Word Meaning, Summary, Important Questions Of Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth | Class 12

Chapter 4 A Thing of Beauty

Hindi Meaning Of Difficult Words | Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth

1Haori a loose outer garment worn over the kimono.किमोनो के ऊपर पहना जाने वाला ढीला बाहरी वस्त्र।…………….
2Kimonoa traditional Japanese garment.कीमोनो…………….
3Heedlessly carelesslyलापरवाही बरतते हैंforgetful, Hasty, inaccurate.
4Staggeredwalk unsteadily as if about to fallलड़खड़ाहटstumble, trip, wobble
5Leaned bent forwardझुक जानाdiverge, careen
6Spikedcovered with sharp pointsनुकीलाpeaked, edgy, piled
7a stain of red blood stainखून का धब्बा………..
8Tendedcared for, looked afterध्यान देनाpay attention, reck, vouchsafe
9Solemnserious and concernedगंभीर grave, deep, sedate
10Stanchstop or restrict (a flow of blood) from a wound.रोकनाslowdown
11Sea mossa kind of seaweedसागर काई…………..
12Strewedto be scattered untidily over a place or areaबिखेरनाspread
13Moaned a low cry in painविलाप करनाdeplore, moan, repine
14Stupor a state of unconsciousnessमूर्छाdelirium, swoon
15Repulsiona strong dislikeघृणाhate, disgust, aversion
16Inert motionlessनिष्क्रियinactive, passive, idle
17Batteredtorn and worn outफटा हुआ और पहना हुआ…………
18Distresssadnessपरेशान करनाtrouble, upset, distemper
19Palloran unhealthy pale appearanceपीलापन……………
20Influenzaa highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages causing feverएक तरह का बूखार………….
21Pulse heartbeatदिल की धड़कन…………..
22Vitalityenergy, lifeजीवन शक्ति spirit, vital breath
23Menacedanger, threatखतराhazard, peril
24Bluntly in a straight – forward mannerरुखाई से स्पष्टतया………..
25Courteouslypolitelyविनयपूर्वकaffably, compliantly, pleadingly
26Superstitiousirrational beliefsअंध विश्वासीvaletudinarian
27Stubbornness firm determinationदृढ़ताpersistence, tenacity, fixture
28Fierce dangerousभयंकर awful, horrid, frightful
29Resistancethe refusal to accept or comply with somethingविरोधresist, protest, opposition
30Dignityrespectइज़्ज़तgraces, reverence, veneration
31Sustained continuedनिरंतर unremitting, uninterrupted
32Convictionfirm beliefधारणाconcept, comprehension
33impulsively to do something suddenly without thinkingआवेगपूर्वकspontaneous.
34Ebbingdecreasing graduallyक्षयruin, atrophy
35Rosestood upखड़ा हुआ………..
36Chilledfreeze due to cold weatherठंडा…………
37Sterilizeddisinfectedकीटाणुरहित किया हुआsanitize
38Conciseshortसंक्षिप्त abbreviated, succinct, summary
39Anesthetica substance that induces insensitivity to painनिश्चेतक…………….
40Superficialexisting or occurring at or on the surface.सतहीoutermost
41Leaped jumpedकूदनाrecoil, gambol, caper
42Retchingvomitingउबकाई आनाkeck, spew
43Ruthlessharsh, mercilessनिर्ममunfeeling, unsparing, cruel
44Nursed him taken care of himरोगी की सेवा करना…………..
45beginning to stirgaining consciousness.होश में लाना।wake up, arise
46Duskthe time of sunsetगीलाmoist, damp, humid
47Slatternlydirty, untidyमैला-कुचैलाslovenly, scruffy, slipshod
48Prejudicepreconceived idea or opinionपूर्वधारणाpresupposition, Assumption
49Bitterunpleasantद्वेषपूर्णspiteful, malicious, despiteful
50Derelictionfailure to perform one’s dutyकर्तव्य का त्याग……………
51Patriotism love for one’s countryदेश प्रेम……………..
52Gratefulthankfulआभारीobliged
53Prickslightest amountमामूली राशिlittlest, lowest, minimal
54Cardinalbasic, firstआधारभूतfundamental, underlying
55Preciseaccurateठीक exact, unspoiled
56Incisionssurgical cutsसर्जिकल कटौतीlaceration
57Quiveredshiveredकांपनाtrembled, shake
58Suspecteddoubtedशक कियाimplausible, Inexplicit
59Guts informal word for bravery and determinationसाहसcourage, adventure, daring
60Profoundvery great or intenseगहनdeeply, abyssal
61Twilighted at the time of twilight i.e. sunset or sunrise.सन्ध्याevening
62Feebleweakकमज़ोर cobwebbed, debilitated
63Hypodermicneedleसीरिंजsyringe, injection
64Thrustpushedधमाकाblast, crash
65Rawuncookedकच्चाunripe, unprepared
66Apologisefeel sorryक्षमा मांगनाdeplore
67Gaspedto catch one’s breathe due to astonishmentहाँफ़नाbreathe hard
68Horizonthe line at which the earth's surface and the sky appear to meet, skylineक्षितिजskyline
69Mossa very small soft green plantकाई lichen, dartre
70Pine needles very thin, sharp leaves that grow on pine treesदेवदार की सुई…………
71Marredspoiledबिगाड़नाmess, ruin
72Contemptuouslydisrespectfullyतिरस्कारपूर्वक insultingly, scornfully
73Wistaria winea flowering plant used for decorationविस्टेरिया वाइन…………
74Traitora person who betrays his countryदेशद्रोहीdisloyal, quisling, parricide
75Runs outfinishesठहरनाstop, pause
76Assuagedecrease, reduceकम करनाdetract, lower, slacken
77Kerchief square piece of clothरूमालsniffer, hanky, doily
78Dismayedshockedहैरानupset.
79Mistressa woman in a position of authority or controlअधिकार की स्थिति में एक महिला…………
80Inclined bent towards one sideझुका हुआsloping, slanting, biased
81Grievingin a state of sadnessदु: खmourn, grieve
82Brisklyquicklyतेजrapidly, quickly.
83Crimson bright red colourगहरा लालmurrey, damson-coloured
84Indispensable necessaryअत्यावश्यकurgent, essential, pressing
85sentimentalitybeing emotionalभावुकताsensitivity, sensibility, susceptibility
86executionlegal punishmentकानूनी सजाlegal proceeding.
87peculiarstrangeअजीबweird, odd, bizarre
88Overwhelmedfull of emotionsभावना से भरा हुआardent
89Assassinsprofessional killersहत्यारोंmurderer, killer
90Timidshowing lack of courage or confidenceडरपोक sneaky, fainthearted, timorous
91Absolute statea state run by kings having total powersपूर्ण अवस्था………..
92Reasonan idea backed by common senseतर्कlogic, argument
93Gauntgloomy, weakदुर्बलlean, svelte, frail
94Stubblyunshavenथोड़ी बढ़ी हुई दाढ़ीbearded
95Flashlighttorchटॉर्च………….
96Grippingholding tightlyकसकर पकड़ना………..
97Rustlingthe sound made by footstepsसरसराहटscuffling, sough
98Twig branch of treeटहनी offset, snag
99Postpoleखंभाstrut, pillar, pylon
100Shaggyhairyझबराhirsute, brushy, mope-headed
111Refrain a sound that is repeated time and againगीत के अन्त के शब्दabstain, desist
112Comprehendingunderstandingसमझनाdeem, perceive
113Partitionsstructures dividing a room into partsविभाजनdivision, split, separation
114Wailcry loudlyविलापmoan, lament, mourning
115Infected affectedप्रभावितimpressed, Dominance
116Creptcrawledरेंगना slither, slide, wriggle
117Gay happyखुश मिजाजglad, bright, joyful
118Washed bathedधोयाclean, scrub, wipe
119Weary tiredथकाexhausted, fatigued, overtired
120Strainstressतनाव tension, exertion, tightness
121Fortifyingputting security at a placeसशक्त करनाintensify, gird
122Submergedhere, sink into the seaजलमग्नimmerse, drown, overflow
123Fathoma unit of measuring the depth of the sea.गहराई का मापdivine, search out, measure the depth of

About The Poet | Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth

Journey to the End of the Earth’ by Tishani Doshi describes the journey to the coldest, driest and windiest continent in the world: Antarctica. The world’s geological history is trapped in Antarctica. Geoff Green’s ‘Students on Ice’ programme aims at taking high school students to the ends of the world. Doshi thinks that Antarctica is the place to go and understand the earth’s present, past and future.

Short Summary Of Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth In English

The narrator boarded a Russian research ship-The Akademik Shokalskiy. It was heading towards the coldest, driest and the windiest continent in the world, Antarctica. His journey began 13.09 degrees north of the Equator in Madras (Chennai). He crossed nine time zones, six checkpoints, three bodies of water and at least three ecospheres. He travelled over 100 hours in car, aeroplane and ship to reach there. Six hundred and fifty million years ago a giant southern supercontinent Gondwana did indeed exist. It centred roughly around present-day Antarctica. Human beings hadn’t arrived on the global scene. The climate at that time was much warmer. It had a huge variety of flora and fauna. When the dinosaurs became totally extinct and the age of mammals began, the landmass was forced to separate into countries as they exist today.

The purpose of the visit was to know more about Antarctica. It is to understand the significance of Cordilleran folds and pre-Cambrian granite shields; ozone and carbon; evolution and extinction. Ninety per cent of the earth’s total ice volumes are stored in Antarctica. Icebergs are as big as countries. Days go on and on in 24-hour austral summer light. The most hotly contested debate of our time is whether West Antarctica Ice sheet will melt entirely or not. If we want to study the earth’s past, present and future, Antarctica is the place to go. Antarctica has a simple eco-system and lacks biodiversity. It is the perfect place to study how little changes in the environment can have big results. Scientists warn that a further depletion of the ozone layer will affect the lives of the sea-animals and birds of the region. It will also affect the global carbon cycle. The burning of fossil fuels has polluted the atmosphere. It has created a blanket of carbon dioxide around the world. It is increasing the global temperature which is clearly visible at Antarctica when we see icebergs melting away. It shows how minor changes in the atmosphere can cause huge effect. If the global temperature keeps on increasing the human race may be in grave danger.

“Students on Ice” is a programme which provides the students ample opportunity to understand how global temperature can be a big threat to human existence. It inculcates a new understanding in them. Geoff Green thinks that high school students are the future policy makers. They can help in saving the earth from ecological dangers and the effects of global warming.

The author further gives us an example showing how small changes in the atmosphere can be threatening. The microscopic phytoplanktons are single celled plants. They nourish the entire Southern Ocean’s food chain. They use the sun’s energy to assimilate carbon and supply oxygen. Any further depletion in the ozone layer may affect this functioning and indirectly affect the lives of all marine animals. Walk on the ocean was the most thrilling experience of the visit. They climbed down the gangplank and walked on the ocean. They were 52 people. They were walking on a metre-thick ice-pack. Under the ice-pack there was 180 metres of living, breathing, salt water. Seals were enjoying themselves in the sun on ice. The narrator was wondering about the beauty of the place. He wished it would not become a warm place as it used to be millions of years ago. If it happens, the result can be ruinous.

Important Previous Year Questions From Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth

SAI (2 marks)

  1. How is Antarctica different from the place you live in? (2020)

LA II (6 marks)

  1. What are phytoplankton? How are they important to our ecosystem? (2020)

SAI (2 marks)

  1. What is ‘Students on Ice?
  2. Why did Geoff Green decide to take high school students to Antarctica?
  3. Why is Students on Ice programme a success?
  4. Why are the youngsters called the future policy makers of the earth?
  5. How do geological phenomena help us to know about the history of humankind?
  6. What are the indications for the future of humankind?

LA II (6 marks)

  1. How is the study of Antarctica useful to us?
  2. What lessons can be learnt from an expedition to Antarctica?

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Answer Of Chapter 4 Journey to the End of the Earth ​ For The Above Questions

  1. Antartica is totally different from where I reside. It’s a land with layers and layers of ice with very little form of life. It doesn’t snow here where I live and the summer temperatures rise to more than 40 degree Celsius. It’s more habitable than the harsh climate and simple ecosystem of Antartica.
  2. Phytoplankton is a single-celled grass that feed the entire southern ocean’s marine life. It is the main form of vegetation and source of food in the entire southern ocean. Through the process of photosynthesis they provide food and oxygen to all the marine life at the sea. They convert the carbon dioxide into food and water with the help of sunlight. These tiny plants require a low degree of temperature for their survival. But due to the global warming, ozone layers are depleting which filter harmful UV rays of the sun. The rise in temperature adversely affects their activities. If phytoplankton cannot thrive, the whole of marine animals will be at risk too. The chain reaction will not just stop there, this will lead to bigger problems for the ecosystem. Any imbalance in the ecosystem means a threat to all living beings on the planet.

Answers for Questions for Excellence

  1. ‘Students on Ice’ is an educational expedition to Antarctica. It takes high school students to show them the terrifying impacts of human activities in Antarctica so that, the students will realise that the end of the earth is quite near and therefore something should be done to save the planet.
  2. Geoff Green didn’t find any good in taking curious celebrities to Antarctica until he thought of taking high school students. He believed that the high school students are the real future policy makers of the earth and the young enthusiasm in them would easily understand the seriousness of the threat that poses the earth by visiting Antarctica and they would act their bit to save the planet from further deterioration.
  3. When one stands in the midst of the calving ice-sheets, retreating glaciers and melting icebergs, one realises that the threats to the earth are real. It is different and way more pragmatic from talking about Antarctica from the comfort zones of our warm countries and therefore being in Antarctica is a shocking realisation.
  4. The youngsters according to Geoff Green are the future policy-makers because it is them who will bring substantial changes as they grow up. More than that, the more educated youth of today is the hope for the earth as many students are more informed and more aware of the weakening strength of the planet.
  5. Geological phenomena certainly helps us to know about the history of humankind. A giant southern supercontinent- Gondwana did exist 650 million years ago. The climate was much warmer. It had a huge variety of flora and fauna. Gondwana thrived for 500 million years. Finally, it broke in to separate countries as they exist today. It was the Stage when dinosaurs were wiped out and the age of mammals started.
  6. Rapid human population growth and limited esources exert pressure on land. Burning of fossil Fuels has only helped in increasing the average lobal temperature. Melting of ice-caps, depletion S of the ozone layer and global warming are the real and immediate dangers for mankind. They will affect the lives of all the marine animals and the birds of the region.
  7. The world’s geological history is trapped in Antarctica. Therefore, the study of Antarctica shows that India and Antarctica were part of a supercontinent named Gondwana. This supercontinent existed 650 million years ago. The climate of Gondwana was much warmer. It fostered a huge variety of flora and fauna. Then about 150 million years ago, dinosaurs were wiped out. The age of mammals started. Gondwana was forced to separate into countries. The globe was shaped much as we know it today. A cold circumpolar current was created. It made Antarctica frigid.
  8. While in Antarctica, one can witness the ice sheets breaking, water level rising, seals taking sun bath on the icefloes. One can also walk on the thin layers of ice and feel the life under ones feet. One can see icebergs as big as a small country. And earlier these ice sheets were many times bigger than their present size. One can see a green patch of phytoplankton – a microscopic grass that feeds the entire marine life. Lastly, if one can get a chance to dig a bit, one can be lucky to see the fossils of half a million years old animals, plants and birds that got killed in the previous ice-age. This way one can learn the lesson of the slow impending death of the planet earth and therefore take some constructive actions to save it from its doom.

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