History Of India

History Of India


1.What is Paleolithic Age?

Paleolithic is the period that makes most of our history. It started around 2.6 million years ago and lasted until 10,000 years ago. It emerged with Homo habilis and reached its peak with our species, Homo sapiens, which appeared about 200,000 years ago.

History Of India

2.What is Mesolithic Age?

Between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age was an intermediate state called the Mesolithic Age or Late Stone Age. The characteristic tools used during this time were sharp pointed and were used to kill fast-moving animals. Plant cultivation appeared during this time,

3.What is Neolithic Age?

The Neolithic (New Stone Age) was a period in the technological development of Homo sapiens that started at the end of the Ice Age, 10,000 years ago. People left caves for huts made of branches, stones, adobe or bricks, depending on the resources of the place.

4.What is Bronze Age ?

The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the early Indus Valley Civilisation or Harappan vilisation. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley, the Ganges Yamuna Doab (Gujarat), and south-eastern Afghanistan The civilisation is primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces). Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world’s earliest urban civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.

5.Why is Indus Valley Civilisation known so?

It derived its name from the main river of that region, the Sindhu’ or the Indus. It was discovered in the 1920s. Some of the important cities were Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Chandudaro, Kalibangan, Banavali, Lothal and Rupad.

History Of India

6.What do you know about people of Indus Valley Civilisation?

The badus Valley people made extensive use of Bronze and Copper.
However, Tron was not known to them. A number of small seals, stone sculptures and small terra cotta figures of animals and humans have been found. People worshipped natural forces like the tree, the humped bull and the Mother Goddess. Amulets and charms were used by the people to ward off evil spirits Unlike their counterparts in the rest of the world, who were merchants
managed by kings, the Indus people were ruled by groups of.

7.Why did Indus Valley Civilisation disappear, gradually?


During the late 2000 B.C., the main river Saraswati, on which this civilisation flourished, slowly started to dry, Decreasing fertility and the expansion of the Thar desert finally forced this civilisation to move towards the north and north-east of the Indian sub-continent. The beautiful cities were abandoned and left for ruins. Reasons like foreign invasion, floods and epidemics too are cited as the likely causes behind the disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

History Of India

8.Which was the world’s first university?

In 700 BC, the world’s first university was established in Takshila, in India. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied here, and it offered as many as 60 different subjects to the students. However, Nalanda University, which was established in 4th century BC, is believed to be a more well-organized university.

9.What do you know about caste System during the ancient times?

Society was divided into four castes:
1. Brahmins, or priests, who were engaged in attaining highest spiritual knowledge.
2. Kshatriyas, or warriors, whose duty was to fight and rule.
3. Vaishyas, who worked as merchants, artisans and peasants.
4. Shudras, or outcasts, whose duty was to perform tasks like
scavenging, fishing and handling carrion.

History Of India

10.who established the Mauryan Empire?

The Mauryan Empire was established under the leadership of Chandragupta Maurya. Once he established his stronghold in Magadha, he turned his Maurya, the whole northern India was united. Trade expedition towards north-west India. Under Chandragupta flourished, agriculture was regulated, weights and measures were standardised. Also, a common currency was put to use. His son and successor, Bindusara extended the kingdom further and conquered the south as far as Mysore.

11.Who is considered as ‘The Great Ruler in the Indian history?

Due to his control over the sub-continent, Bindusara’s son Ashoka is still referred to as “The Great Ruler’ in the Indian history. Under him the Mauryan Empire reached its pinnacle. During the conquest of Kalinga it is believed that more than 1,00,000 people died. Due to the grief and guilt caused by this war, Ashoka embraced Buddhism. The emblem of the Indian Republic has been adopted from the Lion Capital of one of Ashoka’s pillars.

History Of India


1.Why was Delhi, during Turk or Afghaninvasions, known as the Delhi Sultanate?

Beginning with Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, a series of Kings and dynasties, who were either Turkish or Afghan in origin, ruled India from Delhi. The first were the ‘Slave Kings’, followed by the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, the Sayyids and the Lodis. As they called themselves the ‘Sultans’, another word Delhi Sultanate! for the king, Delhi and area around it was known as the Allauddin Khali.

2.Who was Mahmud Ghazni and Why did he invade India?

Mahmud was a powerful Turk emperor of Ghazni, a kingdom in Afghanistan. He ruled over Ghazni, between the years 1977 to 1030. He had heard that India was a very rich country with temples and palaces Mahmud Ghazni full of gold and precious stones. So, he decided to invade India and bring back the riches to enrich his country.

3.Who was the most famous Sultan of Gujarat?

of Gujarat. He ruled for more than fifty years and made Mahmud Begarha (1459-1511) was the most famous Sultan Gujarat prosperous.

History Of India

4. Which state flourished between the rivers Narmada and Tapi?

Malwa became independent in 1401-02. It was situated between the rivers Narmada and Tapi. In the fifteenth century, the capital was shifted from Dhar to Mandu, Huge buildings were made with coloured and glazed tiles. These can still be seen. Hoshang Shah (1406-1435), the second independent ruler, (son of Dilawar Khan, a noble who asserted his independence under Firuz Tughlag) was a
tolerant ruler who patronized Jains. He also built a new town, Hoshangabad, on the banks of the river Narmada.

5.When did Babur come to India?

Babur came to India in 1525, with only 12,000 soldiers. Some more joined him on the way. But, Ibrahim Lodi had 100,000 soldier and Rana Sanga’s army had even more. Babur won because of better techniques, the use of archers on horseback, and gunpowder and cannons. According to Stephen Frederic Dale, the name Babur is derived from the Persian word babr, meaning “tiger’.

6.Who was Humayun and what kind of king was he?

Humayun was Babur’s son. He ruled from 1530-1540 and then again in 1555. Humayun was not an efficient general or leader. He built a new city at Delhi called Dinpanah and held many fairs and festivals there, instead of organising his army. But he was said to be kind and generous. He liked to paint and to write poetry. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 23 and
unexperienced when he came to power. VOS SU VITUL.


1.When was the British East India Company astablished?

The British East India Company was established under a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I for 15 years for epice trading on December 31, 1600 AD with a capital of 70,000. 1 established its trading station at Machlipattanam in 1611. Surat in 1612, Madras in 1641 and Calcutta.

2.How did the British East India Company expand?

In 1688 the company acquired its first territory of Bombay Island from Charles II for £10 per year Bombay was a part of dowry received by Charles II, from his Portuguese wife, By the middle of the 18th century, the company established power in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa The company took over Mysore by defeating Tipu Sultan in 1792, the Marathas were defeated in 1817, Sind in 1843 and Punjab in 1848-49.

3.what do you know about the revolt of 1857?

There were many uprisings in various parts of the country from 1816 to 1857. But the revolt of 1857 shook the very foundation of the company’s rule in India. In 1857 the Enfield rifle was introduced in the army. The cartridge had a greased paper cover. The soldiers had to bite this cover off and then put it in the rifle. They heard that the grease was made of beef and pig fat. This insulted the religious beliefs of both Hindus and Muslims: Hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pig meat. In March 1857, a soldier called Mangal Pandey attacked his officers when given these cartridges. He was hanged.

4.What happened after the revolt of 1857?

The Revolt of 1857 shook the British administration in India and forced its reorganisation. By an act in 1858, the governing power was transferred from the East India company to the British crown.

5.What was the Non-Cooperation Movement?

In 1920, under the leadership of Gandhi, the Non-Cooperation Movement was launched. This began with the renunciation of honorary titles given by the British Thereafter, it was followed by the boycott of legislatures, elections and other government works Foreign clothes were burnt and Khadi became the symbol of freedom. The movement was a great success despite suppression by the British Government.

6.When was the Purna Swaraj declaration made?

The Purna Swaraj declaration was made by the Indian National Congress on January 26, 1930, resolving to fight for Purna Swaraj, or ‘complete self rule’ independent of the British empire. The congress asked the people of India to observe January 26 as Independence Day.

7.What was the Quit India Movement?

lOn 8th August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement for freedom from British rule. The Quit India Movement, also known as the August SIMON GO BACK Movement was a Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Gandhi for Satyagraha.

8.Was the Quit India Movement Successful?

The Quit India Movement was easily crushed by the British because of a weak coordination and no clear cut plan of action The British were prepared for this massive uprising and within a few hours of Gandhi’s speech most of the Indian National Congress leaders were arrested. Isolated incidents of violence broke out around the country, but the British acted quickly and arrested thousands of people.

9.Now da India artain its independence from the British?

power in India. The Quit India Movement had manifested the strong anti-British feeling of the Indian people. Soon the Prime Minister announced his intentions to grant bindependence to India. Thus after a very long struggle, India attained its independence on August 15, 1947.

10.why were there wars between India and Pakistan?

India was at war with Pakistan in 1965 over the dispute of Kashmir. Though India won the war decisively, India did not take an inch of Pakistan land which led to the creation of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK). In 1971, India and Pakistan fought another war over Bangladesh which led to independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan. There was again a war in 1999 (Kargil War) which, again India, won just in a span of 1 month

History and events


  The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods Palaeolithic Period, Mesolithic Period and Neolithic Period based on the degree of sophistication in the fashion and use of tools. The period of the Poloeolithic Age (c 2,000,000 < 10,000 B.C.), the Mesolithic Age (c 10,000 5,500 B.C.) and the Neolithic Age (c 5,500 2,500 B.C.) Historians call this period of prehistory the Stone Age because stone was the most important material used by the first tool- makers. They chipped off the bits of stone to make shaped tools including hand axes and knives. The hand axe and the scraper were usually made from flint, whereas spear heads were made from wood or a deer’s antlers. The Stone Age people sheltered in coves, made fire and hunted animals using stone tools and wooden spears. They hunted wild animals for food. One of the largest animals they hunted was a type of elephant called mammoth. The flesh provided food for weeks; the skin was used to make clothes and tents. Besides this, tusks and bones were carved to make jewellery 


 The Mesopotamian city state of Babylon rose to power in 1900 BC. Hamurabi the Great increased its power in 1700 BC. In 1595 BC, it i TITTELOR LEXULUDUK பாப்பா collapsed but flourished again after 1,000 years under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar. During his rule Babylon became one of the richest cities in the world. The city had magnificent temples and palaces. There were eight great bronze gates to enter the city. The most magnificent or the main entrance was the Ishtar Gate, which was covered with glazed blue tiles. It was decorated with patterns and the pictures of lions, bulls and dragons, all in shiny patterned bricks. Nebuchadnezzar brought plants and trees for the famous Hanging Gardens, which were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Babylonians produced written records by carving picture symbols onto clay tablets. The city of Babylon also had the great Tower (Ziggurat) and 53 temples including the “Great Temple of Marduk”.  


  The Great Wall of China was built by the first emperor of China whose Name was Qin Shi Huang. It was built between 220 BC and 200 BC. It is the longest structure ever built with a length of 6,352 km from Shanhai Pass in the east to Lop Nur in the west. It ranges in height from 5-9 metres and approximately 4-5 metres wide. There are many watchtowers spaced from less than a kilometre to several kilometres apart. It not only protected China from minor attacks but also provided little defence against a major invasion. The wall no longer serves any defensiv purpose but it attracts many visitor from around the world. The wall is s big that it can be seen from space. The Great Wall of China made the count of China itself into a fortress. It is bu out of a simple structure of brick stone and dirt. About 70% of China population at the time worked on the first 3,000 mile section of the W under Qin Dynasty 


  The ancient Greeks enjoyed competitive games. According to a legend, the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles (the Roman Hercules), a son of Zeus. Yet, the first Olympic Games for which we still have written records were held in 776 BCE. It was in Greece That Olympic Games started as one of the religious festivals held in honour of Zeus, the king of gods. The festival was held at Olympia, the home of the gods every four years. The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BC People from all over Greece come to participate or watch the games. At first, there was just one race. By 500 BC, the Games lasted for five days. On the final day of the Olympic Games, the winner received his prize, which was a crown of lourel leaves or wild olives cut from a special grove near the temple of Zeus. The first of the modem Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Women were first allowed to participate in 1900 at the second modern Olympic Games 


The Phoenicians were the best sea traders of the ancient world. They lived in the city states on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (now Lebanon) from 1200- 146 BC. The Phoenicians were skilled sailors and had fine ships. Around 600 BC, the Egyptians paid the Phoenicians to explore West Africa. They also sailed to Britain, where they traded goods for tin and silver. They were also good craftsmen and made fine cloth as well as pottery, ivory and metal goods to sell. The Phoenicians were the first people to produce see-through glassware on a large scale. They also invented the process of glass blowing. The Phoenician alphabet, which consisted of twenty-two consonants, provided the foundation of the alphabet used today. They set up colonies in many foreign lands including Marseillas (France), Cadiz (Spain), Malta, Sicily, Cyprus and Carthage (now Tunisia),  


WHICH ITALIAN EXPLORER SET OUT TO FIND Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian navigator colonizer and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Oceon led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. He was an explorer who set out to find a westward sea route to China. Columbus soiled for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain. On his first trip, Columbus led an expedition with three ships, the Niña, the Pinta and the Santo Maria and about 90 crew members. They set sail on 3rd August, 1492, from Palos, Spain. On 11th October, 1492, they spotted the Caribbean islands of southeastern North America. They landed on an island which they called Guanahani, but Columbus, later, renamed i San Salvador. They were met by the local Taino Indians. Many of them were captured by Columbus’ men and, later sold into slavery. Columbus thought that he had made it to Asia. So, he named this area the Indies and called its inhabitants Indians 


About 90 pyramids were built, the last one in 1570 BC. Robbers entered the pyramids for the treasures they contained. The pyramids contained everything for Afterlife, food, jewellery, clothes etc. Alterwards, the pharaohs of the New Kingdom were buried in the tombs which were carved in the cliffs in a hidden valley. Even then, these tombs were robbed. But one tomb remained untouched. In 1922, archaeologists Howard Carter and Lord Cornaroon found the unrobbed tomb of young Tutankhamun who was only 18 years when he died. His tomb was still intact full of priceless treasures including his mummy and a fabulous golden mask. A mummy is a body that has been preserved. This was done by removing the soft organs and filling i with rags. Then, the body was stitched dried and rubbed with oils. After that the body was bandaged and put in the coffin 101 


The first great civilization was Sumer, which developed in about 5,000 BC between Rivers Tigris and Euphrates. 11 lasted for about 3,000 years. Each Sumerian city-state had its own king. A king sometimes took over other cities. The Sumerions traded at huge markets. Each trader had his own seal for signing contracts. Sales were recorded on clay tablets. Around 3,200 BC, the Sumerians used the wheel to make simple carts. Later, they used wheeled war-chariots which were-pulled by donkeys or wild asses. They built their houses from reeds but, later, they used sun-dried mud bricks. Writing was probably invented by the Sumerians about 5,000 years ago. In the beginning, they drew pictures, but, later, they used symbols which we now call cuneiform writing. The Sumerians disappeared from history about 2,000 BC as a result of military domination by various Semetic people.  


The Roman Empire was founded by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus. According to a legend, a king named Numitor had two baby- grandsons who were thrown into River Tiber. A wolf rescued them and brought them up. When they grew up, they built Rome. Rome was founded in 753 BC. At first, it was ruled by kings but in 509 BC, the Romans set up a republic with elected leaders. Rome gradually took over other lands. By 750 AD, the empire stretched across Europe into Africa. Rome was so successful because it had a well- organized army. The Romans loved to go to the amphitheatre to watch violen shows. At the amphitheatre, gladiator fought with one another and some eve fought with wild animals such as lions Most Romans went to public baths to rela T3 R While fighting, Roman soldiers protecte themselves by forming a ‘testudo’ – tortoise formation. They held their shiel over their heads so that they might be overlapped. OS 


The Mongols never settled permanently but lived in large circular tent like homes called yurts. They lived on the flat, grassy steppes of Asia and wandered with their herds of sheep, goats and cattle. They did so because they were afraid of the unpredictable oftacks on cities throughoul Asia and the Middle East. In 1206, Genghis Khan become the leader of the Mongol people and unified the scoltered tribes, Genghis Khan was the grandfather of Kublai Khan, Mongol leader and first emperor of Yuan Dynasty in China, He was a great warrior whose conquests resulted in building a great empire. His vast empire stretched across Central Asia from the Sea of Jopon to the Caspian Sea occupying most of the modern Russia. He was a ruthless warrior, destroying entire cities and their populations during his conquests. The Mongols were remorseless fighters and charged into battle on horseback relying entirely on speed and surprise. SS 104  


The 14″ century was filled with wars. The longest and most exhausting of these wars was between England and France. It lasted on and off until the middle of the 1400s and, hence, is known as the Hundred Years’ War. This war began in 1337 and continued up to 1453. By that time, the French inspired by Joan of Arc had driven the English from Maine, Gascony and Normandy and the war was finally won. The reason for the war was very complicated. Edward III, king of England, asserted that he, in fact, had a superior claim to the throne because his mother was Philip the Fair’s daughter. It was one of the primary causes of the Hundred Years’ War. Another cause of the Hundred Years’ War was clearly economic conflict. The French monarchy tried to squeeze new taxes from towns in northern Europe which had grown wealthy as trade and cloth-making centres.


The Industrial Revolution which began in the early 1700s in Europe brought dramatic improvements in travel and the carrying of cargo. In 1750s, private roads called turnpikes were built in Britain. Travellers hod to pay toll to use them but they soon became rutled and needed repairs. John Macadam a Scottish engineer, developed a new type of hard wearing road surface thot drained quickly in 1810. Industry began to grow and heavy loads of goods had to be taken across the country. Rivers did not always serve the purpose. So, canals were dug. In 1681, the first modern canal system was opened in France. Later, canal systems were made in Britain and the USA. There was about 7,000 km of canal in Britain by the year 1800. 


After World War I, many people hoped that it was the end of all wars. During the 1920s and the 1930s, there were several political changes in many countries. In 1922, these changes led to the growth of the Fascist movement. Fascism came from the word ‘fasces meaning a bundle of branches. It promised strong leadership and the restoration of the national economy and pride. Benito Mussolini actually founded fascism and Italy was the first country to have a fascist ruler. Benito ruled Italy for 21 years. He wanted to make Italy into a great empire. Unfortunately, he led his nation to defeat in World War II. In 1919, he founded the Fasci di Combattimento, This movement put the interest of Italy above all others. In 1921, he trans- formed this into the national Fascist Party and adopted better schemes to gain the support of the Italians. ITALY 


 During the 19 century, rivalry increased between the different nations of Europe. They competed against one another for the control of colonies and for industrial and military power. There were two groups – Britain, France and, loter, Russia joined to form the Entente Cordiale while Germany, Austria, Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Hungary, in 1914 activated the alliance agree- ments. Hence, the World War started in 1914. It was the first mechanized war in history Initially, the war was similar to the ones which took place earlier. Gradually, new and ternitying weapons were intro- duced. For the first time, aircraft was used to observe enemy. Later on, fighter planes began to shoot down. Poison gas was the most territying new weapon which caused millions of death. Tanks also made their first appearance  WHI


 In March 1939, German leader Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Poland. Hitler had already taken over Austria in 1938 and Czechoslovakia in 1939. Great Britain and France assured to help Poland. When Hitler invaded Poland on 1st September, 1939, Britain and France had to declare war on Germany. The Germans went on to invade Denmark, Norway, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. This was World War II which killed more people than any other war in history. The war spread to nearly every part of the world and included about 66 nations. In 1941, the Americans entered into war after being attacked by Germany’s ally Japan. During World War II, the Germans used a new type of warfare known as Blitzkreig or lightning war. The invention of the atomic bomb in the United States was even more horrifying.  


 In South Africa from 1948 to 1994, the government followed the policy of racial discrimi. nation. The word ‘apartheid’ meant separateness in the Africans by race, as either black or white. Apartheid required segregation in housing, edu- cation, employment, social life and transpori. Nelson Mandela was the leader of protests against apartheid. He served as president of the National Congress, a large black group which revolted against racial discrimination. He was also imprisoned in 1962 on the charges of conspiring to overthrow the white government. After being freed in 1990, he led negotiations with the white leaders which eventually brought an end to apartheid and established a non-racial system of government. He was elected president in 1994. Thus, he was the country’s first black president from 1994-1999.  


After World War II the United States and the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) em- erged as the two main powers in the world known as superpowers. Although they had fought together to defeat the Nazis in Germany yet differences between the two superpowers soon led to the start of the Cold War. The Cold War started in August 1945. It was a political war between the East and the West. It did not involve fighting, although there was a military threat on several occasions. They also sponsored wars and political unrest in other countries, destabilizing governments which they disapproved. In 1962, the two groups came very close to a nuclear war. The Soviet Union moved missiles into Cuba, directly threatening the United States. The missiles were the eventually removed only when the Americans threatened retaliation.   


Aher World War In Ill, many people were determined the should never gain be such terrible slaughter and bloodshed international action called the league cl Nations was lomme the leading national Involved in the world But it was the police dom Conference 1945 that really love the foundation the United Nations This was done order to preven future conflict on also set out proce dures for the pro secution of Nazi wa criminals. This agreement was signed by 27 countries. After World War Il in 1945, the United Nations finally came into existence with a membership of 50 countries. Since then, the United Nations has helped to maintain peace and security in the world. It is led by a powerful Security Council which can intervene in international disputes that might lead to conflict