Word Meaning, Summary, Important Questions Of Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela | Class 10

Hindi Meaning Of Difficult Words | Chapter 3 A Tiger in the Zoo

1Stalksfollowsपीछा करनाkeek, espial, red baiting
2Vividbright coloredउज्ज्वलorient, splendent, flamboyant
3Padspaws of tigerगद्दीदार बनानाpadding, wadding, stuffing
4Rage angerग़ुस्साrabidity, dander, virulence
5LurkingTo be hidden as to wait for your preyछिपाlie low, hide, take cover
6Snarlingwarning sounds made by animalsगरजनाroll, thunder, brattle
7Baringuncoveredखोलनाunzip, unscrew, unpack
8FangsSharp tooth of animalsनुकीला अथवा विषैला दांतnipper, grapnel, pincer
9Concretebuilding made of bricks, cement, sand and waterठोस रूप देनाfirm, substantial, hard
10Patrollingto guard, to vigilपहरा करनाwatch over, patrol, guard
11Plumpfatमोटाthick, bold, voluminous

About The Poet |  Chapter 3 A Tiger in the Zoo

INTRODUCTION

Written by Leslie Norris, this poem aims to bring out the plight of a tiger caged in a zoo. The tiger’s natural habitat is the jungle and its vast lands. Its natural instinct is to hunt. But the caged tiger is deprived of expressing his natural instincts and behaviors. The poem brings out how a tiger in a zoo has to suffer because of the insensitivity and selfishness of man.

Short Summary Of Chapter 3 A Tiger in the Zoo  In English

SUMMARY

This poem contrasts a tiger when it is in its natural habitat and when it is caged in a zoo. The tiger paces up and down in his cage on a starry night. He is full of rage but is quiet in his helplessness. The poet is moved to pity at the tiger’s helplessness. He says that the tiger should have been in the jungle. He should have been moving quietly in the shadows near some water hole, and waiting to kill deer. But sadly he is locked behind bars in a concrete cage. He does not take any notice of the visitors and look sadly at the brilliant stars with his brilliant eyes. Now he has to be content with merely looking at the stars. He is no longer free to move in his natural habitat and looks wistfully at the stars and sad at his

TITLE JUSTIFICATION

TITLE JUSTIFICATION

The theme is justified as Norris narrates the woeful state of a tiger in a zoo. The poet focuses on the tiger which paces in its small cell. The tiger’s natural habitat is the jungle and its vast lands. Its natural instinct is to hunt. But the caged tiger is deprived of expressing his natural instincts and behaviors. The poem brings out how a tiger in a zoo has to suffer because of the insensitivity and selfishness of man.

THEME

THEME

Through the poem, Norris wishes to convey his concern for the wild animals which are forced into a life of captivity by man. Man’s whims and fancies are endless. So he seeks to cage wild animals and display them in a zoo for visitors. But man fails to see that in the process the animals are being deprived of their natural environs. This is morally wrong as man has no right to harm and destroy other lives.

 

MESSAGE

MESSAGE

The poet feels the tiger belongs to the wild and that is where it should remain. This poem presents the tiger in two distinct settings. The first setting is that of the zoo and it is the setting that the tiger inhabits in reality. The second setting is that of the forest and it is the setting that the tiger has been taken out of and no longer has access to, and also the setting that the poet would like the tiger to inhabit once again. These two settings are contrasted. The poet’s motive is to show how much better the tiger is suited to the second setting than the first.

RHYME SCHEME OF THE POEM

TYPE I: REFERENCE TO CONTEXT (VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS)

Read the extracts and answer the following questions:

 

  1. He stalks in his vivid stripes

The few steps of his cage,

On pads of velvet quiet,

In his quiet rage.

Questions

(i) Why could the tiger walk only a few steps?

(ii) How does the tiger move in the cage?

(iii) What are the two qualities of the animal under reference?

(iv) Why is the tiger in quiet rage?

Answers

(i) The tiger could walk only a few steps because he was locked in a cramped cage.

(ii) The tiger moves very slowly and quietly in a threatening way.

(iii) The tiger has vivid stripes on his body and soft velvet pads.

(iv) The tiger is in quiet rage as he is locked and his freedom has been curtailed. Thus, he is unable to show his anger and outrage.

  1. He should be lurking in shadow,

Sliding through long grass

Near the water hole

Where plump deer pass.

Questions

(i) What does the poet try to suggest through these lines?

(ii) How does the tiger scare the people?

(iii) Why does the tiger snarl?

(iv) How does the tiger show his presence?

Answers

(i) The poet is trying to suggest that the tiger should be allowed to live in his natural habitat.

(ii) The tiger scares the people by growling at them and showing his teeth and claws.

(iii) The tiger snarls to show his anger and helplessness.

(iv) The tiger shows his presence by baring his white teeth and claws.

 

  1. Baring his white fangs, his claws,

 Questions

(i) Who has white fangs?

(ii) Why should the tiger be terrorizing the village?

(iii) Which village is referred to in the above lines?

(iv) Why does the poet refer to ‘bare fangs?

Answers

(i) The tiger has white fangs.

(ii) As it is natural for the tiger to protect should be terrorizing the village.

(iii) The poet refers to the villages which encroaches the jungle.

(iv) The tiger uses his fangs to scare others and protect himself.

 

  1. But he’s locked in a concrete cell,

His strength behind bars,

Stalking the length of his cage,

Ignoring visitors.

Questions

(i) Who is referred to as ‘he’?

(ii) Why does the tiger ignore the visitors?

(iii) What is the tiger doing in the cage?

(iv) What is the tiger feeling in the cage?

Answers

(i) ‘He’ refers to the tiger.

(ii) The tiger ignores the visitors because he considers them devoid of feelings as none of them tries to help him out of the prison.

(iii) The tiger is moving slowly and quietly along the length of the cage.

(iv) The tiger is feeling cramped and suffocated as his freedom is restricted.

 

  1. He hears the last voice at night,

The patrolling cars,

And stares with his brilliant eyes

At the brilliant stars.

Questions

(i) What kind of voices does the tiger hear?

(ii) Where does the tiger look at in the night?

(iii) Who is ‘patrolling and why?

(iv) What is the mood of the tiger in the above lines?

Answers

(i) The tiger hears the voice coming from the patrolling cars at night.

(ii) The tiger looks at the brilliant stars shining in the sky at night.

(iii) The zoo keepers are patrolling to check that all is safe in the zoo.

(iv) The mood is sad as it brings out the pathos the helpless tiger which is forced to live a life of bondage away from its natural home.

 

TYPE II: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS EACH)

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. Notice the use of a word repeated in lines such as these

(i) pads of velvet quiet

In his quiet rage,

(ii) And stares with his brilliant eyes

At the brilliant stars.

What do you think is the effect of this repetition?  

Ans. The repetition increases the intensity of the tiger’s and his helpless silence.

 

  1. What is the Rhyme scheme of this poem?

Ans. The poem “A Tiger in the Zoo” has five stanzas and cach stanza follows the same simple rhyme scheme ABCB.

 

  1. What types of rhetorical devices are used by the poet in this poem?

Ans. In this poem, the poet has effectively used many poetic devices like personification, metaphor, and oxymoron. When the poet personifies the tiger thus, he refers to the tiger not as “it”, but as “he” The poet uses the device of metaphor in the 3rd line of the 1st stanza when he compares the pads of the tiger’s feet to velvet since both are soft and smooth to the touch. “Quiet rage” is an example of the poetic device called oxymoron.

 

  1. Why does the tiger stare at the brilliant stars?

Ans. the tiger is sad and dejected in the concrete cell that man has put him in. When he hears the last sound of the patrolling cars, he stares at the brilliant stars, remembering his good and pleasant days in the forest.

 

  1. How does the tiger walk about in the cage? What are his emotions?

Ans. The tiger in the cage walks proudly and quietly. He is angry because he is shut in a small cell. He is helpless and cannot come out. He is a victim of the selfishness and insensitivity of the human beings.

 

  1. How is the tiger in the cell? How does he react to the visitors?

Ans. The tiger is not comfortable in the cell. It is not his natural habitat. He is in rage also. He walks inside the cell feeling uneasy and angry. He does not pay any attention to the visitor. He has no interest in them.

 

  1. How does the tiger feel in the cage?

Ans. The tiger is not comfortable in the cell. It is not his natural habitat. He is in anger also. He walks inside the cell feeling uneasy and angry. He does not pay any attention to the visitor who come to have fun at his expense. He has no interest in them since no one can liberate him from the miserable zoo.

 

  1. How does the tiger terrify the villagers?

Ans. If the tiger is in his natural habitat, he growls at the villagers who pass by that way. He also shows his fangs and bright claws to the villagers to terrify them. It is essential for him to do this as it keeps his enemies at bay by frightening them.

 

  1. How does the tiger behave at night?

Ans. The patrolling cars create noise. The tiger in the cage just stares at the shining stars. He probably wishes to be out in the open to see the star filled sky.

 

  1. What should the tiger be doing if he were in the jungle?

Ans. He should be sitting near a water hole under long grass and waiting for some deer to come. He would jump to kill the deer to make his food. He would be living naturally as nature intended him to live. He would not have been at the mercy of man.

 

  1. What should the tiger be doing if he were at the edge of the jungle?

Ans. He should be terrorizing the villagers by roaring and showing his teeth. He would be keeping them off his territory lest they should occupy it. His snarls would frighten man and he would not dare to grab his territory.

 

  1. Why does the tiger ignore the visitors?

Ans. The tiger is not happy. He is imprisoned in the cage. He feels uneasy, angry and uncomfortable in the cage, he needs freedom. So he has no interest in the visitors who come to see him but can do nothing to free him from his terrible bondage.

 

  1. Why does the tiger express his rage quietly?

Ans. The tiger expresses his rage quietly because there is nothing he can do from behind the bars of his cage. He is helpless as his strength is now imprisoned inside the cage due to the whims and fancies of man. He is no longer free as he was in the jungle.

 

  1. Where should the tiger have been according to the poet?

Ans. The poet implies that the tiger should have been in the jungle, lurking in the shadow of long grass to prey on the deer near the water hole. He should also be on the outskirts of the jungle snarling around houses and terrifying villagers. In the zoo, he is forced to live unnaturally and miserably

 

  1. How does the tiger make his presence felt in the village?

Ans. The tiger makes his presence felt by snarling around houses at the jungle’s edge and by showing his white fangs and claws. He defends himself by scaring the villagers who dare not enter his territory lest he should devour them.

 

  1. Is it right for the tiger to be caged? What should his natural habitat be?

Ans. The tiger should snarl around houses at the edge of the forest because of the following reasons. Firstly the villagers will not disturb the peace of the forest. Secondly, they will not kill the animals for money or just for fun. He should snarl at man in self defense lest they should imprison or kill him.

 

TYPE III: LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (100-120 WORDS EACH)

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. What message does the poem ‘A Tiger in the Zoo’ convey?

Ans. Through the poem, Norris wish convey his concern for the wild animals which are forced into a life of captivity by man. Man’s whims and fancies are endless. So he seeks to cage wild animals and display them in a zoo for visitors. But man fails to see that in the process the animals are being deprived of their natural environs. This is morally wrong as man has no right to harm and destroy other lives. The poem gives a strong message that we should not keep birds and animals in cages. We should not imprison them. They should live in their natural habitats. Man should be wise and mind his own business and not put them in zoos.

 

  1. What is the theme of the poem?

Ans. Through the poem, Norris wishes to convey his concern for the wild animals which are forced into a life of captivity by man. Man’s whims and fancies are endless. So it seeks to cage wild animals and display them in a zoo for visitors. But man fails to see that in the process the animals are being deprived of their natural This is morally wrong as man has no right to harm and destroy other lives.

 

  1. It is cruel to cage wild animals. How does the poem highlight this message?

Ans. It is a fundamental truth that love for freedom is the natural instinct of every living being. Everyone loves freedom and does not want to live in confinement. Similarly, the tiger also longed for freedom. He was so fed up being caged that he even ignored the visitors. He paced to and fro in his cage as if trying

to while away the time. The tiger wanted to c this captivity but sadly he could not. God has made all living beings equally and thus animals too have the right to freedom. They should not be caged. It is their right to enjoy their natural habitat i.e. the forest and live freely in the wild. Thus man should respect their freedom and should not put them in the zoo.

 

  1. Man should not go against nature by putting escape wild animals in cages. Discuss with reference to the poem.

Ans. Wild animals are meant to live in the wild. They are not meant to be caged and displayed in the zoos. We all know that the majestic species of tiger is on the verge of extinction. There used to be a time when they used to roam proudly and freely in the jungle, They are not meant to live a life in confinement They also have the right to freedom like all other living beings. Confinement leads to depression and misery. Moreover, their off springs lose the hunting capabilities as they are not trained to hunt in the wild. As a result, they would not be able to feed themselves. Furthermore confining wild animals disturbs the whole ecological balance. They belong to the forest and man should allow them to stay there.

 

  1. Use of poetic devices has made the poem memorable. Discuss.

Ans. A variety of poetic device has been used by the poet in order to effectively enhance the beauty of the poem. ‘Velvet quiet’ refers to the quiet velvet pads of the tiger, which cannot run or leap. They can only walk around the limited space in the cage. The use of ‘quiet rage’ symbolizes the anger and ferocity that is building up inside the tiger as it wants to run out into the forest and attack a deer, but the rage is quiet because it cannot come out in the open as it is in the cage. This double use of ‘quiet’ has lent immense beauty to the poem. Similarly, the use of ‘brilliant’ for the tiger’s eyes as well as the stars also lends amazing meanings to these lines. The tiger has dreams of being free in its ‘brilliant’ eyes. It sees the stars, that have also been described as brilliant, with the same eyes. It stares at the brilliant stars with its brilliant eyes thinking wistfully about how beautiful its life could be in the forest. The poetic device of repetition creates a wonderful effect in the poem.

 

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

  1. Why does the tiger have desire to live in the forest?
  2. How is the zoo a painful home of the tiger?
  3. How does the tiger treat the villager?
  4. The freedom of the tiger is restrained by man. How?
  5. Describe some of the activities of the tiger behind the bars of its cage.

TYPE I: REFERENCE TO CONTEXT (VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS)

TYPE 1: REFERENCE TO CONTEXT (VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS)

Read the extracts and answer the following questions:

 

  1. Some say the world will end in fire

Some say in ice.

From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favour fire.

Questions

(i) What is suggested by “fire”?

(ii) What does ‘ice’ represent?

(iii) What is the rhyme scheme used in the above lines?

(iv) What is the figure of speech used in the first two lines?

Answers

(i) Fire suggests desire, love and conflict.

(ii) “Ice” suggests coldness and hatred.

(iii) The rhyme scheme used in the above lines is abaa.

(iv) The figure of speech used in the first two lines is anaphora. The deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence-‘some say’.

 

  1. Some say the world will end in fire

Some say in ice.

From what I’ve tasted of desire

I hold with those who favor fire.

Questions

(i) What debate does Frost introduce in the above lines?

(ii) What is Frost’s view of the debate?

(iii) Why does the poet feel compelled to take this view?

(iv) What does ‘desire’ suggest in the above lines?

Answers

(i) Frost presents the popular debate as to whether world will end due to heat or cold.

(ii) Frost takes the side of those who think that he and not cold will destroy the world.

(iii) The poet says that his life experience has tough him that heat or fire will destroy the world.

(iv) In the above lines ‘desire can be interpreted love, greed and covetousness which lead to conflict among humans.

 

  1. But if it had to perish twice,

I think I know enough of hate

To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice.

Questions

(i) What is referred to as ‘it’?

(ii) What has the speaker seen enough of?

(iii) In what context does the speaker use the word ice”?

(iv) What is the tone at the end of the poem?

Answers

(i) ‘It’ refers to the world.

(ii) The speaker says that in life he has seen enough of the destruction caused by hate.

(iii) The speaker seems to perceive hate as being icy and cold.

(iv) The tone at the end of the poem is ironic as there is a contrast between the grave issue of destruction that the poet talks about and the casual and understated tone in which he uses the word ‘suffice’?

 

  1. Some say the world will end in fire

Some say in ice.

Questions

 (i) Who is the speaker?

(ii) Who are referred to as ‘some”?

(iii) What idea is symbolized by “fire”?

(iv) What does the poet mean by “ice”?

Answers

(i) The speaker is Robert frost.

(ii) People are referred to as ‘some”.

(iii) Fire’ symbolizes the feelings of desire and love and conflict.

(iv) ‘Ice’ refers to coldness and hate.

 

TYPE II: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (30-40 WORDS EACH)

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. There are many ideas about how the world will ‘end”. Do you think the world will end some day? Have you ever thought what would happen if the sun got so hot that it ‘burst, or grew colder and colder?

Ans. Yes I believe that this world will end some but when nobody knows. Whether the sun gets hot or it gets colder in both the situations this world will surely end.

 

  1. What is the rhyme scheme of the poem? How does it help in bringing out the contrasting ideas in the poem?

Ans. The rhyme scheme of the poem “Fire and Ice” is ABAABCBCB. The two contrasting ideas fire and ice are totally supported by the rhyme scheme of the poem as different alphabets carry different ideas of ice and fire expressed in the poem.

 

  1. What are the two opinions discussed in the poem about the end of this world?

Ans. The two opinions that the people debate about are whether this world will end either in fire or in ice.

 

  1. What does fire stand for in the poem?

Ans. Fire stands for desire as it spreads very fast if remains uncontrolled. It implies love and conflict.

 

  1. What does ice stand for in the poem?

Ans. Ice stands for hatred as both ice and fire are same in nature, they make us insensitive, rigid and inflexible.

 

  1. How has Frost brought out the contrasting ideas in the poem?

Ans. ‘Desire’ propels us in hot pursuit of something, hence, it is compared with fire. ‘Hatred’ makes us cold towards other’s feelings. The coldness of ice can numb our senses. Similarly, the coldness of our hearts can numb our kindness. That is why ‘hatred” has been compared with ice.

 

  1. How does Robert Frost caution the common man?

Ans. Man is selfish, avaricious, lustful, indifferent and hateful. Robert Frost cautions the common man and says that he should not forget the bitter reality that everything in this world is transitory and death is inevitable.

 

  1. Why does the poet hold with those who favor fire?

Ans. The poet takes side with those who believe that the world will be destroyed by fire. He connects fire with desire. According to the poet, desire is powerful and would be a quick end. Moreover, the fact that he has had personal experience with desire leads him to first conclude that the world will end in fire.

 

  1. Write the sum and substance of the poem ‘Fire and Ice.

Ans. The crystal clear message that the poet is trying to give is that nothing in this world is eternal. Everything will perish either in fire or ice. We should, thus, not forget this supreme reality and keep ourselves above all selfish matters.

 

  1. Briefly write about the ideas about how the world will end.

Ans. The world will end as a direct result of either fire or ice. Some scientists believed that the world would be incinerated from its fiery core, while others were convinced that the coming ice age would destroy all living things on the earth’s surface.

 

Frost introduces a more emotional side, associating desire with fire and hatred with ice. The poem, thus, does not allow for any other opinions in the black and white debate between fire and ice.

 

  1. To say that for destruction ice is also great for the poet, what does ‘ice’ stand for? How is it sufficient to bring destruction?

Ans. ‘Ice’ symbolises hatred. Hate is just as powerful as desire. While desire consumes quickly, hate can occur and linger in people’s minds and hearts for years and sometimes even lifetimes. Hate consumes the hater perhaps even more than the person or group hated and I can ruin lives. Hate can, thus, be very destructive and sufficient to bring destruction.

 

  1. But if it had to perish twice. How will the world perish twice?

Ans. According to the poet, the world will end due to the “fire”, which symbolizes desire. But if the world had to end twice then it will be due to the hatred symbolized by ice. The poet feels that there is enough hatred in the world that is spreading among the people. This hatred will end the world one day.

 

  1. Which age old question does the poem revolves around?

Ans. The poem revolves around the age old question of whether the world will end in fire or in ice. This is similar to another age old question, whether it would be preferable to freeze to death or burn to death. The poet determines that either option would achieve its purpose sufficiently well.

 

TYPE III: LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (100-120 WORDS EACH)

Answer the following questions:

 

  1. Discuss how extreme behavior can hasten the end of the world with respect to ‘Fire and Ice.

Ans. ‘Fire’ symbolizes desire and ‘Ice’ symbolizes hatred. Desire is a kind of intense love or want that focuses people on getting and possessing and acquiring. Our society is full of people who spend their lives working to get a bigger and better TV, a more stylish car or a more extravagant house. This kind of desire can lead people to destruction in the form of bankruptcy or even broken relationships. Frost’s poem speaks on the issue of greed corrupting people and even society. The power of hate, which is symbolized by ice is just as great as desire. While desire consumes quickly hate produces shy yet restrained devastation. For instance, hate is the root cause of racism and war. It can linger in people’s mind for lifetimes.. Moreover, it consumes the hater even more than the person hated. It thus, ruins lives.

 

  1. The poem ‘Fire and Ice’, carries with it very deep thematic ideas. Elaborate on these darkest traits of humanity.

Ans. Frost presents the two of the darkest traits of humanity the capacity to hate and the capacity to be consumed by lust or desire. Of the two, he attributes the greater of the two evils, is desire. In giving desire the foremost position with regard to the destruction of the world, Frost is providing a powerful statement on the subject of greed and jealousy, saying that above all trait of humanity that is most likely to lead to its demise. Desire represents the greatest problem that attributes to the cause of the war. Frost then attributes hatred with the same capacity to do harm. However, he lessens the relative importance of hatred but still presents it as having the ability to lead to the destruction of the world if it were to happen for a second time.

 

  1. The poet presents two reasons which will lead to the destruction of the humanity. What values do you garner from the two possible causes provided by him?

Ans. The poet provides and deals with two possible causes for the end of the world. He points more towards the emotional and sentimental side of the issue. As for him, fire denotes deep passion and burning desire, while ice is highlighted for its icy cold and hatred side of the emotions. He favors both the arguments and says that either the deep burning passion or the cold hatred and jealousy factor will push the people to walk on the path of destruction. The poet is sure of this destruction of humanity. He first talks about the destruction because of fire and in case this fails, then ice will end the world. The love that people have for one another will turn into hatred. In race of climbing up and out do one another, people will tend to hate each other. These negative emotions will become so strong that it will surpass all the love and lead to the destruction of humanity.

 

  1. How will the world end? Support your answer with scientific explanation.

Ans. According to the scientists, the two reasons for the destruction of the world will be either fiery core or the ice age.

Some scientists believed that the world would be incinerated from its fiery core, while others were convinced that a coming ice age would destroy all living things on the earth’s surface. In other words, either the deep heat or fire under the earth beds will lead to natural calamities like volcano eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis which will one day end the world or the melting of ice from the snowy mountains due to global warming will shrink the world. As a result, one day the entire world will die of the icy water. Frost, thus, tries to warn people against the two greatest problems facing humanity and the consequences of human vices with an increased effectiveness.

 

  1. What is the message of the poem ‘Fire and ice”?

Ans. For the narrator of the poem, presumably in the voice of Robert Frost both fire and ice can destroy the world. It really doesn’t matter whether it’s fire or ice that will destroy the world. What matter is what is done about the heat or cold. In this sense, this poem is a call to act, to stop arguing about the how a the earth will end. In fact man should be debating about what man can do to stop it or one day he will face the danger of extinction.

 

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

  1. What is Frost worried about?
  2. What makes man behave like ice’?
  3. What debate does Frost present before the reader?
  4. What does ‘fire’ mean to the poet?
  5. What is the important message of the poem?

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