solutions thoroughly then he/she will be able to answer most of the questions from this chapter in the easiest and most suitable way.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-
- Endocrine glands and hormones
- Human endocrine system
- Mechanism of hormone action
- Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
- Hypo and hyperactivity and related disorders
- Exophthalmic goitre
- Addison’s disease
Some important points in ‘Chemical coordination and integration’ are as follows-
- Endocrine glands are called ductless glands because they release their secretion directly into blood which afterwards is transported to specific target organs.
- Chemicals called hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands.
- Non-nutrient chemicals which act as intercellular messengers are termed as hormones and are produced in trace amount.
- MSH acts on the melanocytes and thus, regulates skin pigmentation.
- Thyroid Gland is composed of two lobes on either side of trachea which are connected by isthmus.
- Thymus is located on the dorsal side of heart and the aorta.
- Thymus promotes production of antibodies to provide humeral immunity.
- Testis perform dual functions, that is, it works not only as a primary sex organ but also endocrine glands.
- Leydig cells (or interstitial cells) produce androgen (mainly testosterone) which regulate maturation of primary sex organs and spermatogenesis.
- Each pair of ovaries produce two groups of steroid hormones called estrogen and progesterone.
- Growing ovarian follicles synthesize and secrete Estrogen.
Advantages of Class 11 NCERT Biology Solutions
- Solving these NCERT Solutions will help students clearing all their doubts with the help of materials.
- Students who are preparing for their upcoming exams are advised to practice these NCERT Solutions regularly to score better marks in their exam.
- While studying in CBSE Board Schools, students always get confused while deciding the right study material so you can take help from NCERT Solutions.
- For CBSE students, the best option is NCERT Solutions as it covers the whole CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Biology.
- Students should refer to these NCERT Solutions before their exams because these solutions will help them in clearing the tough concepts by explaining it simply.
- These Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions focus on basics to help students with concepts.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology not only give significant learning to the students but also help them to upgrade their skills.
- These NCERT Solutions encompassed by the comprehensive step-by-step description using proper explanations, solved examples, etc. of all the exercises given in NCERT Textbooks.
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