NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology help students to learn concepts of Biology (Botany+Zoology). Experts have especially designed these solutions according to the latest pattern prescribed by the CBSE Board. Here, at EDUGROSS, we have provided diagrams of Biology with detailed theory. The NCERT Solutions are provided here for free as PDF format to all users of EDUGROSS to learn online.
The topics covered in Class 12 Biology Syllabus carry a significant weightage in competitive exams. These NCERT Solutions will help you to score higher in your Board Exams as well as competitive exams like NEET, AIIMS, etc. These NCERT Solutions help students to clear all their doubts and understand chapters in a less complicated manner. Hence, we have compiled these Biology NCERT Solutions in a pattern where students will be able to comprehend and recall important topics with ease.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the Science, certain unifying concepts consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve living standards. Finding a cure for cancer and a clean form of energy are just two typical examples of its application.
NCERT Solutions for Biology have been carefully designed by our team of trainers to provide students with the perfect way to solve the questions in the examinations. To collaborate with you, we are here to provide the most considerable and well-established NCERT Solutions for Class 12. These solutions for Biology are effortless to understand and help you to recognise all the fundamental concepts in a better way. Here, at EDUGROSS, students are provided chapter-wise and exercise-based solutions from all the topics in the NCERT Class 12 Biology Book.
A list of chapters provided in Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions free PDF.
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1) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction is a biological process of continuity of a race in which the grown-up individuals give rise to off springs similar to them. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Reproduction in Organisms’ is given below: –
- Asexual Reproduction
- Binary fission
- Multiple fission
- Sexual Reproduction
Some important points from the chapter ‘Reproduction in Organism’ are as follows-
- Fertilisation is the fusion of male and female gamete. It is also termed as syngamy. It results in the formation of diploid zygote.
- Fragmentation occurs by breaking of the parent body into two or more parts, each of which grows to form an independent individual, e.g. algae like Spirogyra and bryophytes such as Marchantia, Riccia.
- Regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction in which the missing part of the organism is repaired by the proliferation of cells, e.g. Hydra, Planaria and Sponges.
2) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants
Sexual reproduction is the process of fusion of haploid gametes, resulting in the production of a diploid zygote, which ultimately develops into a new organism. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 2 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants’ is provided below: –
- Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
- Pre-fertilisation : Structures and Events
- Double Fertilisation
- Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events
- Apomixis and Polyembryony
Some important points from the chapter ‘Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants’ are as follows-
- Endosperm refers to a cell that forms when the sperm nucleus fuses with a central cell which is binucleate.
- Fertilization and Post Fertilization Events– This certainly deals with the fertilization and post-fertilization events with regards to the reproduction in plants.
- Gametogenesis in Plants is a biological process whereby cell division of diploid and haploid precursor cells takes place.
- Morphology of Flower– This part deals with shape, form and structure of flowers.
- Outbreeding Devices and Pollen Pistil Interaction– Pollination is a process by which plants transfer pollen grains from anther to pistil.
3) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
Humans are sexually reproducing and viviparous organisms. There are remarkable differences between the reproductive events and systems in male and female. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Human Reproduction’ is given below: –
- The Male Reproductive System
- The Female Reproductive System
- Menstrual Cycle
- Fertilisation and Implantation
- Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
- Parturition and Lactation
Some important points from the chapter ‘Human Reproduction’ are as follows-
- Female Reproductive System– This section introduces students to the female reproductive system like ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, etc.
- Male Reproductive System– It discusses the male reproductive organs which are in the pelvis region in a pair of testes, accessory ducts, glands, and external genitalia.
- Menstrual Cycle– This unit decodes the various aspects in a systematic order of a menstrual cycle.
- Gametogenesis in Humans explains the process through which the testes in males and the ovaries in females produce sperms and ovum for reproduction.
4) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Reproductive health simply refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e. physical, emotional, behavioral and social. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions are provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Reproductive Health’ is given below: –
- Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies
- Population Explosion and Birth Control
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Some important points from the chapter ‘Reproductive Health’ are as follows-
- MTP and STD– This unit explains to students about the disorders of the reproduction system for more awareness and prevention of such disorders.
- Amniocentesis and Birth Control– Students will study about birth control and the different options available for birth control.
- Assisted Reproductive Technology– You will learn how it is possible for any couple to have a child with assisted reproductive technology.
5) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Inheritance is the process by which characters are passed on from parent to progeny; it is the basis of heredity. Variation is the degree by which progeny differ from their parents. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 5 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Principles of Inheritance and Variation’ is provided below: –
- Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
- Inheritance of One Gene
- Inheritance of Two Genes
- Sex Determination
- Genetic Disorders
Some important points from the chapter ‘Principles of Inheritance and Variation’ are as follows-
- Genetics is the branch of biology which deals with inheritance and variation of characters from parents to offspring.
- Inheritance is the process by which characters or traits are transferred from one generation to the next.
- Variation is the degree by which progeny differs from each other and with their parents. Humans knew from as early as 8000-1000 BC that one of the causes of variation was hidden in sexual reproduction.
- Gregor Johann Mendelfor the first time conducted experiments to understand the pattern of inheritance of variation in living beings.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Molecular basis of inheritance explains the study of genes, genetic variations and heredity. It describes how an offspring looks similar to the parents. DNA, RNA and genetic code form the basis of the molecular basis of inheritance. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 6 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Molecular Basis of Inheritance’ is given below: –
- The DNA
- The Search for Genetic Material
- RNA World
- Genetic Code
- Regulation of Gene Expression
- Human Genome Project
- DNA Fingerprinting
Some important points from the chapter ‘Molecular Basis of Inheritance’ are as follows-
- Over the years after Mendel, the nature of the genetic material was investigated, resulting in the realisation that DNA is the genetic material in majority of organisms.
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) are the two types of nucleic acid found in living systems. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.
- DNA acts as a genetic material in most organisms, whereas RNA acts as a genetic material in some viruses.
- RNA mostly functions as messenger. RNA has other functions as adapter, structural or as a catalytic molecule.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Evolution
Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species are related and gradually change over time. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Evolution Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 7 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Evolution’ is given below: –
- Origin of Life
- Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory
- What are the Evidences for Evolution?
- What is Adaptive Radiation?
- Biological Evolution
- Mechanism of Evolution
- Hardy – Weinberg Principle
- A Brief Account of Evolution
- Origin and Evolution of Man
Some important points from the chapter ‘Evolution’ are as follows-
- The study of history of lifeforms on earth is called Evolutionary Biology.
- Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in population spread over many generations leading to diversity of organisms on earth.
- Origin of First Cell :-
- First non-cellular life forms originated three million years ago.
- These molecules were like RNA, protein and polysaccharides.
- Cellular life form first evolved about 2000 million years ago.
- These were single-celled formed in aquatic environment.
- This form of abiogenesis, i.e. the first form of life arose slowly through evolutionary forces from non-living molecules It is accepted by many scientists.
8) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Human Health and Dieseases
The human body suffers from many diseases, it can be due to genetic defects, infections or an unhealthy lifestyle. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 8 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. A list of Topics from the chapter ‘Human Health and Diseases’ is provided below: –
- Common Diseases in Humans
- Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
Some important points from the chapter ‘Human Health and Diseases’ are as follows-
- Immunity is defined as the ability of the body to protect, defend and fight against invading pathogens like bacteria, virus, and other foreign bodies and toxic substances.
- A disease is an abnormal condition affecting a healthy living organism. It is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious.
- These diseases are caused by the pathogens, such as bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites and can be easily transmitted from one person to another, hence it is also known as a contagious or communicable disease.
- Diseases which cannot be transmitted from one person to another are called non-infectious disease, it is also known as a no communicable disease.
9) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Several new techniques like embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 9 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Strategies of Enhancement in Food Production’ is given below: –
- Animal Husbandry
- Plant Breeding
- Single Cell Proteins
- Tissue Culture
Some important points from the chapter ‘Strategies of Enhancement in Food Production’ are as follows-
- Dairy farm management is the management of animals for milk and its products.
- Poultry farm management is the class of domesticated birds used for food or for their eggs which typically includes ducks and chicken.
- Animal Breeding between animals of the same breed is referred to as inbreeding whereas crossing between different breeds is called out breeding.
- The process of inbreeding causes a rise in the homozygosity hence it is essential to evolve a pure line in any animal. Some other aspects of animal breeding are – outbreeding, out-crossing, cross-breeding, interspecific hybridization.
- Bee-keeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey.
- Fisheries deals with catching, processing or selling fish, shellfish or other aquatic animals.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes are the major components of biological systems on the earth. They are present everywhere as in soil, water, air, inside our bodies and those of other animals and plants. They can also be found deep inside the geysers (thermal vents), deep in soil, under the layer of snow and in highly acidic environments. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 10 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter Microbes in Human Welfare’ is given below: –
- Microbes in Household Products
- Microbes in Industrial Products
- Microbes in Sewage Treatment
- Microbes in Production of Biogas
- Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
- Microbes as Biofertilisers
Some important points from the chapter ‘Microbes in Human Welfare’ are as follows-
- Methanobacterium, commonly found in anaerobic sludge, facilitates sewage treatment. They are also found in the rumen of ruminants in biogas production.
- The excreta of cattle known as gobar are bacteria-rich. Hence, dung can be used for the generation of biogas commonly referred to as gobar gas.
- The implementation of biological methods to control pests and diseases related to plants is referred to as biocontrol. It has been achieved through chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides.
- Use of biocontrol measures will reduce the dependence on toxic chemicals and pesticides to a greater extent.
- Biological farming promotes life forms such as the inhabiting of the field, pests and predators, life cycles, feeding patterns that will help in developing suitable means of biocontrol
- Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) is widely recognized and best understood of the microbial insect control products currently available. Many different strains, represents at least 30 sub-species, are now recognized on the basis of their surface flagellar antigens and insecticidal activities.
- Genetic engineering developments have enabled scientists to release B. Thuringiensis toxins genes into plant body thereby making them resistant to attacks by insect pests. For Example – Bt-cotton
11) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes
The techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans are the part of Biotechnology Process. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 11 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Biotechnology Principles and Processes’ is provided below: –
- Principles of Biotechnology
- Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
- Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
Some important points from the chapter ‘Biotechnology Principles and Processes’ are as follows-
- Genetic engineering, which is used to modify the DNA of the target organism, thereby changing the phenotype of the organism.
- Bioprocess engineering, which is the maintenance of sterile conditions to support the growth of large quantities of desired microbes and other eukaryotic cells which are used for the production of new or modified biotechnological products such as antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, etc.
- The techniques of genetic engineering mainly include :-
- DNA fragment is isolated from the donor organism.
- It is inserted into the vector DNA.
- It is transferred into an appropriate host.
- Cloning of the recombinant DNA in the host organism.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology And Its Application
Biotechnology mainly deals with industrial scale production of biopharmaceuticals and biological. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology: and its Application Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 12 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Biotechnology and its Application’ is given below:
- Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
- Biotechnological Applications in Medicine
- Transgenic Animals
- Ethical Issues
Some important points from the chapter ‘Biotechnology and its Application’ are as follows-
- Biotechnology is mostly used in different fields to modify and produce a useful product for human profits.
- Bt cotton– Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce proteins that kill certain insects like lepidopterens, colepterans (beetels) and dipterans (flies, mosquitoes).
- The source of complementary dsRNA may be from an infection by viruses having RNA genomes or mobile genetic elements that replicate through RNA intermediate.
- Nematode specific genes were introduced into host plant using Agrobacterium vectors. The parasite could not survive in a transgenic host expressing specific interfering RNA.
13) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
Ecology is the branch of biology which mainly describe the study about the interactions between organisms and their environment. Basically, there are four levels of biological organization. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 13 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Organisms and Populations’ is given below: –
- Organism and Its Environment
- Population Growth
- Population Interaction
- Population Attributes
Some important points from the chapter ‘Organism and Populations’ are as follow-
- Adaptation is any attribute of an organism, i.e. morphological, physiological or behavioural, that enables the organism to survive and reproduce in its habitat.
- A group of individuals or organisms of any species living in a well–defined geographical area, at a specific time with the capability of interbreeding is known as population.
- The population growth models include :-
- Exponential Growth- In the limited supply of food, the population follows an exponential growth.
- Logistic Growth- When the resources are finite and become limited sooner or later, the population growth is said to be logistic.
- Hibernation is a system of animals that conserve energy to survive adverse weather conditions or lack of food. It involves physiological changes such as a drop in body temperature and slowed metabolism.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 14 are structured here for students to score higher in exam. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Ecosystem’ is provided below: –
- Ecosystem–Structure and Function
- Energy Flow
- Ecological Pyramids
- Ecological Succession
- Nutrient Cycling
- Ecosystem Services
Some important points from the chapter ‘Ecosystem’ are as follow-
- The size of an ecosystem varies greatly from a small pond to a large forest or a sea.
- Ecosystem can be grouped into two main categories :-
- Terrestrial ecosystem – Forest, grassland, desert, etc.
- Aquatic ecosystem – Pond, lake, river, wetland, estuary, etc.
- Crop fields and an aquarium are considered as man-made ecosystems.
- All green plants are termed as the producers because they produce their own food by making use of solar energy in the ecosystem. All living organisms are dependent on plants for both oxygen and food.
- Consumers- They include both primary consumers and secondary consumers. As animals depend on plants for their food, they are called consumers.
- Primary consumers feed directly of Producers for their food and the secondary consumers feed on the primary consumers for their food. All herbivores animals are an example of Primary consumers.
- Carnivores and apex predators make up the secondary and tertiary consumers.
- Decomposers- They are the saprophytes which include fungi and bacteria. Decomposers convert the dead matter into nitrogen and carbon dioxide and the process is called decomposition.
- Energy flow is the flow of energy along the food chain, through different trophic levels.
- Energy is passed from the producers to the decomposers through various trophic levels.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part of. this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 15 is provided here in the simplest and understanding pattern for students for getting more efficiency. A list of topics from the chapter ‘Biodiversity and Conservation’ is given below: –
- Loss of Biodiversity
- Biodiversity Conservation
- Reason of Biodiversity Conservation
Some important points from the chapter ‘Biodiversity and Conservation’ are as follow-
- Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genes in the genetic makeup of a species. For example- the genetic variation shown by Rauwolfia vomitoria (medicinal plant)
- Species diversity represents the number of species found in an ecological community. Example – Western ghat has a greater amphibian species compared to Eastern ghats
- Ecological diversity – Greater diversity observed at the ecosystem level in a particular area with its deserts, mangroves, rain forests, etc.
- The tropical regions have remained undisturbed for several years. This resulted in the diversification of species in the tropics.
- The environment in the tropics is more predictable and constant. This is yet another reason for increased species diversity.
- The solar energy adds to higher productivity and helps in increasing biodiversity in the tropics.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
The environment is an essential issue even when society is faced with economic crises, wars, and unending social problems. It matters because Earth is the only home that humans have, and it provides air, food, and other needs. NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues Download free pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 16 is provided here for students to learn better and for the help of the students in problem solving. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Environmental Issues’ is given below: –
- Air Pollution and Its Control
- Water Pollution and Its Control
- Solid Wastes
- Agro-chemicals and their Effects
- Radioactive Wastes
- Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
- Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
- Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance
Some important points from the chapter ‘Environmental Issues’ are as follows-
- Pollution is generally defined as an undesirable change in the biological, chemical and physical composition of air, water and soil.
- Global Warming refers to the gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. This happens due to an increase in the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that prevent the heat from escaping into the outer space, thereby making the earth warm. It is a serious environmental issue which is caused by both natural and human influences.
- Solid wastes include waste from homes, offices, schools and hospitals that are collected and disposed off by the municipality. These generally comprise paper, plastics, metals, rubber, glass, textile, leather, etc.
- Depletion of Natural Resources is a crucial current environmental problem caused by the consumption of fossil fuels that result in the emission of greenhouse gases which is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change.
- Deforestation is another environmental issue that is the result of destruction of forests for construction and raw materials. This has added to a number of environmental problems such as soil erosion, global warming, extinction of biodiversity, etc.
Advantages of Solving Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions
- NCERT Solutions provide a step-by-step explanation to every question given in the textbooks. It is one of the most valuable aids to students in their home assignments and exams as well.
- Solving these NCERT Solutions will help students clearing all their doubts.
- These NCERT Solutions are prepared as per the syllabus of the respective subject and thus, provide proper guidance with a thorough learning process.
- NCERT Solutions help in clearing the tough concepts as these NCERT Solutions are designed using proper explanations.
- To score optimum marks in the examination, the students need to practice these NCERT Solutions as it contains a variety of questions for practice purpose. This will help students to have an easy hand at the Erroneous Questions as well.
- While studying in CBSE Board Schools, students always get confused while choosing the right study material. Therefore, the best option is NCERT Solutions as it covers the whole CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology.
- NCERT Solutions give significant learning and also helps students to upgrade their skills.
Why prefer EDUGROSS for Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions?
A lot of times students get stuck to a particular question. These solutions that we are providing here, at EDUGROSS, develop an interest in the students towards their studies. These solutions are designed by a group of experts so that every student can understand the concept in a simple way without further complications. Here, we provide you with the most reliable solutions.
Biology is one of those subjects which students find hard but here, at EDUGROSS, we provide you with the most accurate and easiest methods to solve various questions. Moreover, these solutions help students to develop their reasoning and logical skills. All study material here is completely based on the latest pattern and syllabus that is prescribed by the CBSE Board. All the basics of Class 12 Biology with exercises and solutions are thoroughly covered in the study material that is provided at EDUGROSS.
Download Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions pdf for free from this page and make your practicing easier and enjoyable.