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Prehistoric World Questions

Prehistoric World Questions

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEST AND EGGS OF A DINOSAUR? 

The eggs of most of the dinosaurs were elongated. They had flexible shells like stiff leather. They were small in size and looked very much like the eggs of a bird. Some were about the size of a large potatoe. The nests of many Protoceratops were found in a small area which indicates that these dinosaurs bred in colonies. The nests were shallow bowl shaped pils about lm across. They were scraped in dry, sandy earth and surrounded by low walls. The female Protoceratops laid a clutch of 20 or so tough-shelled sausage-shaped eggs. The eggs were arranged in a circular or spiral shape like the spokes of a wheel. The nest and eggs of the Orodromeus, a small plant-eater, have been found in Montana, USA. Its eggs were also arranged in a spiral form. 

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD? 

The Neolithic Period is marked by such innovations as the cultivation of plants and rise of urban civilization. With the beginning of agricultural production by man, there was a problem that man had to deal with He did not know how to protect his crops from animals and enemies. So, he had to leave the caves and rock shelters that he previously lived in. He built homes to stay within a close distance fro his farm so that he could keep his eyes on his farm. However, Neolithic houses were built adjacent to one another . This arrangement of houses was a sort of defence system. Neolithic people built single-storey houses in rectangular shapes, supported by wooden beams and butiresses . Most houses were built with flat roofs that provided working space where they prepared their food. Interestingly, houses did not have doors but were entered through openings in the roofs that they reached using wooden ladders. They also decorated their walls with spectacular paintings which depicted religious figurines, death and incarnation, hunting, wild animals, flowers, geometric patterns, imprints of hands, stars etc. so  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE BRONZE AGE?  

The Bronze Age is the time period that marks a significant develo- pment in the human culture, before the introduction of iron, when most tools and weapons were made of bronze. In order to make their lives easier, humans were inventing new things. They learnt to alloy copper with tin that makes a harder and stronger metal than both copper and fin. We call this metal bronze and this period of time is called the Bronze Age. This period falls almost within the same period of time when the writing was invented in Mesopotamia. The invention of bronze led to the development of new skills in processing and refining gold, silver and other metals. The artifacts made out of a mixture of gold and silver have decorated the palaces of Kings and Princes over the years. The significant increase in the production and surplus of metal products has necessitated the export of such items to other communities in the area or even to other kingdoms in remote areas. Another important invention of this period was that of carts of four wheels drawn by oxen which had provided significant assistance during transport.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SKIN OF A DINOSAUR?  

Several fossils of the skins of dinosaurs have been found which reveal that they had scales similar to the ones that the reptiles of today have. Also, no one knows about the colour of the dinosaur’s skin. Some experts believe that dinosaurs were similar in colour 50 C to crocodiles – dull green and brown. The first fossil of the dinosaur’s skin was found in the mid-1800s. Initially, experts thought that the skin was of the giant prehistoric crocodile. The scales of the dinosaur were embedded in its thick, tough, leathery skin as in the crocodile. Scaly skin protected the dinosaur from the jeeth and claws of enemies and bites of small pests, such as mosquitoes and fleas. The scales on the skins of dinosaurs were roughly six-sided, like the cells in a bee’s honeycomb. The fossil skin of the Edmontosaurus, a duckbill Hadrosaur, was found. It reveals that the dinosaur was covered in thousands of small pebble-like scales with large lumps or tubercles spaced among them.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE YOUNG ONES OF DINOSAURS?  

In 1978, the fossils of the Maiosaura were found in Montano, USA. Maiasauro was a duckbill dinosaur or Hadrosaur. Fifteen babies along with many broken eggshells were found scattered around a large mound-shaped structure. The nest was about 2m across and covered with vegetation. The teeth of the babies found in the nest were slightly wom away. This indicated that they were not new bom. They had eaten food. Evidence from these nesting sites indicates that dinosaurs were canng parents. They protected and fed their young ones. In the Gobi desert, the Proto- ceratop, a pig-sized dinosaur, dug holes in the sand and buried the eggs. The female left them to hatch in the heat of the sand, while she herself protected them from predators.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE BRAIN OF A DINOSAUR?  

There is a broad link between the size of the body, and the level of intelligence if shows. We know animal’s brain, when compared to the size of intelligent, otherwise for sure thol dinosaurs were they would not have survived for millions of years. Some of the den Me series: plant-eating dinosaurs had small brains in proportion to their sizes. Whereas, some of the predatory dinosaurs had quite large brains because they needed to think quickly as they went after their prey. The tiny brain of the Stegosaurus weighed about 70-80 gm, whereas the whole dinosaur weighed up to 2 tons. The cleverest dinosaur was the Troodon, which was just the size of a large domestic dog. Its brain was very large in proportion to its size. Its brain was about 1/100th the weight of its whole body. It could run very fast, swerve and duck to catch its prey  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE TEETH ARRANGEMENT OF THE MEGALODON?  

The Megalodon appeared in pre historic oceans during the Oligocene Period. It ruled the oceans for 20 million years. It was similar to the present-day sharks, but much larger in size, about 65 feet, as tall as a six- storey building. The term Megalodon originated from the Greek word mega’ meaning big and ‘odon’ meaning tooth. Hence, the megalodon means o dinosaur with a big footh. It had hundreds of finely serrated and razor- sharp teeth which were spread over in 3 to 5 rows. The first two rows were used to grasp the prey. It could swallow huge chunks at a time. If the teeth were broken, lost or worn out, the other rows would iake their place. Its jaws were about 3 metres wide. Scientists have estimated this huge size from the sizes of the fossilised teeth and the fossilised jaws that have been found.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SPEEDS OF DINOSAURS?  

The speed of a dinastur can be es moted using the distance bet the footprints and the leg langth The huge Apotosourus and the Seurapods had short legs and were probably omong the slowest dinosous Massive hay plated dinosaurs, like the Ankylosou were also among the s est of the dinosaurs. bird-like, bipedal camive (Theropods) which long, slim hind-limbs, believed light bodies are be the speediesi dinosou These dinosaurs used the shori, feathered arms help speed up their running by gliding from frees to the ground However , these fosi dinosaurs werent much faster than modern-do and animals. The following speeds were calculated by R. A. Thulbor (1982, University of Queensland, Australia): The Sauropodomorph had a speed of 5 km/h, the Stegosours and the Ankylosaurs hac speeds of 6-8 km/h. Most Souropods wolked about 12-17 km/h, with a moximum speed of 20-30 km/h. Lorge Theropods and Ornithopods ochieved 20 km/h, the Ceratopsians achieved 25 km/h, small Theropods and Ornithopods reached 40km/h and the Omithomimids reached 60 km/h.   

WHAT DO KNOW ABOUT THE EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS?  

The dinosaurs came to a fairly sudden end 65 million years ago. Many other reptiles such as pterosaurs and plesiosaurs also disappeared. Several theories are put forth regarding the extinction of dinosaurs. One theory suggests that the continents were drifting apari continuously during the late Cretaceous Period. It resulted in a huge increase in volcanic activities. The hot lava and gases from these volcanoes filled the air with poisonous fumes to such high levels that they affected the dinosaurs and their sources of food i.e. plant. Another theory says that a giant meteorite from space hit the Earth which caused volcanoes. These volcanoes threw up vast amounts of dust and darkened the skies. Skies darkened by dust lasted for more than a year which meant the death of plants and, hence, the death of plant-eating animals. This eventually led to the death of flesh-eating dinosaurs who depended on the plant- eaters   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE HOMO SAPIENS OR WISE MAN?  

Scientists have discovered that the Homo sopiens had a skeleton shaped like the human skeleton of today. His brain was actually larger than the human brain of today. This early man was both a hunter and gatherer. He created stone tools, bone needles and bone fish hooks. He sewed clothes from animal skins with thread made from the other parts of the animal. He also made warm boots. One of the species of the Homo sapiens was the Homo Neanderials. They were much taller, very strong and marvellous hunters. They buried the dead with ceremony which suggests they might have had religious beliefs. The discoveries of Neandertal grave sites show that they decorated thei bodies with paint, possibly for religious reasons or perhaps for beauty. These sites provide the first evidence of the use of colours by them. The evidence also suggests that the Neandertals were the first to think about the possibility of an afterlife.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE CAVE PAINTINGS OF THE CRO-MAGNON MAN?  

The Cro-Magnon man painted marvellous and astonishing paintings on rock walls within their caves. Each cave had hundreds of different paintings by many different painters. Most of these cave paintings focussed on hunters and various animals. Natural colours were used by the early man. He even used charcoal to create these paintings besides using mineral pigments like iron oxide (red ochre) and black manganese. Besides the figures of people and animals, the other objects found in cave paintings were the stencils of hands. It is believed that the Cro-Magnon man, after creating his paintings on the cave walls, put his hand against the cave wall and outlined it with charcoal or paint. When you think of a cave, you may figure it out as a big place with high ceilings. Actually, it was not so during that time. The Cro-Magnon man crawled on his belly through the mazes of narrow, dark tunnels to the places where cave paintings have been found. The marvellous paintings were hidden deep within the darkest portions of the cave.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE SIZES OF DINOSAURS?  

Dinosaurs varied in sizes greatly. Some were about the size of a chicken only or even smaller. One of the smallest dinosaur was the Compsognathus, which was slim, with a long, narrow tail. It was just 70 cm in length and weighed less than 3 kg. This dinosaur lived during the late Jurassic Period about 155-150 million years ago and had small, sharp curved teeth. It moved through the under-growth. It fed on insects , spiders and worms. The biggest dinosaurs were the Sauropods such as the Brachiosaurus and the Argentinosaurus. The Brachio saurus was a plant-eater with a length of 25 m from nose to tail. Its weight is estimated to vary from 30 to 75 tonnes. It had huge front legs and a long neck which could reach food more than 13 m from the ground. It had small chisel-shaped teeth for snipping leaves from trees. The Argentinosaurus from South America weighed about 100 tons or more.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MESOLITHIC AGE? 

The name “Mesolithich comes from two separate words. The word Mesos means Middle and ‘Lithos’ means Stone. When climatic conditions began to change in the Mesolithic period, animals and humans were forced to adapt themselves to new environmental conditions. Animals became smaller in sizes and faster than before. So, humans had to develop their stone tools and weapons in a more practical form. Hunting and the collection of plants continued to be the main supply of food, but the humans began to store their food in storages for later consumption. More tools and weapons were made of bones and wood. One of the most interesting usages of stone of this period is what is called Microliths that were small tools made of Obsidian and flints. The domestication of animals was the main development of this period; the dog was domesticated during the Mesolithic Age. From the wall paintings, we understand that the artistic qualifications of this period are almost equal to preceding Old Stone Age.   

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE DINOSAURS THAT PROTECTED THEMSELVES,?  

Dinosaurs had various ways of protecting themselves. Some dinosaurs were too big to be brought down and eaten. Some could run very fast, like the ostrich dinosaurs which could attain speeds of 70 km/hr. and could escape their predators. The slow-moving dinosaurs were usually cover ed with spikes on horns to protect themselves. Many kinds of dinosaurs had protective armours which took the form of bony plates embedded in their skins. The Saliasaurus had hundreds of small bony lumps, each as big as a pea, packed together in the skin of its back. The Stegosaurus had several large roughly triangular shaped bony plates along its back. These stood upright in two rows. They were probably used to control the body temperature. The tail had four large spikes which were used for self-defence. The Sauropelta had a row of sharp spikes along each side of its body from head to tail to protect it from its enemies.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION?   

The Egyptian civilization flourished on the banks of River Nile about 3,000 years before Christ. No other civilization has captured the ima- gination of scholars and archaeo- logists so much. The Egyptians believed that the body and soul were important for human existence in life and in death. The graves were filled with food, tools, domestic ware, treasures – all the necessities of life so that the deceased might live happily in another world. Stone and clay pots comprise one of the most imporiant categories of Egyptian artifacts. The banks of River Nile provided the mud and clay used to make ceramic ware in those times. Food was cooked in clay pots, which also served as containers for grains, water, wine, beer, flour and oils, Baskets were also found in their homes. They were made from reeds and the leaves of date palms that grew along the Nile. BILA  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE VIKINGS’ TRAVELS?  

The Vikings hailed from Scandinavia and Denmark, and ruled northern seas from the 8th to the 17th centuries. Their travels them extensively. It has been proven that they did, in fact, reach North America almost 500 years before Columbus alleged “discovery” of the West Indies. They were fierce sea-raiders who fared much better at sea-battles than on land. Although they were more interested in establishing trade routes rather than looting and pillaging cities, yet they did raid several sea ports. They had an intricate and surprisingly sophisticated civilization during their time. They discovered North America nearly 500 years before Columbus. They called the land of their discovery “Vinland” which is now believed to be present-day New- foundland in Canada. They were heathens (non-Christians) in a period of time in which the rest of Europe was largely Christianized.  

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION?  

The Mayan civilization reached its peak from about AD 300 to AD 900, which is known as the Classic period. It thrived for more than 2,000 years. The people known as the Maya lived in the region that is now eastern and southern Mexico, Guate- mala, Belize, El Salvador and western Honduras. The Maya built massive stone pyramids, temples and sculpture, developed a system of writing using hieroglyphs and recorded their achievements in mathematics and astronomy. The earliest Maya were farmers who lived in small, scattered villages of pole and thoích houses. Slowly, society became more complex with the development of distinct social classes. At the top of society, a hereditary king ruled over each Maya city. The most distinctive Mayan achievement was in mathematics and astronomy. They introduced a pair of interlocking calendars, which were used to schedule ceremonies. One calendar was based on the sun and contained 365 days 

  WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THEAZTEC CIVILIZATION? 

Among the civilizations in Mesoamenico, the Aztec civilization among the most advan great cities and developed civilization. The Aztecs bu religious structure. Their con complex social, political on the site of present-day Nets Tenochtitlán, was located City Tenochtitlán was the of the Aztec world. The marvel of the island city were described of length by the Spanish conquerors who called if the “Venice of the Now World” because of its many canals. Aztec society was highly structured, based on agriculture, and guided by a religion that pervaded every aspect of life. The Aztecs worshipped gods that represented natural forces which they believed were vital to their agricultural economy. Aztec cities were dominated by giant stone pyramids topped by temples where human sacrifices were dedicated to the gods. In the Aztec empire, some manufactured goods were produced for the ruler or sold in the local markets. These included pottery, tools, jewellery, figurines, boskets and cloth.   

     HOW ARE PREHISTORIC     TIMES CATEGORIZED?      

    The geological time has been divided into three     eras. The oldest era is known as the Palaeozoic     era. It contains fossils from many primitive life – forms up to some     of the earliest land dwelling animals. During this ero, fish,     amphibians and early reptiles appeared. It lasted about 570-     245 million years ago. Then, there came the Mesozoic era     which lasted about 245-65 million years ago. This was the     time of giant reptiles called dinosaurs. This period is     further divided into three periods- the Triassic, the Jurassic     and the Cretaceous Period. During the Triassic Period     (245-205 million years ago), the dinosaurs began to     evolve. In the Jurassic Period (205-145 million years ago)     the dinosaurs reached their maximum sizes. During the     Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), the dinosaurs     evolved into the most varied kinds of any living creatures.     Finally, the third era is known as the Cenozoic ero, the     era in which     we live.        

  HOW DID DINOSAURS EVOLVE?     

     Dinosaurs were the members of the     le family to evolved into the most     and kinds of any living creatures     They ranged from tiny bird     animals to mondrous beasts     that were the largest animals to     have ever lived on lond.     They appeared     about 225     million years     90 and     ruled the     Earth for     about 160     million years. The word     dinosaur means a     terrible lizard. The     main difference     -M World     School     between reptiles and dinosaurs     was the way their (dinosaurs’) bodies     were supported by their legs. The legs     stuck out sideways from their bodies. It     helped them to drag themselves on the     ground. Some dinosaurs were     carnivores; they ate meat and fish,     Some were herbivores; they ate only     plants. There were some dinosaurs     which were omnivores; they ate both     plants and meat. No one knows what     colour dinosaurs were. Perhaps, some     had skins that matched their     surroundings, whereas some had     bright markings to attract mates.

 HOW DID PTEROSAURS FLY?    

      Various reptiles developed the ability to glide, but the Pterosaurs     were the only ones to fly truly. They did not have feathers because     their large wings were more like those of obat than a bird. A     pierosour’s arms were quite short. Its wings were supported by a long     fourth finger, leaving the other fingers free to function as a hand. Aihin     Dodom     width     www.facebook strani dobila haha     AM World     School     CBGE Alation No. 2132024     skin-like membrane was streiched     from the elongated finger to the side     of the body and sometimes to the     hind legs. Fossils suggest that some     Pterosaurs such as Sordes had fur     and may have been warm blooded,     agile fliers rather than slow clumsy     gliders. The biggest pterosaur dis-     covered was Quetzalcoatlus. It is     believed to have been the largest ever     flying animal. Its beak was longer than     an adult human and had a wingspan     of about 12 metres across. Its wings     were as long as those of a four-seate     aeroplane.     www.worldschool.com     worldschoolemail.com     Mamwork  

   HOW WERE DINOSAURS NAMED?      

    Every dinosaur has a scientific name which usually originales from the     Latin or Greek language. The names of most of the dinosaurs end in     LI     saurus, which means a reptile.     The name of a dinosaur often     refers to its characteristic feature,     for example:     ‘Baryonyx’ which     Imeans a ‘heavy claw’. This     dinosaur got its name from the     massive claw on its thumb. Some     dinosaurs were named after the     places where their fossils were     found. A dinosaur Minmi was     located at Minmi Crossing in     Queensland, Australia. More than     100 kinds of dinosaurs have been     named after the people who first     discovered their fossils, dug them     up or reconstructed the dinosaurs.     The large duckbill Lambeosaurus     was named after Lawrence Lambe, a Canadian fossil expert. The heavy     clawed meat eater Baryonyx’s real name was Baryonyx Walkeri after Bill     Walker who discovered its massive claw in a clay-pit quarry in Surrey,     England. 

    HOW WERE THE TEETH OF DINOSAURS?

          The hardest part of a dinosaur’s body was its teeth. Teeth are the most     common fossil remains of dinosaurs found. The teeth of the dinosaurs     were different in sizes and shaped like daggers, knives, shears, pegs,     combs, etc. In some dinosaurs, about three quarters of a tooth was     fixed into the jaw bone, and     hence, only a quarter of the     tooth was visible. The     shape, number and layout     of teeth indicated what type     of food a dinosaur ate. The     teeth of the Iguanodon (a     planteater) had angled tops     that rubbed past each other     in a grinding motion. Some     of the duckbill dinosaurs     had more than 1,000 teeth,     all at the back of their     mouths. Dinosaurs grew new teeth to     replace old, worn-out or broken teeth     just like modern reptiles.

         HOW DID THE FEET OF DINOSAURS DIFFER?  

        The feet of dinosaurs differed according     to their sizes, weights and lifestyles. The     front feet of a dinosaur had metacarpal     bones in the lower wrist or upper hand.     Besides, it had two or three phalange     bones in each finger or toe tipped by     clows. The rear feet of the dinosaur had     metatarsal bones in the lower ankle.     Some dinosaurs had five toes in each foot like most     reptiles, birds and mammals. Ostrich dinosaurs     such as Gallimimus had very long feet and     long, slim toes for running fast. Many fast-     running dinosaurs had fewer toes to reduce their weights, for example     :     the Gallimimus had 3 toes per back foot. Sauropods had feet with     rounded bases supported by a wedge of fibrous, cushion-like tissue.     Most Sauropods had claws on     their first three toes and small     blunt ‘hooves’ on the other two     toes  

 HOW DID DINOSAURS MAKE SOUNDS?        

  Foss show that posure mode a variely of     loud sounds unlike the     Ginosaurs had a     SE Affiliation No. 2132921     School     AM World     structures on their heads. There structures were probably used     amplify sound. The head-crests of some hadrosaurs contained tube     called respiratory airways which we     used for breathing. When air wc     forcefully blown through the hea     crest passages, it could have made     loud sound like a roar or bellow.      fossil skulls of some Hadrosaurs, su     as Kritosaurus, suggest that there w     a loose flap of skin like a floppy b     between the nostrils and the eyes.      dinosaur might have inflated its loc     nasal flap of skin like a balloon     make a bellowing sound. Dinosa     made sounds to keep in touch –     other members of their herd, frigh     enemies away or impress their mate    

 HOW DID DINOSAURS USE THEIR TAILS?        

  The dinosaurs used their tails for various purposes     which are given below     1. For protection – Scientists believe that     some dinosaurs like the souropods might     have used their massive tails as whips.     to lash at their attackers. Some     Ankylosaurids like     Euoplocephalus     and Ankylosaurus     had bony nodules at     the end of their tails which they used as defense.     Also, some theropods, like Shunosaurus, Omeisaurus     and may be Mamenchisaurus had tail clubs for protection.     2. Counterbalance – Most dinosaurs used their fails to     counterbalance their long necks or large, heavy heads. 3. Tripod leg.     Some dinosaurs might have used their tails to build nests, move     vegetation etc. The tail was similar in nature to the elephant’s trunk.     4. Help turn quickly Some     dinosaurs needed to run speedily and     turn quickly in order to catch a prey or     avoid predators. In order to tum quickly     while running, the movement of     a tail can shift the runner’s     direction, allowing swift     tums    

 HOW DO WE ESTIMATE THE AGES OF DINOSAURS?   

       Recently, scientists have found that most dinosaurs had bones with     growth rings (called lines of arrested growth, abbreviated LAG) by which     we can calculate the ages of dinosaurs. These lines are visible only     under a microscope. The bones have to be sliced into thin sections and     viewed with a polarized lens under the microscope. It is quite similar to     looking at the growth rings of trees to determine the age of a tree. Each     year of growth leaves a trace in the bone (or free     trunk). Another method to estimate their ages is     based on the sizes of their bodies, the known life-     spans of modern-day animals, and the fact     that large animals generally live longer than     smaller ones. It has been estimated that     the huge Sauropods, like Apatosaurus,     Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus and Super-     saurus, lived to be roughly 100 years of     age. Smaller dinosaurs probably had     shorter life-spans.     

    HOW DID THE FIRST BIRD LOOK LIKE?  

       Birds evolved from small meal-eating dinosaurs. They resembled them     in many features, such as teeth, their long beak-like mouths and long,     bony tails. The first true     bird which could fly was     known as     Archaeo     -pteryx     which     meant     ‘ancient     wing. This bird lived during the     Jurassic Period about 155-150     million years ago in Europe. It     was 60cm long,     about the size of     a large crow. Three clawed fingers grew hallway along the front of     each of its wing-shaped front limbs. The flying muscles of the     Archaeopteryx were anchored to its large breastbone. The     Archaeopteryx probably flew, but not as fast as today’s birds. It could     glide well, swoop and turn as it pursued flying prey such as     dragonflies. Its strong and long legs     suggested that it was an able walker     and runner  

 

   HOW DID EARLY FISH LOOK LIKE? 

         For millions of years, the sea was home to a huge variety of creatures     such as shellfish, worms, sponges and jellyfish. None of these animals     had a backbone. Then, new kinds of animals appeared in the sea     about 510 million years ago. They were the first fish and the first     animals with backbones. These were very large in sizes, much larger     than the giant sharks of today. They     hunted smaller fish. The armoured fish     grew bony plates to protect their soft     bodies. Other fish had bodies covered     with sharp spines. About 400 million     years ago, fish began to creep out of     water onto land. Many were able to     wriggle along on land. But the ordinary     fins were not sufficient for them to lift     their bodies. The Coelacanth was a     large fish which was Im long. It had     strange leg-like fins    

 HOW DID MAMMALS EVOLVE?  

        Mammals have backbones. Their bodies are covered with fur or how     The most important feature is that they feed their young on milk. A     group of mammals like reptiles preceded the dinosaurs. The us     fuck.com     .     tel.com     –Memortschool posle     mammals appeared on the Earth about 220 million years ago. These     early mammals gradually disappeared. During the Triassic Period,     they were replaced by true mammals.     It is quite probable that these later     mammals had hair and other features     Mammals survived after the     dinosaurs had died out. Then, they     became the ruling animals on the     Earth. Today, there are about 4,200     different kinds of mammals. They live     on the Earth. Many live on land but     some like the bats are able to glide     through the air on the wings of skin.     Other mammals such as whales,     dolphins and seals swim in the sea,    

 HOW DID HUMANS EVOLVE?  

        Our earliest ancestors were apes that walked upright on two legs.     Ramapithecus was a small ape that may have been a distant ancestor     of man Australopithecus, meaning ‘southern ape’ was one of the first     apes to walk upright     , but still had many ape-like features. Il lived at     least three million years ago and was ont and hairy. The first true     humans appeared around two million years ago. They were called     homo habilis and were found in South Africa. They were the first tool     user. That is why they were called     ‘handy men’ Then, there appeared     homo erectus about one million years     ago. They were better tool makers and     shaped stones into hand axes. They     were the first to use fire. They ate both     plants and meat. But both of the early     humans discussed above were not     considered as the modern humans     though they looked     very much like them     They had heavy     jaws, bony eyebrow     ridges and sloping     backs.       

   HOW LONG AGO DID MODERN HUMANS APPEAR?    

      called Homo sapiens meaning wise men. They first appeared in Africa     Modern humans appeared just about 100,000 years ago. They were     From there, they spread out across the world. They lived in cave     they made huts from branches coveres     entrances and in places sheltered by overhanging rocks. In the open,     with skins. In Europe, they lived during     the freezing Ice Age, a time when     glaciers covered the land. The Ice Age     ended 12,000 years ago. As the     climate grew warmer, the Homo     sapiens migrated across the world     The humans who lived in Europe     during the Ice Age were among the firs     artists. They painted the pictures of     horses, bison and deer on the walls of     their caves. Bone and ivory were     carved into the figures of animals and     people. Anatomically, modern     humans appear in the fossil record in     Africa about 130,000 years ago.         

 HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE EARLY MAN APPEARED ABOUT 3 MILLION YEARS AGO?   

       Around 3 million     years ago, the higher     primates, induding     the opes and the sony     mon, first oppoored     Apes and humans,     however, differed in     many ways, Humans     like hominids could     stand upright Apes     could not do so.     Their hands were     also different. The hands of Apes were made for climbing and clinging.     You might wonder os to how we know about these hominids who lived     over 3 million years ago. In 1974, a skeleton was found in Africa. The     bones were those of young female,     who must have been approximately 20     years old when she died. Scientists     named this “young lady’ Lucy. About 3     million years ago, when Lucy wos olive,     she was rather short, about 4 feet tall,     and probably weighed about 50     pounds. Her brain was about the size     of an orange. Her bones showed that     she probably walked erect, although     that she still had the ability to climb     trees easily. There were no signs of     broken bones or teeth marks. Scientists     suspect that she probably fell into a     lake or river and got drowned,   

  HOW DID THE HOMO HABILIS SURVIVE?       

   The Homo hobilis was taller than his ancestors, the human     primates. He had     larger brain. He crec     slone tools to help him     live more comfortable     and to protect himsel     against the meat eating     animals. He took shelte     under cliffs, wheneve     required. Although he     made stone tools and     weapons yet these     weapons were still very     basic. His moin diet wos     probably fruits roots,     nuts and vegetables     that he found growing     wild. The Homo habilis made complires but he did not know how to     make fire. Since he did not have fire-making skills, he had to wait unti     he found something buming from o     natural cause, for example: from a flash     of lightning. A complire had to be     carefully watched. If it went out, he did     not know how to start it again. Small     groups of these people lived together for     protection and efficiency. The size of     the group depended upon the amount     of food available. The groups would     disband and move on, as per the     requirement of the food.      

    HOW DID THE HOMO ERECTUS PROGRESS?     

     The Homo erectus was     about the same size os     modern human. But the     size of his brain was only     two-thirds of the size of the     brain of a modern human     being. He was the first to     look like the human being of     today because his teeth and     jaws were shoped somewhat     like those of today’s human     being. His tool-making skills     were considerably improved. His     weapons included stone axes and knives. The Homo erectus was     probably the first hunter     . The most important thing was that he had fire     making skills which changed his life dramatically. As man had already     discovered fire, most animals were     afraid of it. So, a roaring campfire     gave protection to a group or tribe of     the Home erectus. If the fire went out,     he could relight it. The control of fire     made it possible for the Homo erectus     to move into colder regions. With the     passage of time the Homo erectus     began to cook his food consistently    

       HOW DO WE DEFINE THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE?      

    The Stone Age or the Palaeolithic Era is the name given to the period     period of human history when tools and weapons were made of stone     between about 1.5 million and 20,000 years ago. I was the very early     The Palaeolithic Age is     further divided into     Early Stone Age (Lower     Poloeolithic), 1.5 million     250,000 years ago     Hominids (ancestors of     human beings) including     the Australopithecus     the Homo erectus, the     Homo ergaster and the     Homo habilis roamed     most of the earth and     began making the first stone tools. The Homo sapiens including     Neanderthals arrived around 500,000 years ago. Important Lower     Palaeolithic sites include Olorgesailie, Kenya and Swartkrans, and     South Africa     Middle Stone Age (Middle     Palaeolithic), 250,000-45,000 years     ago. The MSA witnessed the evolution     of the first modern Homo sapiens     which had specialized tools such as     handaxes. This species of human     beings had learnt to control fire.     Late Stone Age (Upper Palaeolithic),     45,000-20,000 years ago. By LSA     only fully modern humans had left.     They spread all over the planet. The     LSA is characterized by fully modem     techniques such as cave art, hunting,     and the use of a wide range of tools.    

 

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