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Gap Filling For Class 10 CBSE With Answer

Solved exercises for Gap Filling Class 10 CBSE Board are given below-

GAP FILLING

     Gap Filling Class 10

   1. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Rivers are considered holy (i)……………..India but they are hardly treated (ii)………………   respect. All kinds of dust and filth find (iii)…………………… way into the rivers. If we have to treat and purify the water (iv)………………. drinking it, how can the fish survive in (v)………………. waters? Every year, river Gomti becomes (vi)……………….   death bed of thousands of fish because (vii)……………….  water released in the reservoir upstream carries effluents (viii)……………….. the neighbouring industries.

(i)     (a) in            (b) on 

       (c) at           (d) of

(ii)     (a) in           (b) with    

       (c) at           (d) of

(iii)  (a) their       (b) his

       (c) its          (d) over

(iv)  (a) of           (b) in

       (c) on          (d) for

(v)    (a) these     (b) this

       (c) that       (d) their

(vi)  (a) the         (b) a

       (c) their      (d) those

(vii) (a) in           (b) the

       (c) with       (d) of

(viii)(a) for        (b) on

       (c) of          (d) from

Answer 1.  

      (i)    (a)          (ii)     (b)

      (iii)  (a)          (iv)    (d)

      (v)   (a)          (vi)    (a)

      (vii) (b)          (viii)  (d)    

   2. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Dear Daddy,

I hope all’s well with you. Everything is fine here. I am sorry I (i)………….. write earlier. I was busy with my coaching camp (ii)…………….. is now over. After the annual examination, most of (iii)…………….. boarders have left for their homes. Only a few like me (iv)…………… left behind. I can’t express how badly I miss you all. I don’t know (v)…………….  I’ll be able to join you. Dad, I hate (vi)……………. a boarder. How lonely it is to stay here (vii)…………….. the vacation! The few inmates left (viii) ………… … not only boring but also nasty. I hope you will come to my rescue soon.

Your son

Ravindra

(i)         (a) couldn’t    (b) hasn’t

                (c) have not   (d) hadn’t

(ii)      (a) which        (b) being

                (c) to              (d) only

(iii)     (a) which       (b) the

                (c) are            (d) when

(iv)    (a) couldn’t    (b) which

                (c) when        (d) are

(v)      (a) the            (b) being

                (c) when        (d) am

(vi)    (a) being        (b) which

                (c) to              (d) couldn’t

(vii)  (a) during      (b) are

               (c) were         (d) between

          (viii)(a) at              (b) were

                                    (c) are            (d) is

Answer 2. 

         (i)    (a)     (ii)    (a)

         (iii)  (b)     (iv)   (d)

         (v)   (c)     (vi)   (a)

         (vii) (a)     (viii) (c)

    3.   Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

The students (i)…………….. talking as MissSarkar (i)………….. the classroom. Then in a loud voice (iii)…………  said ‘Good Morning’ and (iv)…………… quickly around the room. All the children (v)………….. her intently to find out what sort of a person she (vi)…………… . “I suppose you (vii)…………… to know my name,” she said. But (viii) ……………  she could tell them, someone in the class yelled out, “You are Miss Sarkar.”

(i)        (a) are           (b) was

        (c) were        (d) been

(ii)      (a) enters      (b) entered

        (c) entering  (d) entours

(iii)    (a) she           (b) they

        (c) he             (d) them

(iv)    (a) glance     (b) glancing

        (c) glanced   (d) glancy

(v)     (a) observe   (b) watching

        (c) watch      (d) watched

(vi)    (a) A              (b) was

        (c) been        (d) being

(vii)  (a) wants      (b) liked

        (c) knew       (d) want

(viii)(a) after        (b) before

        (c) later        (d) as

Answer 3.

(i)    (c)       (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (a)       (iv)   (c)

(v)   (d)       (vi)   (b)

(vii) (d)       (viii) (b)

 

Gap Filling Class 10

   4. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Delivering his inaugural address (i)…………… the first Agricultural Science Congress here today (ii)…………. Prime Minister said efforts (iii)…………. be made to increase the production of food grains by at least three times (iv)………….. the next decade. He exhorted that the agricultural scientists (v)…………… rise to the occasion to meet the challenge of feeding the population, so that we may not have to import it. If we delay, he said, in doing something about the matter, it (vi)……………. be difficult to face the shortage of grains. He is optimistic that the agricultural scientists must think (vii)………….. the matter. Speaking on the occasion, the Agricultural Minister praised the agricultural scientists for their role (viii)…………….. about a Green Revolution.

(i)        (a) on                    (b) at

        (c) over                (d) from

(ii)      (a) this                 (b) an

       (c) a                       (d) the

(iii)   (a) can                  (b) will

       (c) should             (d) may

(iv)   (a) in                     (b) from

       (c) to                     (d) have

(v)     (a) can                  (b) shall

       (c) must/should  (d) need to

(vi)   (a) can                 (b)would

       (c) need          (d) ought to

(vii) (a) over            (b) about

      (c) in                   (d) should

(viii(a) bring

       (b) in bringing

       (c) while brought 

       (d) on bringing

Answer  4.

(i)   (a)       (ii)    (d)

iii)  (b)       (iv)   (a)

v)   (c)       (vi)   (b)

vii) (a)       (viii) (b)

 

5. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

26th January is a very special …………..India. It is (ii)……………. this day that India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic (iii) 1950. Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first President (iv)……………….. the Indian Republic. 26th January is celebrated (v)…………….. great enthusiasm and festivity all over the country. First of all, the Prime Minister visits the Amar jawan jyoti at India Gate. There he offers floral tributes (vi)……………… the martyrs. Then begins the colourful parade (vii)……………..   starts from Vijay Chowk (viii)………….. terminates at the Red Fort.

(i)     (a) for/in     (b) of

        (c) by          (d) to

(ii)      (a) by          (b) of

        (c) in           (d) on

(iii)   (a) on          (b) in

       (c) for          (d) to

(iv)  (a) in            (b) above

       (c) of           (d) about

(v)    (a) for          (b) with

       (c) in           (d) by

(vi)  (a) to           (b) of

       (c) by           (d) over

(vii) (a) that       (b) of

        (c) which   (d) to

(viii)(a) which   (b) to

        (c) that      (d) and

Answer 5.

(i)     (a)           (ii) (d)

(iii)   (b)           (iv) (c)

(v)    (b)           (vi) (a)

(vii)  (c)           (viii) (d)

6. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Massage (i)…………… be a natural tranquilliser. It (ii)………….. been used (iii)………….. Virtually every culture throughout history to relieve aches (iv)………….. pains, unknot tense muscles, and help (v)………….. body and the mind to relax. There are several types (vi)…………..  massage, (vii)………….. most popular (viii)…………. the Oriental Massage.

(i)            (a) should        (b) would

          (c) may            (d) can

(ii)          (a) have           (b) has

          (c) had             (d) was

(iii)        (a) in                (b) on

          (c) at                (d) for

(iv)        (a) or               (b) and

          (c) but             (d) for

(v)          (a) a                 (b) an

          (c) the             (d) any

(vi)        (a) but             (b) of

          (c) for              (d) and

(vii)       (a) but             (b) and

          (c) or               (d) for

(viii)     (a) were          (b) is

          (c) are             (d) of

Answer 6.

(i)    (d)      (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (a)      (iv)   (b)

(v)   (c)       (vi)  (b)

(vii) (a)      (viii) (b)

 

Gap Filling Class 10

7. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

There (i)………….. a survey (ii)…………….. the popular forms of music and how the taste (iii)……………. music differs (iv)…………… age. About one-hundred persons (v)………….. in three age groups (vi)……………   interviewed on their musical preferences. The survey found that (vii)………….. first great musical age is adolescence. (viii)………….. comes the early adulthood.

(i) (a) has been (b) have been

    (c) had been  (d) was

(ii)  (a) for        (b) about

       (c) on        (d) in

(iii)  (a) in          (b) on

       (c) at         (d) about

(iv) (a) in         (b) on

      (c) at         (d) with

(v)   (a) each    (b) every

      (c) all         (d) some

(vi) (a) was     (b) is

      (c) were    (d) are

(vii (a) this      (b) the

      (c) for        (d) that

(viii)(a) Next   (b) After

       (c) Before (d) Thereafter

Answer 7.

(i)   (c)     (ii)    (b)

(iii) (a)     (iv)   (d)

(v)  (a)     (vi)   (c)

(vii (b)     (viii) (a)

8. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Buddhists (i)…………… survived in India only (ii)……………. a comparatively small sect, (iii)………….. Buddhism in (iv)………………. east today has (v)……………….. hundred and fifty million adherents. It is (vi)……………… chief religion of Ceylon, Burma and Malaya. Buddhists (vii)………………the four truths. They live a (viii)…………… and austere life.

(i)    (a) has         (b) have

        (c) had        (d) been

(ii)      (a) for          (b) as

        (c) but         (d) so

(iii)    (a) and         (b) or

        (c) but         (d) though

(iv)    (a) a             (b) an

        (c) the         (d) at

(v)      (a) over       (b) above

        (c) an          (d) a

(vi)     (a) a             (b) an

        (c) the          (d) in

(vii)   (a) follow    (b) follows

        (c) followed(d) following

(viii) (a) rich        (b) simple

        (c) happy    (d) famous

Answer 8.

(i)    (b)     (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (c)     (iv)   (c)

(v)   (a)     (vi)   (c)

(vii) (b)     (viii) (a) 

9. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Always read the metre dials (i)……………. the right to the left. This procedure is much easier, especially (ii)………………… any of (iii)…………….. dial hands are near the zero mark, when (iv)……………, mark (v)……………. the number of units recorded. Dials (vi)…………….. Water (vii)……………, gas metres usually (viii)………………. the amount each dial records.

(i)     (a) from          (b) for

         (c) on              (d) in

(ii)   (a) as              (b) if

      (c) for             (d) because

(iii) (a) a                (b) an

      (c) the             (d)any

(iv)    (a) finish

        (b) finished

        (c) finishing

        (d) was finished

(v)        (a) on              (b) at

         (c) of              (d) off

(vi)      (a) on              (b) in

         (c) over          (d) up

(vii)    (a) for             (b) at

         (c) and           (d) with

(viii) (a) indicating

        (b) indicates

        (c) indicated

        (d) indicate

Answer 9.

(i)    (a)   (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (c)   (iv)   (b)

(v)   (d)   (vi)   (a)

(vii) (c)   (viii) (d)

 

Gap Filling Class 10

10. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option front the ones given below: (4 marks)

I came to India (i)……………. a short trip only, one week (ii)…………….. left to return to America. Everybody wanted to spend time with me, (iii)………….. how to spend. (iv)…………. we decided to watch (v)…………….movie. we (Ii)…………… a lot. Time (vii) to say good bye. We (viii)…………….. Sad at parting from each other.

(i)     (a) in              (b) during

         (c) for            (d) about

(ii)        (a) is              (b) was

         (c) has           (d) were

(iii)      (a) as             (b) so

         (c) but           (d) for

(iv)      (a) so             (b) hence

         (c) for            (d) due to

(v)        (a) a               (b) an

         (c) the           (d) some

(vi)      (a) enjoy        (b) enjoys

         (c) enjoying  (d) enjoyed

(vii)  (a) came        (b) come

        (c) coming    (d) to come

(viii)  (a) feeling      (b) feel

         (c) felt            (d) to feel

Answer 10.

(i)   (c)    (ii)    (b)

(iii) (c)    (iv)   (a)

(v)   (a)   (vi)   (d)

(vii) (a)   (viii) (c)

11. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Dear Natasha,

I come to know from Times Pen Pal Corner that you wish to (i)……………. a pen friend from Orissa. I wonder (ii)…………….. you could accept me as your friend. I am fifteen years old and (iii)……………. in Class IX, Kendriya Vidyalaya. After my school education, I (iv)……………. like to join IISM. Now let me tell you about my family. There are six members in my family. Besides my grandparents, father (v)………….. mother, I have a younger brother too. My father is a teacher (vi)………….. teaches English literature. I too have a love for English literature. So, I read science fiction (vii)………….. my free time. In addition (viii)……………… my studies, I am interested in playing tennis, singing and painting.

Please write about yourself.

Waiting for your reply,

Your penpal

Aishwarya

(i)  (a) have  (b) has

     (c) be       (d) had

(ii) (a) that     (b) if

     (c) as        (d) while

(iii) (a) had studied

    (b) studying

    (c) have studied

       (d) studied

(iv)(a) would    (b) will

     (c) should    (d) could

(v) (a) as    (b) and

       (c) but  (d) since

(vi) (a) who (b) that

      (c) since  (d) which

(vii) (a) for    (b) in

        (c) to     (d) from

(viii)  (a) for         (b) by

        (c) before   (d) to

Answer 11.

(i)    (a)       (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (b)       (vi)   (a)

(v)   (b)       (vi)   (a)

(vii) (b)       (viii) (d)

12. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

David dreams (i)………….  inventing a fridge that can take good care of (ii)……………. He says his fridge (iii)………….. Have a touch screen and a hatch. The screen will display (iv)………….. icons. All he will have to do (v)……………….. to press an icon for ‘clean’ on it and the fridge will self-clean. Another icon will tell him (vi)…………. food items that will run out in a day or two. Then he can buy them just a day ahead. A third icon will indicate (vii)……………… foodstuff has gone stale. He will then need to press a red button and it will come (viii)……………….. of the fridge.

(i)  (a) in            (b) that

     (c) of           (d) to

(ii (a) all           (b) itself

     (c) work      (d) system

(iii) (a) should (b) would

      (c) will        (d) must

(iv)  (a) all         (b) little

       (c) many   (d) few

(v)    (a) is          (b) was

       (c) must    (d) will

(vi)   (a) this      (b) that

        (c) the      (d) which

(vii)  (a) whom  (b) that

        (c) which   (d) this

(viii)(a) into          (b) in

        (c) within      (d) out

Answer 12.

(i)    (c)       (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (c)       (iv)   (a)

(v)   (a)       (vi)   (d)

(vii) (c)       (viii) (d)

 

Gap Filling Class 10

13. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

The state of Odisha (i)………….. along the eastern seacoast of India and to the south of Bengal. (ii)…………. main attractions are the temple towns of Puri and Bhubaneshwar and the great Sun temple at Konark. (iii)…………… three (iv)……………. make a convenient (v)………….. compact little triangle. (vi)……………. state is predominantly rural, (vii)…………… fertile green plains (viii) ……………….. the coast rising up to the hills of the Eastern Ghats.

(i) (a) lies        (b) situated

     (c) was      (d) falls

(ii) (a) It           (b) Its

      (c) That     (d) The

(iii) (a) Those  (b) These

      (c) The       (d) They

(iv) (a) sights (b) scenes

      (c) sites     (d) scenarios

(v)  (a) together      (b) besides

      (c) and              (d) but

(vi) (a) Those         (b) These 

       (c) A                 (d) The

(vii)(a) among      (b) between

       (c) before       (d) after

(viii) (a) inside       (b) along

         (c) across     (d) on

Answer 13.

(i)    (a)       (ii)    (b)

(iii)  (b)       (iv)   (c)

(v)   (c)       (vi)   (d)

(vii) (a)       (viii) (b)

14. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks.)

When wet waste is mixed (i)………….. dry waste, it is called garbage. For zero garbage, the two (ii)……………… be kept separate. Dry waste can be recycled. Wet waste can be (iii)…………….. into compost and used (iv)………….. gardening in place of fertilizers. To make compost (v)…………. home, you need a bin. Keep it in a level, partially (vi)………….. spot. Fill the bin (vii)_________ your wet waste-vegetable peelings, fruit wage, tea bags and plant pruning. You can add offerings made at temples, such as fruits and flowers, (viii)…………… commonly end up polluting water.

(i)  (a) in              (b) on

     (c) into          (d) with

(ii) (a) could       (b) would

      (c) should    (d) shall

(iii)  (a) make     (b) turned

       (c) mixed    (d) stirred

(iv) (a) from       (b) into

       (c) in            (d) for

(v) (a) in              (b) from

      (c) about       (d) at

(vi)(a) wasting   (b) waist

      (c) waste      (d) wasted

(vii) (a) born       (b) on

        (c) with       (d) in

(viii) (a) which    (b) whose

         (c) whom    (d) that

Answer 14.

(i)    (d)       (ii)    (c)

(iii)  (b)       (iv)   (d)

(v)   (d)       (vi)   (c)

(vii) (c)       (viii) (a)

 

15. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

The ragpickers of India (i)………….. a pitiable sight. It is poverty that (ii)………….. them to resort to ragpicking. Day in and day out they may be (iii)…………. on the roads, the lanes and the by lanes of a city or town looking for cast-off clothes or something else showy or shoddy that (iv)………….. sell. More often than not, it is children who (v)…………… to ragpicking. But some young men and women are also (vi)…………… to take up the trade to make both ends meet. why should innocent children (vii) ……………… should be at school at this age do this filthy job? It is because their parents are too poor to support them. So, they neglect them and abandon them (viii)…………… face the cruel world on their own.

(i)  (a) presented

     (b) present

     (c) will present

     (d) may present

(ii) (a) goad        (b) goads

    (c) will goad   (d) may goad

(iii)  (a) see

       (b) seen

       (c) will be seen

       (d) are being seen

(iv)   (a) may      (b) will

       (c) shall      (d) could

(v)    (a) have taken

       (b) will take

       (c) take

       (d) shall take

(vi) (a) force       (b) forced

     (c) will force (d) may force

(vii) (a) whom    (b) who

        (c) which    (d) that

(viii) (a) into       (b) for

        (c) from      (d) to

Answer 15.

(i)    (b)       (ii)     (b)

(iii)  (b)       (iv)    (a)

(v)   (c)       (vi)    (b)

(vii) (b)       (viii)  (d)

 

Gap Filling Class 10                                                            

16. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below:  (4 marks)

Most of us fail in our efforts (i)………….. self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time (ii)…………… carry them out. We also make the fundamental error (iii)……………announcing our resolution to everybody, so the we look even more foolish when we slip back (iv)……………. our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year i attempted (v)……………….. keep my resolution to my. I limited myself to two modest ambitions, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more (vi)…………..the evening. An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provide me with a good excuse (vii)………………  not carrying out either of these new resolutions (viii)……………..the first day of the year, but on the second, i applied myself assiduously o the task.

(i)    (a) by            (b) at

       (c) will         (d) and

(ii)    (a) to            (b) of

       (c) for          (d) is

(iii)   (a) by           (b) in

       (c) on           (d) of

(iv)  (a) to            (b) is

       (c) into         (d) at

(v)    (a) as           (b) to

       (c) which     (d) at

(vi)   (a) on           (b) in

       (c) that        (d) at

(vii)  (a) for          (b) who

        (c) of           (d) that

(viii)(a) into        (b) on

        (c) from      (d) to

Answer 16.

(i)   (b)      (ii)    (a)

(iii) (d)      (iv)   (c)

(v)  (b)      (vi)   (b)

(vii)(a)      (viii) (b)

17. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

There is a general belief (i)…………. students that (ii)……………… who write long sentences get (iii)………………… marks. Short answers get (iv)………………. marks.

(i)  (a) in                 (b) of

     (c) among       (d) between

(ii) (a) they            (b) those

      (c) all               (d) them

(iii)  (a) more         (b) many

       (c) most         (d) much

(iv)   (a) least         (b) less

       (c) few            (d) small

Answer 17.

(i) (b)      (ii) (b)

(iii) (b)      (iv) (a)

 

18. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Reading a novel or short story (i)……….. second language could dramatically (ii)……………… physiological responses to emotions, such (iii)…………….. smiling. It enables us to (iv)…………….. various mental abilities at all ages.

(i) (a) of              (b) in

     (c) from        (d) at

(ii) (a) reduce    (b) reduces

     (c) reduced   (d) reducing

(iii) (a) like     (b) similar to

       (c) as      (d) alike

(iv)  (a) developed

        (b) develops

        (c) develop

        (d) developing

 Answer 18.

(i) (b)      (ii) (a)

(iii) (c)    (iv) (c)

 

Gap Filling Class 10

19. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Authorities settled (i) ___________ 32 pages in (ii) __________ next answer book (iii) ___________ for the undergraduate courses. The answer book was ready (iv)……………….. be circulated.

(i) (a) on             (b) at

     (c) up             (d) in

(ii)  (a) a               (b) an

      (c) the           (d) some

(iii) (a) mean       (b) meant

       (c) means     (d) meaning

(iv) (a) for             (b) by

       (c) from         (d) to

Answer 19. (i) (a)      (ii) (c)      (iii) (b)         (iv) (d)

 

20. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

Fifty year ago, people (i)…………….. Ice cream only in summer. Now it  (ii)……………….. all the year round. It (iii) ____ in the orient, centuries before English school boys first tested it. Marco Polo (iv)……………… people eating ice cream there and (v)…………………. back the idea to Italy. From Italy the idea was carried to France. It (vi)……………… very popular in France (vii)………………the rich, and the effort was even made to keep the recipes a secret (viii)………………….. the common people.

(i)    (a) ate        (b) have eaten

      (c) eat       (d) were eating

(ii)              (a) was eaten

            (b) is eaten

            (c) has been eaten

            (d) will be eaten

(iii) (a) originated

      (b) was originated

      (c) originate

      (d) to be originated

(iv) (a) had seen      (b) saw

     (c) sees   (d) was seeing

(v)   (a) brings        (b) bringing

      (c) brought  (d) is bringing

(vi) (a) becomes   (b) become

    (c) became    (d) becoming

(vii)  (a) with           (b) to

         (c) for             (d) along

(viii)  (a) of               (b) from 

       (c) between      (d) among

Answer 20.

(i) (a)        (ii) (b)

(iii) (b)      (iv) (b)

(v) (c)        (vi)   (c)

(vii) (a)      (viii) (b)

 

 

Gap Filling Class 10

21. Complete the following passage by choosing the most appropriate option from the ones given below: (4 marks)

The water of rivers and seas (i)……………….. all over the world as various dangerous chemicals and biological wastes (ii)…………………. into it. Mills and factories (iii)……………. very harmful waste by the side of both Varanasi and Kolkata is extremely polluted and (v)………………. all sorts of dangerous bacteria. It is really very strange and laughable that large number of Indians (vi)………………….. this water as holy. They (vii)………………….. this water for salvation for thousands of years. There is no doubt that the fish that (viii)………………… in such waters are poisonous too.

(i) (a) is being polluted

     (b) pollute

     (c) polluted

     (d) have polluted

(ii)  (a) had been poured

      (b) is being poured

      (c) are poured

      (d) was poured

(iii)  (a) has discharged

       (b) discharge

       (c) had discharge

       (d) discharged

(iv)  (a) flowing   (b) flows

       (c) flowed    (d) flow

(v)  (a) contains (b) contained

(c)to contain (d)is containing

(vi)     (a) have regarded

         (b) had regarded

         (c) regard

         (d) are regarding

(vii)    (a) have been drinking

         (b) drank

         (c) are drinking

         (d) drink

(viii) (a) growing  (b) grown

         (c) grow        (d) grows

Answer 21.

(i)   (a)          (ii)    (c)

(iii) (b)          (iv)   (a)

(v)   (a)          (vi)   (c)

(vii) (a)           (viii) (c

 

 

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