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Prehistoric World Questions

Prehistoric World Questions
  1. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEST AND EGGS OF A DINOSAUR?
  2. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD?
  3. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE BRONZE AGE?
  4. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SKIN OF A DINOSAURS?
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  6. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE YOUNG ONES OF DINOSAUR?
  7. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE BRAIN OF A DINOSAUR?
  8. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE TEETH ARRANGEMENT OF THE MEGALODON?
  9. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SPEEDS OF DINOSAURS?
  10. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS?
  11. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE HOMO SAPIENS OR WISE MAN?
  12. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE CAVE PAINTINGS OF THE CRO-MAGNON MAN?
  13. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZES OF DINOSAURS?
  14. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MESOLITHIC AGE?
  15. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE DINOSAURS THAT PROTECTED THEMSELVES?
  16. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION?
  17. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE VIKINGS’ TRAVELS ?
  18. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION?
  19. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE AZTEC CIVILIZATION?

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEST AND EGGS OF A DINOSAUR? 

The eggs of most of the dinosaurs were elongated. They had flexible shells like stiff leather. They were small in size and looked very much like the eggs of a bird. Some were about the size of a large potato. The nests of many Protoceratops were found in a small area which indicates that these dinosaurs bred in colonies. The nests were shallow bowl-shaped pils about lm across. They were scrapped in dry, sandy earth and surrounded by low walls. The female Protoceratops laid a clutch of 20 or so tough-shelled sausage-shaped eggs. The eggs were arranged in a circular or spiral shape like the spokes of a wheel. The nest and eggs of the Orodromeus, a small plant-eater, have been found in Montana, USA. Its eggs were also arranged in a spiral form

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD? 

The Neolithic Period is marked by such innovations as the cultivation of plants and rise of urban civilization. With the beginning of agricultural production by man, there was a problem that man had to deal with He did not know how to protect his crops from animals and enemies. So, he had to leave the caves and rock shelters that he previously lived in. He built homes to stay within a close distance fro his farm so that he could keep his eyes on his farm. However, Neolithic houses were built adjacent to one another . This arrangement of houses was a sort of defense system.Neolithic people built single-story houses in rectangular shapes, supported by wooden beams and buttresses. Most houses were built with flat roofs that provided working space where they prepared their food. Interestingly, houses did not have doors but were entered through openings in the roofs that they reached using wooden ladders. They also decorated their walls with spectacular paintings which depicted religious figurines, death and incarnation, hunting, wild animals, flowers, geometric patterns, imprints of hands, stars etc. so  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE BRONZE AGE?  

The Bronze Age is the time period that marks a significant development in the human culture, before the introduction of iron, when most tools and weapons were made of bronze. In order to make their lives easier, humans were inventing new things. They learnt to alloy copper with tin that makes a harder and stronger metal than both copper and fin. We call this metal bronze and this period of time is called the Bronze Age. This period falls almost within the same period of time when the writing was invented in Mesopotamia. The invention of bronze led to the development of new skills in processing and refining gold, silver and other metals. The artifacts made out of a mixture of gold and silver have decorated the palaces of Kings and Princes over the years. The significant increase in the production and surplus of metal products has necessitated the export of such items to other communities in the area or even to other kingdoms in remote areas. Another important invention of this period was that of carts of four wheels drawn by oxen which had provided significant assistance during transport.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SKIN OF A DINOSAUR?  

Several fossils of the skins of dinosaurs have been found which reveal that they had scales similar to the ones that the reptiles of today have. Also, no one knows about the colour of the dinosaur’s skin. Some experts believe that dinosaurs were similar in colour 50 C to crocodiles – dull green and brown. The first fossil of the dinosaur’s skin was found in the mid-1800s. Initially, experts thought that the skin was of the giant prehistoric crocodile. The scales of the dinosaur were embedded in its thick, tough, leathery skin as in the crocodile. Scaly skin protected the dinosaur from the jeeth and claws of enemies and bites of small pests, such as mosquitoes and fleas. The scales on the skins of dinosaurs were roughly six-sided, like the cells in a bee’s honeycomb. The fossil skin of the Edmontosaurus, a duckbill Hadrosaur, was found. It reveals that the dinosaur was covered in thousands of small pebble-like scales with large lumps or tubercles spaced among them.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE YOUNG ONES OF DINOSAURS?  

In 1978, the fossils of the Maiosaura were found in Montano, USA. Maiasauro was a duckbill dinosaur or Hadrosaur. Fifteen babies along with many broken eggshells were found scattered around a large mound-shaped structure. The nest was about 2m across and covered with vegetation. The teeth of the babies found in the nest were slightly worn away. This indicated that they were not the new box. They had eaten food. Evidence from these nesting sites indicates that dinosaurs were caring parents. They protected and fed their young ones. In the Gobi desert, the Protocreator, a pig-sized dinosaur, dug holes in the sand and buried the eggs. The female left them to hatch in the heat of the sand, while she herself protected them from predators. 

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE BRAIN OF A DINOSAUR?  

There is a broad link between the size of the body, and the level of intelligence it shows. We know animal’s brains when compared to the size of intelligence, otherwise for sure that dinosaurs were they would not have survived for millions of years. Some of the den Me series: plant-eating dinosaurs had small brains in proportion to their sizes. Whereas, some of the predatory dinosaurs had quite large brains because they needed to think quickly as they went after their prey. The tiny brain of the Stegosaurus weighed about 70-80 gm, whereas the whole dinosaur weighed up to 2 tons. The cleverest dinosaur was the Troodon, which was just the size of a large domestic dog. Its brain was very large in proportion to its size. Its brain was about 1/100th the weight of its whole body. It could run very fast, swerve and duck to catch its prey  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE TEETH ARRANGEMENT OF THE MEGALODON?  

The Megalodon appeared in pre historic oceans during the Oligocene Period. It ruled the oceans for 20 million years. It was similar to the present-day sharks, but much larger in size, about 65 feet, as tall as a six- storey building. The term Megalodon originated from the Greek word mega’ meaning big and ‘odon’ meaning tooth. Hence, the megalodon means o dinosaur with a big footh. It had hundreds of finely serrated and razor- sharp teeth which were spread over in 3 to 5 rows. The first two rows were used to grasp the prey. It could swallow huge chunks at a time. If the teeth were broken, lost or worn out, the other rows would iake their place. Its jaws were about 3 metres wide. Scientists have estimated this huge size from the sizes of the fossilised teeth and the fossilised jaws that have been found.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SPEEDS OF DINOSAURS?  

The speed of a dinosaur can be estimated using the distance bet the footprints and the leg length The huge Apotosourus and the Seurapods had short legs and were probably among the slowest dinosaur Massive hay plated dinosaurs like the Ankylosou were also among the s est of the dinosaurs. bird-like, bipedal camive (Theropods) which long, slim hind-limbs, believed light bodies are the speediest dinosaur These dinosaurs used the short, feathered arms help speed up their running by gliding from frees to the ground, However, these fossil dinosaurs were not much faster than modern-do and animals. The following speeds were calculated by R. A. Thulbor (1982, University of Queensland, Australia): The Sauropodomorph had a speed of 5 km/h, the Stegosaurs and the Ankylosaurs has speeds of 6-8 km/h. Most Sauropods walked about 12-17 km/h, with a maximum speed of 20-30 km/h. Large Theropods and Ornithopods achieved 20 km/h, the Ceratopsians achieved 25 km/h, small Theropods and Ornithopods reached 40km/h and the Omithomimids reached 60 km/h.  

WHAT DO KNOW ABOUT THE EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS?  

The dinosaurs came to a fairly sudden end 65 million years ago. Many other reptiles such as pterosaurs and plesiosaurs also disappeared. Several theories are put forth regarding the extinction of dinosaurs. One theory suggests that the continents were drifting apart continuously during the late Cretaceous Period. It resulted in a huge increase in volcanic activities. The hot lava and gases from these volcanoes filled the air with poisonous fumes to such high levels that they affected the dinosaurs and their sources of food i.e. plant. Another theory says that a giant meteorite from space hit the Earth which caused volcanoes. These volcanoes threw up vast amounts of dust and darkened the skies. Skies darkened by dust lasted for more than a year which meant the death of plants and, hence, the death of plant-eating animals. This eventually led to the death of flesh-eating dinosaurs who depended on the plant- eaters   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE HOMO SAPIENS OR WISE MAN?  

Scientists have discovered that the Homo sapiens had a skeleton shaped like the human skeleton of today. His brain was actually larger than the human brain of today. This early man was both a hunter and gatherer. He created stone tools, bone needles, and bone fish hooks. He sewed clothes from animal skins with thread made from the other parts of the animal. He also made warm boots. One of the species of the Homo sapiens was the Homo Neandertals. They were much taller, very strong, and marvelous hunters. They buried the dead with a ceremony which suggests they might have had religious beliefs. The discoveries of Neandertal grave sites show that they decorated their bodies with paint, possibly for religious reasons or perhaps for beauty. These sites provide the first evidence of the use of colors by them. The evidence also suggests that the Neandertals were the first to think about the possibility of an afterlife.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE CAVE PAINTINGS OF THE CRO-MAGNON MAN?  

The Cro-Magnon man painted marvelous and astonishing paintings on rock walls within their caves. Each cave had hundreds of different paintings by many different painters. Most of these cave paintings focussed on hunters and various animals. Natural colours were used by the early man. He even used charcoal to create these paintings besides using mineral pigments like iron oxide (red ochre) and black manganese. Besides the figures of people and animals, the other objects found in cave paintings were the stencils of hands. It is believed that the Cro-Magnon man, after creating his paintings on the cave walls, put his hand against the cave wall and outlined it with charcoal or paint. When you think of a cave, you may figure it out as a big place with high ceilings. Actually, it was not so during that time. The Cro-Magnon man crawled on his belly through the mazes of narrow, dark tunnels to the places where cave paintings have been found. The marvelous paintings were hidden deep within the darkest portions of the cave.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZES OF DINOSAURS?  

Dinosaurs varied in size greatly. Some were about the size of a chicken only or even smaller. One of the smallest dinosaurs was the Compsognathus, which was slim, with a long, narrow tail. It was just 70 cm in length and weighed less than 3 kg. This dinosaur lived during the Late Jurassic Period about 155-150 million years ago and had small, sharp curved teeth. It moved through the undergrowth. It fed on insects, spiders, and worms. The biggest dinosaurs were the Sauropods such as the Brachiosaurus and the Argentinosaurus. The Brachiosaurus was a plant-eater with a length of 25 m from nose to tail. Its weight is estimated to vary from 30 to 75 tonnes. It had huge front legs and a long neck which could reach food more than 13 m from the ground. It had small chisel-shaped teeth for snipping leaves from trees. The Argentinosaurus from South America weighed about 100 tons or more. 

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MESOLITHIC AGE? 

The name “Mesolithich comes from two separate words. The word Mesos means Middle and ‘Lithos’ means Stone. When climatic conditions began to change in the Mesolithic period, animals and humans were forced to adapt themselves to new environmental conditions. Animals became smaller in sizes and faster than before. So, humans had to develop their stone tools and weapons in a more practical form. Hunting and the collection of plants continued to be the main supply of food, but the humans began to store their food in storage for later consumption. More tools and weapons were made of bones and wood. One of the most interesting usages of stone of this period is what is called Microliths that were small tools made of Obsidian and flints. The domestication of animals was the main development of this period; the dog was domesticated during the Mesolithic Age. From the wall paintings, we understand that the artistic qualifications of this period are almost equal to preceding Old Stone Age.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE DINOSAURS THAT PROTECTED THEMSELVES,?  

Dinosaurs had various ways of protecting themselves. Some dinosaurs were too big to be brought down and eaten. Some could run very fast, like the ostrich dinosaurs which could attain speeds of 70 km/hr. and could escape their predators. The slow-moving dinosaurs were usually cover ed with spikes on horns to protect themselves. Many kinds of dinosaurs had protective armours which took the form of bony plates embedded in their skins. The Saliasaurus had hundreds of small bony lumps, each as big as a pea, packed together in the skin of its back. The Stegosaurus had several large roughly triangular shaped bony plates along its back. These stood upright in two rows. They were probably used to control the body temperature. The tail had four large spikes which were used for self-defense. The Sauropelta had a row of sharp spikes along each side of its body from head to tail to protect it from its enemies.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION?   

The Egyptian civilization flourished on the banks of River Nile about 3,000 years before Christ. No other civilization has captured the imagination of scholars and archaeologists so much. The Egyptians believed that the body and soul were important for human existence in life and in death. The graves were filled with food, tools, domestic ware, treasures – all the necessities of life so that the deceased might live happily in another world. Stone and clay pots comprise one of the most important categories of Egyptian artifacts. The banks of River Nile provided the mud and clay used to make ceramic ware in those times. Food was cooked in clay pots, which also served as containers for grains, water, wine, beer, flour and oils, Baskets were also found in their homes. They were made from reeds and the leaves of date palms that grew along the Nile. BILA  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE VIKINGS’ TRAVELS?  

The Vikings hailed from Scandinavia and Denmark, and ruled northern seas from the 8th to the 17th centuries. Their travels them extensively. It has been proven that they did, in fact, reach North America almost 500 years before Columbus alleged “discovery” of the West Indies. They were fierce sea-raiders who fared much better at sea-battles than on land. Although they were more interested in establishing trade routes rather than looting and pillaging cities, yet they did raid several sea ports. They had an intricate and surprisingly sophisticated civilization during their time. They discovered North America nearly 500 years before Columbus. They called the land of their discovery “Vinland” which is now believed to be present-day New- found land in Canada. They were heathens (non-Christians) in a period of time in which the rest of Europe was largely Christianized.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION?  

The Mayan civilization reached its peak from about AD 300 to AD 900, which is known as the Classic period. It thrived for more than 2,000 years. The people known as the Maya lived in the region that is now eastern and southern Mexico, Guate- mala, Belize, El Salvador and western Honduras. The Maya built massive stone pyramids, temples and sculpture, developed a system of writing using hieroglyphs and recorded their achievements in mathematics and astronomy. The earliest Maya were farmers who lived in small, scattered villages of pole and thoích houses. Slowly, society became more complex with the development of distinct social classes. At the top of society, a hereditary king ruled over each Maya city. The most distinctive Mayan achievement was in mathematics and astronomy. They introduced a pair of interlocking calendars, which were used to schedule ceremonies. One calendar was based on the sun and contained 365 days 

  WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THEAZTEC CIVILIZATION? 

Among the civilizations in Meso america, the Aztec civilization among the most advantageous great cities and developed civilizations. The Aztecs bu religious structure. Their con complex social, political on the site of present-day Nets Tenochtitlán, was located City Tenochtitlán was the of the Aztec world. The marvel of the island city were described of length by the Spanish conquerors who called it the “Venice of the New World” because of its many canals. Aztec society was highly structured, based on agriculture, and guided by a religion that pervaded every aspect of life. The Aztecs worshipped gods that represented natural forces which they believed were vital to their agricultural economy. Aztec cities were dominated by giant stone pyramids topped by temples where human sacrifices were dedicated to the gods. In the Aztec empire, some manufactured goods were produced for the ruler or sold in the local markets. These included pottery, tools, jewelry, figurines, baskets, and cloth.    

  1. HOW ARE PREHISTORIC TIMES CATEGORIZED?
  2. HOW DID DINOSAURS EVOLVE?
  3. HOW DID PTEROSAURS FLY?
  4. HOW WERE DINOSAURS NAMED?
  5. HOW WERE THE TEETH OF DINOSAURS?
  6. HOW DID THE FEET OF DINOSAURS DIFFER?
  7. HOW DID DINOSAURS MAKE SOUNDS?
  8. HOW DID DINOSAURS USE THEIR TAILS?
  9. HOW DO WE ESTIMATE THE AGES OF DINOSAURS?
  10. HOW DID THE FIRST BIRD LOOK LIKE?
  11. HOW DID EARLY FISH LOOK LIKE?
  12. HOW DID MAMMALS EVOLVE?
  13. HOW DID HUMANS EVOLVE?
  14. HOW LONG AGO DID MODERN HUMANS APPEAR?
  15. HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE EARLY MAN APPEARED ABOUT 3 MILLION YEARS AGO?
  16. HOW DID THE HOMO HABILIS SURVIVE?
  17. HOW DID THE HOMO ERECTUS PROGRESS?
  18. HOW DO WE DEFINE THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE?

     HOW ARE PREHISTORIC     TIMES CATEGORIZED?      

     The geological time has been divided into three eras. The oldest era is known as the Palaeozoic era. It contains fossils from many primitive life – forms up to some of the earliest land-dwelling animals. During this era, fish,    amphibians, and early reptiles appeared. It lasted about 570-    245 million years ago. Then, there came the Mesozoic era which lasted about 245-65 million years ago. This was the time of giant reptiles called dinosaurs. This period is further divided into three periods- the Triassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous Period. During the Triassic Period    (245-205 million years ago), the dinosaurs began to evolve. In the Jurassic Period (205-145 million years ago)    the dinosaurs reached their maximum sizes. During the    Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), the dinosaurs evolved into the most varied kinds of any living creatures.    Finally, the third era is known as the Cenozoic era, the era in which we live.        

  HOW DID DINOSAURS EVOLVE?     

     Dinosaurs were the members of the le family to evolved into the most and kinds of any living creatures    They ranged from tiny bird animals to monstrous beasts that were the largest animals to have ever lived on land.    They appeared about 225    million years    90 and ruled the    Earth for about 160    million years. The word dinosaur means a    terrible lizard. The main difference    -M World    School between reptiles and dinosaurs was the way their (dinosaurs’) bodies were supported by their legs. The legs stuck out sideways from their bodies. It helped them to drag themselves on the ground. Some dinosaurs were carnivores; they ate meat and fish,    Some were herbivores; they ate only plants. There were some dinosaurs which were omnivores; they ate both plants and meat. No one knows what colour dinosaurs were. Perhaps, some had skins that matched their surroundings, whereas some had bright markings to attract mates.

 HOW DID PTEROSAURS FLY?    

      Various reptiles developed the ability to glide, but the Pterosaurs were the only ones to fly truly. They did not have feathers because their large wings were more like those of a bat than a bird. A    pterosaur’s arms were quite short. Its wings were supported by a long fourth finger, leaving the other fingers free to function as a hand. Aihin    Dodom width www. Facebook strani dobila haha    AM World    School    CBGE Alation No. 2132024    skin-like membrane was stretched from the elongated finger to the side of the body and sometimes to the hind legs. Fossils suggest that some    Pterosaurs such as Sordes had fur and may have been warm-blooded,    agile fliers rather than slow clumsy gliders. The biggest pterosaur dis-    covered was Quetzalcoatlus. It is believed to have been the largest ever flying animal. Its beak was longer than an adult human and had a wingspan of about 12 meters across. Its wings were as long as those of a four-seat airplane.    www.worldschool.com    worldschoolemail.com Mamwork

   HOW WERE DINOSAURS NAMED?      

     Every dinosaur has a scientific name which usually originates from the    Latin or Greek language. The names of most of the dinosaurs end in    LI    Saurus, which means a reptile.    The name of a dinosaur often refers to its characteristic feature,    for example:    ‘Baryonyx’ which    I means a ‘heavy claw’. This dinosaur got its name from the massive claw on its thumb. Some dinosaurs were named after the places where their fossils were found. A dinosaur Minmi was located at Minmi Crossing in    Queensland, Australia. More than    100 kinds of dinosaurs have been named after the people who first discovered their fossils, dug them up, or reconstructed the dinosaurs.    The large duckbill Lambeosaurus was named after Lawrence Lambe, a Canadian fossil expert. The heavy-clawed meat-eater Baryonyx’s real name was Baryonyx Walker after Bill    Walker who discovered its massive claw in a clay-pit quarry in Surrey, England. 

    HOW WERE THE TEETH OF DINOSAURS?

          The hardest part of a dinosaur’s body was its teeth. Teeth are the most common fossil remains of dinosaurs found. The teeth of the dinosaurs were different in sizes and shapes like daggers, knives, shears, pegs,    combs, etc. In some dinosaurs, about three-quarters of a tooth was fixed into the jaw bone, and hence, only a quarter of the tooth was visible. The shape, number, and layout of teeth indicated what type of food a dinosaur ate. The teeth of the Iguanodon (a planteater) had angled tops that rubbed past each other in a grinding motion. Some of the duckbill dinosaurs had more than 1,000 teeth,    all at the back of their mouths. Dinosaurs grew new teeth to replace old, worn-out, or broken teeth just like modern reptiles.

         HOW DID THE FEET OF DINOSAURS DIFFER?  

        The feet of dinosaurs differed according to their sizes, weights, and lifestyles. The front feet of a dinosaur had metacarpal bones in the lower wrist or upper hand.    Besides, it had two or three phalange bones in each finger or toe tipped by clowns. The rear feet of the dinosaur had metatarsal bones in the lower ankle.    Some dinosaurs had five toes in each foot like most reptiles, birds, and mammals. Ostrich dinosaurs such as Gallimimus had very long feet and long, slim toes for running fast. Many fast-running dinosaurs had fewer toes to reduce their weights, for example, the Gallimimus had 3 toes per back foot. Sauropods had feet with rounded bases supported by a wedge of fibrous, cushion-like tissue.Most Sauropods had claws on    their first three toes and small    blunt ‘hooves’ on the other two toes

 HOW DID DINOSAURS MAKE SOUNDS?        

   Foss shows that posture mode a variety of loud sounds unlike the    Dinosaurs had a    SE Affiliation No. 2132921    School    AM World structures on their heads. These structures were probably used amplify sound. The head-crests of some hadrosaurs contained tubes called respiratory airways which we used for breathing. When air wc forcefully blown through the head crest passages, it could have made loud sounds like a roar or bellow.     fossil skulls of some Hadrosaurs, such as Kritosaurus, suggest that there w    a loose flap of skin like a floppy b    between the nostrils and the eyes.     dinosaur might have inflated its loc nasal flap of skin like a balloon make a bellowing sound. Dinosaur made sounds to keep in touch –    other members of their herd, frighten enemies away, or impress their mate   

 HOW DID DINOSAURS USE THEIR TAILS?        

 The dinosaurs used their tails for various purposes which are given below    1. For protection – Scientists believe that some dinosaurs like the sauropods might have used their massive tails as whips.    to lash at their attackers. Some    Ankylosaurids like    Euoplocephalus and Ankylosaurus had bony nodules at the end of their tails which they used as a defense.    Also, some theropods, like Shunosaurus, Omeisaurus, and maybe Mamenchisaurus had tail clubs for protection.    2. Counterbalance – Most dinosaurs used their fails to counterbalance their long necks or large, heavy heads. 3. Tripod leg.    Some dinosaurs might have used their tails to build nests, move vegetation, etc. The tail was similar in nature to the elephant’s trunk.    4. Help turn quickly Some dinosaurs needed to run speedily and turn quickly in order to catch a prey or avoid predators. In order to tum quickly    while running, the movement of    a tail can shift the runner’s direction, allowing swift tums      

 HOW DO WE ESTIMATE THE AGES OF DINOSAURS?   

       Recently, scientists have found that most dinosaurs had bones with growth rings (called lines of arrested growth, abbreviated LAG) by which we can calculate the ages of dinosaurs. These lines are visible only under a microscope. The bones have to be sliced into thin sections and viewed with a polarized lens under the microscope. It is quite similar to looking at the growth rings of trees to determine the age of a tree. Each year of growth leaves a trace in the bone (or free trunk). Another method to estimate their ages is based on the sizes of their bodies, the known life-    spans of modern-day animals, and the fact that large animals generally live longer than smaller ones. It has been estimated that the huge Sauropods, like Apatosaurus,    Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus, and Supersaurus, lived to be roughly 100 years of age. Smaller dinosaurs probably had shorter lifespans.     

    HOW DID THE FIRST BIRD LOOK LIKE?  

       Birds evolved from small meat-eating dinosaurs. They resembled them in many features, such as teeth, their long beak-like mouths, and long,    bony tails. The first true bird which could fly was known as    Archaeopteryx which meant    ‘ancient wing. This bird lived during the    Jurassic Period about 155-150    million years ago in Europe. It was 60cm long,    about the size of a large crow. Three clawed fingers grew hallway along the front of each of its wing-shaped front limbs. The flying muscles of the    Archaeopteryx were anchored to its large breastbone. The    Archaeopteryx probably flew, but not as fast as today’s birds. It could glide well, swoop and turn as it pursued flying prey such as dragonflies. Its strong and long legs    suggested that it was an able walker  and runner

   HOW DID EARLY FISH LOOK LIKE? 

        For millions of years, the sea was home to a huge variety of creatures such as shellfish, worms, sponges, and jellyfish. None of these animals had a backbone. Then, new kinds of animals appeared in the sea about 510 million years ago. They were the first fish and the first animals with backbones. These were very large in sizes, much larger than the giant sharks of today. They hunted smaller fish. The armored fish grew bony plates to protect their soft bodies. Other fish had bodies covered with sharp spines. About 400 million years ago, fish began to creep out of the water onto land. Many were able to wriggle along on land. But the ordinary fins were not sufficient for them to lift their bodies. The Coelacanth was a    large fish which was I’m long. It had    strange leg-like fins    

 HOW DID MAMMALS EVOLVE?  

        Mammals have backbones. Their bodies are covered with fur or how    The most important feature is that they feed their young on milk. A    group of mammals like reptiles preceded the dinosaurs. The us    fuck.com.    tel.com    –Memortschool possible mammals appeared on the Earth about 220 million years ago. These early mammals gradually disappeared. During the Triassic Period,    they were replaced by true mammals.    It is quite probable that these later mammals had hair and other features    Mammals survived after the dinosaurs had died out. Then, they became the ruling animals on the    Earth. Today, there are about 4,200    different kinds of mammals. They live on the Earth. Many live on land but some like the bats are able to glide through the air on the wings of skin.    Other mammals such as whales,    dolphins, and seals swim in the sea,      

 HOW DID HUMANS EVOLVE?  

     Our earliest ancestors were apes that walked upright on two legs.    Ramapithecus was a small ape that may have been a distant ancestor of man Australopithecus, meaning ‘southern ape’ was one of the first apes to walk upright, but still had many ape-like features. Il lived at least three million years ago and was not and hairy. The first true humans appeared around two million years ago. They were called homo habilis and were found in South Africa. They were the first tool user. That is why they were called    ‘handy men’ Then, there appeared homo Erectus about one million years ago. They were better tool makers and shaped stones into hand axes. They were the first to use fire. They ate both plants and meat. But both of the early humans discussed above were not considered as the modern humans though they looked very much like them    They had heavy jaws, bony eyebrow ridges, and sloping backs.       

   HOW LONG AGO DID MODERN HUMANS APPEAR?    

     called Homo sapiens meaning wise men. They first appeared in Africa    Modern humans appeared just about 100,000 years ago. They were    From there, they spread out across the world. They lived in cave they made huts from branches covered entrances and in places sheltered by overhanging rocks. In the open,    with skins. In Europe, they lived during the freezing Ice Age, a time when glaciers covered the land. The Ice Age ended 12,000 years ago. As the climate grew warmer, the Homo sapiens migrated across the world    The humans who lived in Europe during the Ice Age were among the first artists. They painted pictures of horses, bison, and deer on the walls of their caves. Bone and ivory were carved into the figures of animals and people. Anatomically, modern humans appear in the fossil record in    Africa about 130,000 years ago.         

 HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE EARLY MAN APPEARED ABOUT 3 MILLION YEARS AGO?   

           Around 3 million years ago, the higher primates, including the opes and the sony mon, first opposed    Apes and humans, however, differed in many ways, Humans like hominids could stand upright Apes could not do so. Their hands were also different. The hands of Apes were made for climbing and clinging. You might wonder as to how we know about these hominids who lived over 3 million years ago. In 1974, a skeleton was found in Africa. The bones were those of a young female, who must have been approximately 20    years old when she died. Scientists named this “young lady’ Lucy. About 3 million years ago, when Lucy was olive,    she was rather short, about 4 feet tall, and probably weighed about 50    pounds. Her brain was about the size of an orange. Her bones showed that she probably walked erect, although that she still had the ability to climb trees easily. There were no signs of broken bones or teeth marks. Scientists suspect that she probably fell into a    lake or river and got drowned,      

  HOW DID THE HOMO HABILIS SURVIVE?       

  The Homo habilis was taller than his ancestors, the human primates. He had a larger brain. He crec slone tools to help him live more comfortable and to protect himself against the meat-eating animals. He took shelter under cliffs, whenever required. Although he made stone tools and weapons yet these weapons were still very basic. His main diet was probably fruits roots,    nuts, and vegetables that he found growing wild. The Homo habilis made complies but he did not know how to make fire. Since he did not have fire-making skills, he had to wait until he found something bumping from o    natural cause, for example: from a flash of lightning. A complete had to be carefully watched. If it went out, he did not know how to start it again. Small groups of these people lived together for protection and efficiency. The size of the group depended upon the amount of food available. The groups would disband and move on, as per the requirement of the food.       

    HOW DID THE HOMO ERECTUS PROGRESS?     

     The Homo erectus was about the same size as modern humans. But the size of his brain was only two-thirds of the size of the brain of a modern human being. He was the first to look like the human being of today because his teeth and jaws were shaped somewhat like those of today’s human beings. His tool-making skills were considerably improved. His weapons included stone axes and knives. The Homo erectus was probably the first hunter. The most important thing was that he had fire-making skills which changed his life dramatically. A man had already discovered fire, most animals were afraid of it. So, a roaring campfire gave protection to a group or tribe of the Home Erectus. If the fire went out,    he could relight it. The control of fire made it possible for the Homo erectus to move into colder regions. With the    passage of time, the Homo erectus    began to cook his food consistently 

       HOW DO WE DEFINE THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE?      

     The Stone Age or the Palaeolithic Era is the name given to the period of human history when tools and weapons were made of stone between about 1.5 million and 20,000 years ago. I was the very early    The Palaeolithic Age is further divided into    Early Stone Age (Lower    Poloeolithic), 1.5 million    250,000 years ago    Hominids (ancestors of human beings) including the Australopithecus the Homo erectus, the    Homo ergaster, and the    Homo habilis roamed most of the earth and began making the first stone tools. The Homo sapiens including    Neanderthals arrived around 500,000 years ago. Important Lower    Palaeolithic sites include Olorgesailie, Kenya and Swartkrans, and    South Africa    Middle Stone Age (Middle    Palaeolithic), 250,000-45,000 years ago. The MSA witnessed the evolution of the first modern Homo sapiens which had specialized tools such as handaxes. This species of human beings had learnt to control fire.    Late Stone Age (Upper Palaeolithic),    45,000-20,000 years ago. By LSA    only fully modern humans had left.    They spread all over the planet. The    LSA is characterized by fully modem techniques such as cave art, hunting,    and the use of a wide range of tools.