Natural Disasters Questions And Answers

Natural Disasters
  1. . Introduction 
  2. . Volcanoes and Earthquakes
  3. . Hurricanes, Cyclones and Typhoons 
  4. . Tsunamis and Floodsa

INTRODUCTION

1.what is a natural disaster?

human, cause that results in large-scale loss of life or A natural disaster is an event with a natural, as opposed to damage to property. It could be related to weather, geology or even factors outside the Earth. Examples are earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts and flooding.

2.what are earthquakes?

Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. They Occur at or near fault lines: cracks in the Earth’s crust that mark the sections. When these sections move Earthquake boundary between two different relative to one another, the resulting vibration produces an earthquake.

3.what is a volcano ?

A volcano is an opening on the surface of a planet or moon that
allows material warmer than its surroundings to escape from its interior. When this material escapes, it causes an eruption Volcanoes can be active, dormant, or extinct.

Natural Disasters Questions And Answers

VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES

1.What is the Ring of Fire ?

The Pacific Ring of Fire is a horseshoe shaped 10,000 kilometres
long region in the Pacific Ocean. It runs from Chile in South America to the Southern part of Alaska in the cast to Russia, Philippines, New Guinea and New Zealand’s North Island in the west. It has 75% of the Ring of Fire earthquakes of the world occur in this region. world’s total active and dormant volcanoes and 90% of the total.

2.What is the most active volcano on Earth?

The most active volcano on Earth is Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. It has been erupting since the last 3,500 years. Its most recent
eruption was as late as in 2011. Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy.

3.Which is the worst earthquake ever?

The most powerful earthquake ever recorded on Earth was the 1960 Valdivia Earthquake which measured 9.5 on Richter scale. However the most deadly earthquake occurred in 1556 in Shaanxi, China. Its magnitude was 8.0 Richter. It killed about 8,30,000 people.

Natural Disasters Questions And Answers

HURRICANES, CYCLONES AND TYPHOONS

1.What is a hurricane?

A hurricane is a huge storm fent be up to 600 miles across and have strong winds spiraling inward and word at speeds of 75 to 200 mph. Each hurricane usually its or over a week, moving 10-20 miles per hour over the open ocean.

2.Where do hurricanes occur mostly?

Hurricanes typically form between 5 to 15 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The Coriolis Force, which is Deeded to create the spin in the hurricane, becomes too weak near the equator. So, hurricanes can never form there,

3.What is the difference between a hurricane, a cyclone and a typhoon?

Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon; we just use different names for these storms in different places. In the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, the term “hurricane” is used The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a “typhoon” and “cyclones” occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.

TSUNAMIS AND FLOODS

1.What is a tsunami?

The word tsunami comes from the Japanese word meaning harbour ave. ” Tsunamis are sometimes incorrectly called “tidal waves — tsunamis are not caused by the tides. A tsunami is a series of ocean waves Tsunami Wores landslides, or volcanic activity. generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor,

2.How big can tsunamis get?

A tsunami may be less than a foot (30 centimeters) in height on the surface of the open ocean. But as they crash upon the shore their height depends on the underwater surface features. They can be as high as 30 m (100 feet) or more

3.What are floods?

A flood is a great flowing or overflowing of water onto land that is not usually submerged. A flood happens when too much rain falls and cannot be absorbed by the soil. Rivers burst their banks and the water spills onto the Floods land.

Natural world

WHERE DO FROGS LAY THEIR EGGS? 

  Frogs are amphibians, which  means they can live on land as  well as in water. Many kinds of  frog go to the water to lay their  eggs. Mostly, they lay their  eggs in spring. The frogs lay  eggs in quiet places, usually at  the edges of ponds and small  lakes. The yellow free frog  chooses to lay its eggs in water  or on plants overhanging  water depending on the amount of  shade. In shaded ponds, the frogs lay  eggs on leaves above the water; while in  unshaded ponds, the frogs lay most of  their eggs in the water. The eggs are  enclosed in a mass of jelly which is attached to a plant in the pond.  When the eggs are first laid, the mass is the size of a teacup, but it  swells up with water to several times  the size, by the time the eggs hatch.  The eggs may take a few days or a few  weeks to hatch. Afier hatching, each of  the tadpoles lives life like that of a fish.  About 7-10 weeks later, the tadpoles  grow legs and lungs and develop into  frogs and are ready to leave the water.  The male Darwin’s frog swallows the  eggs and keeps them in its throat until  they hatch and pop out of its mouth.

 WHERE DO GREEN TURTLES LAYTHEIR EGGS?   

  Turtles, tortoises and encom  all belong to the family  reptiles called chelonian Turtles are mostly found  the sea and fresh water  turtles, whether they live in  land, in fresh water or in the  SEO, lay their eggs on land  Sea turtles lay their eggs on  sandy beaches. Many female SEO tunes  have a homing instinct. This means the  they return to the beach, where they were  born, to lay their eggs. Laying eggs on  land is hard work for a female sea turtle. While swimming, o female  sea turtle can glide through the water with ease. But on a beach, she  must slowly drag herself across the sand. A female sea turtle looks for spot that will be safe at the time of a high tide. Once she has found o  safe spot, she digs a hole in the sand  with her back feet. The female sea  turtle, then, lays her eggs inside the  hole and covers them with sand. When  the work is finished, she heads towards  he water. Over the period, the sand  incubates or warms the eggs. This  helps the baby turtles grow inside the  safety of their shells until they are ready  to hatch. Most baby sea turtles hatch  after about two months of incubation, 

WHERE DO THE EMPEROR AND KING PENGUINS PROTECT THEIR EGGS?

   Penguins live in huge colonies called rookeries along the coast of  swimmers. The emperor and king  Antarctica and nearby islands. They cannot fly but they are excellent  penguins do not build any nest. Each  of them lays only one egg. It is the male  bird which has the responsibility of  taking care of the egg and protecting  the young chick after its birth. In case of  an emperor penguin, the male emperor  penguin keeps  the newly laid egg warm, but it does not sit on  the egg as many other birds do. Each male  emperor penguin stands and protects its egg  from its predator by balancing the egg on its  feel and covering it with feathered skin known  as a brood pouch. Mother penguin, then, sets  off back to the sea on an extended hunting trip  that lasts some  two months. Male emperor penguins  with their valuable eggs sit huddled  together on the ice throughout the  dark weeks and months of the  Antarctic night. During this time, they  lose about 40% of their body weight.  They use less energy while asleep. So,  they prefer to sleep as long as  possible. It is not unusual for emperor  penguins to sleep for 20 or more hour  a day.

    WHERE ARE PUFFINS FOUND?   

of puffins, A puffin belongs to the auk family of seabirds. There are three species -the Atlantic puffin, the Homed puffin, and the tufted putting For most of the year, when they are not breeding, putting are to be found bobbing about on the waters of the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans often hundreds of kilo meters in the from land. The Atlantic Puffin is the smallest of the putting. It is found exclusively North Atlantic Ocean. In North America, it nests from Labrador to the northeastern United States. In Europe, it nests from south to the Brittany Coast of France, northwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Northern Russia. Most of the world’s puffins are found in Iceland where sixty percent of the population breeds. One of the species of the puffins has a very large triangular bill which is bright red, blue, and yellow in the summer. This species breeds on rocky islands of the coasts of Siberia, Alaska, and British Columbia. The puffing of this species give birth to their young ones in burrows, in rocky cavities, or among rocks

WHERE ARE COBRAS FOUND?   

Cobra is the common  name for the members of  the family of venomous  snakes known for their  intimidating looks and  deadly bites. Cobras are  recognized by the hoods  that they flare when angry  or disturbed. The hood of  a cobra is created by elongated  ribs that extend the loose skin of  the neck behind the cobra’s  head. Cobras often feed on eggs  and chicks raided from poultry  houses. Their natural prey  includes small mammals, loads, lizards, birds and other snakes. The  different species of cobras live in habitats ranging from tropical rain  forests and swamps to savannas and  deserts. Because many species of  cobras prey on small rodents, snakes  may hunt or live in areas around  human settlements or in fields where  crops grow and rodents thrive. Cobras  are found in most parts of Africa except  for the Sahara Desert. Their range  extends through the Middle East, Central  Asia, South Asia, into Southeast Asia (as  far as Indonesia and the Philippines)  and into southern China, 

WHERE DOES A HEDGEHOG GO IN WINTER?  

  A hedgehog is a small which looks like o porcupine has short ears and legs, o shon tail, and a long nose. A hedger has stift, sharp needle-like growth, called spines, on its body to protect itself from its predella It can roll itself into o prickly bol to protect its soft underparts when there is danger. In winter, a hedgehog goes into hibernation, which is a sleep-like state in order to protect itself from the cold on reduce its need for food. The body temperature of the hedgehog, decreases and its heartbeat and breathing are also slowed down to great extent. In this state, it requires little energy to keep itself alive. can live on the food which is stored in the form of fall in the body Hedgehogs nest in a hibernaculum throughout the winter, but they may wake up several times. The nest is about 50cm in diameter. It is mostly made of leaves, grass, and various other plants. Hedgehogs also nest in semi-manmade structures, such as a pile of logs.  

 WHERE ARE BACTERIA FOUND?

   Bacteria are unicellular and share the characteristics of both plants  and animals. They are the most widespread forms of life existing on the unearth. They cannot be  seen with the naked eye.  They are visible only under  a microscope. Hence, they  are called micro-organisms  About two thousand  species of bacteria are  known to have existed and  they are found practically  everywhere on the earth  Some exist in the mouths, noses and  intestines of animals, including human  beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves,  dead trees, animal wastes and carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water,  in milk and in most food. They live in dust  and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil contains about a billion bacterial  cells. The human mouth is home to more than 500 species of bacteria  Some bacteria thrive in the most  forbidding, uninviting places on the  earth, from nearly boiling hot springs  to super-chilled Antarctic lakes buried  under the sheets of ice. Most bacteria  are either harmless or actually helpful  to other forms of life. They are  responsible for the decomposition of  dead plants and animals. They also  play an important role in the digestive  process of almost all living organisms.

    WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?

   Coral is a limestone formation formed in the  sea by millions of tiny  animals called polyps.  Coral animals cannot  live in water cooler than  165°F (18°C), therefore,  coral reefs are found  mostly in warm, shallow,  and tropical seas. Coral  reefs are located in three primary regions located between 20 degrees  N and 20 degrees 5 of the equator: the  Indo-Pacific, the Western Atlantic and the  Red Sea. The Indo-Pacific region stretches  from southeast Asia through Polynesia  and Australia, eastward across the Indian  Ocean to Africa. This is the largest and  richest assemblage of reels in terms of the  species of corals and fish. The Western  Atlantic region stretches from Florida to Brazil, including Bermuda, the  Bahamas, the Caribbean, Belize and  the Gulf of Mexico. The Red Sea is the  smallest of the three regions, located  between Africa and Saudi Arabia. It is  considered a separate region because  of the high number of coral reefs  found only in this area. Coral reefs are  not found along the west coast of  North America and South America as  well as the west coast of Africa because  of the strong cold coastal currents that  reduce water temperatures  areas.  in these

 WHERE IS THE MARINE IGUANA FOUND?   

Iguanas are large lizards  which are found around the  Pacific and in America.  Unlike other lizards which  eat insects, iguanas eat only  fruits, flowers and leaves  The marine iguana is the  only lizard that spends  most of the time in the sea,  It is found mostly in the  Galapagos Island. Although the iguanas on each island look a little  different and are different in sizes yet they all are the same kinds of  iguanas. Iguanas develop their colours as they get older – the young  are black, while adults can be the combinations of black, green, red or  grey, depending on the island on which they live. All iguanas are good  swimmers, but the marine iguanas are better swimmers. They swim by  moving their bodies from side to side, with their legs held to their sides.  Their flattened tails are perfect for swimming. Their claws are longer  and sharper than those of land iguanas. So, they can cling tightly to  rocks along the shore without being pulled away by the waves. Marine  iguanas have blunt noses, which make  it easier for them to scrape algae off  the rocks with their sharp teeth. 

WHERE DOES STARCH COME FROM?

    Starch is produced by plants and is  found in the form of tiny grains.  Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from  the air through small pores called stomata. It also has a pigment  called chlorophyll, which absorbs  sunlight and combines water from  the soil and carbon dioxide and  tums them into sugar. This sugar is  changed by the plants into starch  which is stored in the form of small  granules in large quantities in  stems, leaves, roots, seeds and  fruits. Plants store starch so that it  may serve as food for the development of seedlings or new shoots  until they can manufacture their own food materials. Both human and  animals consume starch because they serve as an important sourced  energy Starch is often found in fruits, seeds and in the rhizomes or  tubers of plants. It is the major source of energy in these food-items  Cornstarch, in particular, is used in  cooking for thickening foods such as  sauces. In industry, it is used in the  manufacture of adhesives, paper and textiles.

  WHERE DOES A COCONUT GROW? 

  The coconut palm is native to  southeast Asia and the islands of  Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean  But now, it has been introduced  into all the tropical and sub.  tropical parts of the world. It is  grown both over the Asian  continent (India, Sri Lanka,  Indonesia) and in Central and  South America (Mexico, Brazil),  in Africa, the largest producing  countries are Mozambique,  Tanzania and Ghana, 90% of  the world’s coconut production for exports sources from the Asia  Pacific region. The coconut palm is a tall, graceful tree. The coconut  palm thrives on sandy, saline soils; it requires abundant sunlight and  regular rainfalls over the year. It has a single trunk which is 20-30 m  tall. Its bark is smooth and grey, marked by ringed scars. The coconut  fruit forms at the base of the palm fronds (leaves). One tree can  produce up to 50 coconuts. The coconut palm produces a crown of pinnately com-pound yellow-green  leaves called fronds. Each frond  reaches 15 to 17 feet in length.

  WHERE IS COCOA GROWN?   

The birthplace of cocoa is Central  America and South America. It is  believed that Christopher Columbus  discovered cocoa beans in Europe  in 1502. The cocoa seeds were  commercially cultivated first in  11879, in Ghana. Even today,  Ghana is the largest producer of  cocoa. Equatorial regions are  most appropriate for growing  cocoa trees which need continuous  moisture. Regions having a rainfall  of 50-100 mm are most suitable  for these plants. A cocoa tree grows  to a height of about 8 metres.  Twice a year, small, star-like pink  and yellow flowers bloom. After a certain interval of time, flowers grow  into fruits or pods of the shapes of eggs, which are around 6-10 inches  long and 3-4 inches thick. These pods take around six months  mature, Chocolate is made  grinding the kernels of cocoa beans !  a paste called chocolate liquor. The  liquor is hardened in moulds to mo  chocolate. Cooking chocolate is bite  whereas eating chocolate has sug?  and milk added to it.

 WHERE DO SPICES COME FROM? 

   Spices are the buds, barks, roots, berries, and aromatic seeds that are harvested for use in flavoring food items during cooking, Most spices are grown in the tropical regions of the world, with some thriving in the cool misty highlands. The Phoenicians traded in spices about 2,500 years ago. The great voyages and explorations of Columbus in the 1400s were mainly to find ways to reach the source of spices in Southeast Asia. Spices made from fragrant tropical plants have long been used for Havour food, Cinnamon is the inner bark of a laurel tree native to Shri Lanka, Pepper comes from the fruit or seeds of a tropical climbing shrub which originally grew on the western coast of India. The pepper berries are green at first. Then, they become yellow. At last, they turn red. After they have turned red, they are plucked and spread out to dry in the sun, When dried, they turn black and are ground. Saffron is the yellow stigma of the purple saffron crocus. It is the costliest of all spices. It takes 1,70,000 flowers to make just 1 kg of saffron

 WHERE WAS TEA DISCOVERED? 

  was in the Southwest part of  China that Chinese lewe found. According to one  popular Chinese legend, Shennong, the legendary  Emperor of China, inventor of  agriculture and Chinese  medicine, was drinking a  bowl of boiling water some  time around 2737 BC. The wind blew  and a few leaves from a nearby tree fell  Into his water and began to change its  Blower. The ever inquisitive and curious  monarch look a sip of the brew and was  pleasantly surprised by its flavour. Major to growing regions of the world are  India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan, Kenya,  Turkey Indonesia, Vietnam, Argentina,  Tanzania, Taiwan, Malawi and Zimbabwe. Tea grows best in trepice  and sub-tropical climates with some warm days and moist, cool nights  world’s finest teas are grown  altitudes between 3,000 and 600  feet. Tea requires, at least, 50 inches  rainfall a year, it prefers  acidic Only the top 1-2 inches high buck on  leaves of a mature tea plant  picked. These buds and leaves  called flushes. A plant grows flush every seven to ten days during  growing season. 

WHERE IS THE SECRETARY BIRD FOUND?   

The secretary bird is a bird of prey.  Unlike other raptors, it has long legs,  wings and a tail. The bird gets its name  from its crest of long feathers that look  like the quill pens which the 19th-  century office workers used to tuck  behind their ears. The secretary bird is  found only in Africa (south of the  Sahara desert.) Its preferred habitat is  open grass plains and steppes. The bird  is basically dove-grey in colour, with  black on the wings, thighs and  elongated central tail feathers. The  short, down-curved bill is backed by  an area of bare, red and yellow skin.  The secretary bird stands three feet high. It is  renowned for its ability to catch snakes, but it  probably does not catch as many snakes as  might be imagined. It will also catches and eats  virtually anything  which is not too  big to swallow,  such as lizards,  insects and small  mammals. It usually chases its prey  along the ground. Once it has catches  its  prey, it repeatedly attacks the head  of its prey with its short, sharp rear talon.  Secretary birds are almost completely  silent birds, except for rare croaking  sounds they utter while displaying. 

WHERE WOULD YOU FIND  THE TRAVELLER’S TREE?

   Ravenala madagascariensis, also known as the traveler’s trees traveler’s palm, is a  tropical tree from the same  family as the birds of  paradise. It is native to the  island of Madagascar. The  plant is shaped like a huge  fan made of feathers. It can grow up to 30# 60 H (10  m to 20 m) tall. The leaves  of the traveler’s tree are  symmetrically grouped and  give the tree the shape of a hand fan. Leaves can be up to 10 h (3.  long. The traveler’s tree grows best in well-drained and moist grounds  Edible seeds are produced in fruit capsules after finally, white summer blooms. According to some beliefs, this plant produces water at the  base of its leaves and is thus valuable to a traveler. But actually  , the  tree does not produce water. It is rain which has been trapped in the  sheaths that cover the ravenala’s leaves. The water can be obtained by  pricking the stems of the leaves and  has been used for drinking in times of  scarcity

WHERE WAS THE GINGER PLANT FIRST GROWN? 

  Ginger is commonly used as a cooking spice  throughout the world. The ginger plant  has a long history of cultivation. It is known  to have originated in China and then spread  to India, southeast Asia, West Africa and  the Caribbean Nowadays, it is cultivated  all over tropical and sub-tropical Asia,  Fifty per cent of the world’s harvest is  produced in India. The other major  producers in the world include Brazil,  Jamaica and Nigeria. A ginger plant can  grow to about 1 m tall. The upright shoots  sprout from the rhizome at the base of the  plant. Rhizomes are knobbly and fleshy,  covered in ring-like scars. This is the  important part for food and medicine.  Although the rhizomes grow underground yet they are swollen stems,  not roots. Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild  taste. They are often pickled in vinegar as snacks or just cooked as  ingredients in many dishes. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely  potent and is often used as a spice in  Indian recipes and Chinese cuisines to flavour dishes. Ginger contains up to  three per cent of an essential oil that  gives it fragrance.

WHERE IS THE WORLD’S BIGGEST  CRAB FOUND?   

Crabs are decapods. They are ten-legged omnivores, but the from  pair of legs are specialized with enlarged claws. So, they are common  described as eight-legged creatures. Crabs vary in sizes from the pea crab  only a few millimetres wide, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg-span  of up to 4 m. The Japanese spider crab is the largest known arthropod.  The size of its body is 37 cm and its weight is up to 20 kg. A crab’s  natural habitat is on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean around Japan. It  often lives on the seabed at the depths of 150 to 800 m, but is found  most prominently in the depths of 200  to 300 m. In spring, it can often be  found laying eggs in waters as shallow  as 50 m. It has an orange body, but it  has white spots on its thin legs. The  width of its oval-shaped and vertically  rounded shell can reach up to 30 cm,  and can be up to 40 cm long. Its  compound eyes are situated on the  front. Its two thorns stick out between  them. It feeds on dead animals and  shellfish. It is believed to have a lite  expectancy of up to 100 years.  

 

Nature

What do you understand by the term Nature?    

Nature is everything that  was not made by  man. It is the  natural  physical or  material  world.  Nature refers  to the  happenings of  the physical  world, and also to  life in broad spectrum.  Weather, organisms, land forms,  celestial bodies and much more are part of nature. Scientists study  the way the element of nature work. Things that have been made by  people are said to be man-made or called artifacts.  There are natural sciences that study different parts of nature, for  example the science of ecology is about plants and animals as a  whole, while biology studies every type of living thing.  Humans are a major model of nature,  and are the most widely studied  natural inhabitants of our planet.  Humans interact with each other in  their natural environment on a  constant basis. Every part of nature –  he whole lot from the air to the dirt  on the ground – is mutually  supporting    

What do you understand by the term Nature?    

Nature is everything that  was not made by  man. It is the  natural  physical or  material  world.  Nature refers  to the  happenings of  the physical  world, and also to  life in broad spectrum.  Weather, organisms, land forms,  celestial bodies and much more are part of nature. Scientists study  the way the element of nature work. Things that have been made by  people are said to be man-made or called artifacts.  There are natural sciences that study different parts of nature, for  example the science of ecology is about plants and animals as a  whole, while biology studies every type of living thing.  Humans are a major model of nature,  and are the most widely studied  natural inhabitants of our planet.  Humans interact with each other in  their natural environment on a  constant basis. Every part of nature –  he whole lot from the air to the dirt  on the ground – is mutually  supporting      

Why are some frogs poisonous?    

Frogs are amphibians. It  means that they can live  on land, as well as in  water. Frogs are superb  jumpers with long, back  legs to propel them into  the air. Most of them  have suckers on their  fingers, which help them  land safely on slippery  surfaces. They catch fast  moving insects, with the  help of their long sticky tongues. All frogs are not poisonous. Some  frogs have developed a venom, which they use, when they are  attacked by the predators.  The common toad contains a poison, which it exudes from its skin,  when attacked. Dogs and cats experience this poison. However,  they seldom suffer serious effects. Cane toads are very large toads,  which contain drugs. These drugs are capable of causing,  hallucinations if taken. The poison dart frogs are native to Central  and South America. The frogs are often called poison arrow frogs or  poison dart frogs because indigenous people use their toxic  excretions, to poison the tips of  arrows and blow darts. 

Where are bacteria found?    

Bacteria are unicellular and  share the characteristics of  both plants and animals.  They are the most widespread  forms of life, existing on the  earth. They cannot be seen,  with the naked eye. They are  visible only under a  microscope. Hence they are  called microorganisms.  About two thousand species  of bacteria are known to  have existed and they are  found practically everywhere  on the earth. Some exist in  the mouths, noses and intestines of animals, including human  beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves, dead trees, animal wastes and  carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water, in milk and in  most food. They live in dust and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil  contains about a billion bacterial cells. The human mouth is home  to more than 500 species of bacteria.  Some bacteria thrive in the most forbidding, uninviting places on the  Earth, from nearly boiling hot springs  to super chilled Antarctic lakes  buried under the sheets of ice. Most  bacteria are either harmless or  actually, helpful to other forms of  life. They are responsible for the  decomposition of dead plants and  animals. They also play an important  role, in the digestive process of  almost all living organisms.  Where are bacteria found?    Bacteria are unicellular and  share the characteristics of  both plants and animals.  They are the most widespread  forms of life, existing on the  earth. They cannot be seen,  with the naked eye. They are  visible only under a  microscope. Hence they are  called microorganisms.  About two thousand species  of bacteria are known to  have existed and they are  found practically everywhere  on the earth. Some exist in  the mouths, noses and intestines of animals, including human  beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves, dead trees, animal wastes and  carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water, in milk and in  most food. They live in dust and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil  contains about a billion bacterial cells. The human mouth is home  to more than 500 species of bacteria.  Some bacteria thrive in the most forbidding, uninviting places on the  Earth, from nearly boiling hot springs  to super chilled Antarctic lakes  buried under the sheets of ice. Most  bacteria are either harmless or  actually, helpful to other forms of  life. They are responsible for the  decomposition of dead plants and  animals. They also play an important  role, in the digestive process of  almost all living organisms. 

Why is the tuatara known as living fossil?    

The tuatara, which is  found on the  islands of New  Zealand, is nick-  named as ‘living  fossil’. It is nicknamed  so because, it is the only  living member of a group of  reptiles, which traces its origin  back to the times of dinosaurs,  about 220 million years ago. The tuatara is olive green or grey in colour. It grows to a length of about 60 cm. The most interesting  thing about this lizard is that, it possesses three eyes. The cone-like  third eye is known as the pineal eye. This eye is located, in a hole  between the head and the brain. It has an eyelid over the third eye,  which closes horizontally. The tuatara is active during the night. It feeds on insects, frogs, rats  and on the eggs of birds. The normal life of a tuatara usually does  not exceed 77 years but some species may live up to 100 years. The  female tuatara lays 8-15 eggs in spring. These eggs are fertilized in  the coming summer.  

Where are bacteria found?    

Bacteria are unicellular and  share the characteristics of  both plants and animals.  They are the most widespread  forms of life, existing on the  earth. They cannot be seen,  with the naked eye. They are  visible only under a  microscope. Hence they are  called microorganisms.  About two thousand species  of bacteria are known to  have existed and they are  found practically everywhere  on the earth. Some exist in  the mouths, noses and intestines of animals, including human  beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves, dead trees, animal wastes and  carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water, in milk and in  most food. They live in dust and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil  contains about a billion bacterial cells. The human mouth is home  to more than 500 species of bacteria.  Some bacteria thrive in the most forbidding, uninviting places on the  Earth, from nearly boiling hot springs  to super chilled Antarctic lakes  buried under the sheets of ice. Most  bacteria are either harmless or  actually, helpful to other forms of  life. They are responsible for the  decomposition of dead plants and  animals. They also play an important  role, in the digestive process of  almost all living organisms.

 Where are bacteria found?    

Bacteria are unicellular and  share the characteristics of  both plants and animals.  They are the most widespread  forms of life, existing on the  earth. They cannot be seen,  with the naked eye. They are  visible only under a  microscope. Hence they are  called microorganisms.  About two thousand species  of bacteria are known to  have existed and they are  found practically everywhere  on the earth. Some exist in  the mouths, noses and intestines of animals, including human  beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves, dead trees, animal wastes and  carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water, in milk and in  most food. They live in dust and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil  contains about a billion bacterial cells. The human mouth is home  to more than 500 species of bacteria.  Some bacteria thrive in the most forbidding, uninviting places on the  Earth, from nearly boiling hot springs  to super chilled Antarctic lakes  buried under the sheets of ice. Most  bacteria are either harmless or  actually, helpful to other forms of  life. They are responsible for the  decomposition of dead plants and  animals. They also play an important  role, in the digestive process of  almost all living organisms. 

Where are puffins found?   

A puffin belongs to the auk family  of seabirds. There are three species  of puffins – the Atlantic Puffin,  the Horned Puffin and the  Tufted Puffin. For most of the  year, when they are not  breeding, puffins are to be  found bobbing about on the  waters of the Atlantic and Arctic  Oceans, often hundreds of  kilometres, from land. The Atlantic  Puffin is the smallest of the puffins. It  is found exclusively in the North  Atlantic Ocean. In North  America, it nests from Labrador  to the north-eastern United States. In  Europe, it nests from south to the Brittany Coast of France,  northwards to Iceland, Greenland and Northern Russia. Most of the  world’s puffins are found in Iceland, where 60% of the population  breeds. One of the species of the puffins has a very large triangular  bill, which is bright red, blue and yellow in the summer. This  species breeds on rocky islands of the coasts of Siberia, Alaska and  British Columbia. The puffing of this species give birth, to their  young ones in burrows, in rocky  cavities or among rocks.     

When do we see meteor showers    

Meteors are small  pieces of rock and  dust that enter the  Earth’s atmosphere  Most meteors burn  up, in the  atmosphere  forming streaks of  light, in the night  sky called shooting  stars. At such  times, the sky  seems filled, with a shower of sparks. Hence, we see a meteor  shower. The most brilliant meteor shower took place on 12-13  November, 1833. It was one of the Leonid showers which occur  every November and seem to come in the direction of the  constellation, Leo. The heaviest showers are the Perseids which  occurred on 12th August, Geminids on 13th December and the  Quadrantids on 3rd January. Meteorites are larger meteors or chunks  of debris, which do not burn up completely and penetrate through  the Earth’s atmosphere and reach the ground. The biggest meteorite  found on the Earth is in Namibia, Africa. It measured 2.7 m by 2.4 m  and weighed 60 tonnes. 

Why do spiders make webs      

There are about 40,000 species  of spiders. Most of these live on  land, but there are some, which live  in ponds and streams. Spiders  make webs in order to  capture  their  prey. A  spider is able to feel the  vibrations of the web,  when an insect flies into  it  , and then runs quickly  to catch it. At the tip of  the abdomen, the spider  has six cone shaped nozzles called spinnerets. These spinnerets produce a fine silk  thread. With the help of its legs, the spider draws out the thread,  attaches it to branches and gradually shapes it, into a web. Some of  these threads are sticky, while others simply provide support to the  web. The most common design formed is a series of circles of silk  attached to an outer frame. This is known as the orb web. Some  spiders make tubular webs pirate spiders make web shelters, in  which they wait for their prey. A cup shaped web is made by the  water spider. It is filled with air so that the spider may breathe  underwater. One thread of the spider silk is twice, as strong as steel.  But at the same time, it is 250 times  finer than human hair. 

Where is the marine iguana found      

Iguanas are  large lizards  which are  found around  the Pacific and  in America,  Unlike other  lizards, which eat  insects, iguanas eat  only fruits, flowers and  leaves. The marine iguana is the only lizard that spends most of the  time, in the sea. It is found mostly in the Galapagos Island,  Although, the iguanas on each island look a little different and are  different in sizes yet, they all are the same kinds of iguanas. Iguanas  develop their colours as they get older. The young are black, while  adults can be the combinations of black, green, red or grey,  depending on the island, on which they live. All iguanas are good  swimmers, but the marine iguanas are better swimmers. They swim  by moving their bodies from side to side, with their legs held to their  sides. Their flattened tails are perfect for swimming. Their claws are  longer and sharper than those of land iguanas. So, they can cling  tightly to rocks along the shore without being pulled away by the  waves. Marine iguanas have blunt noses, which make it easier for  them to scrape algae off the rocks,  with their sharp teeth. 

Where do green turtles lay their eggs  

turtles, tortoises and  terrapins, all belong to the  family of reptiles called  chelonians. Turtles are  mostly found in the sea  and fresh water. All turtles,  whether they live on land,  fresh water or in the sea,  lay their eggs on land.  Sea turtles lay their eggs, on  sandy beaches. Many female  sea turtles have a homing instinct. This means  that they return to the beach where they were born to lay  their eggs. Laying eggs on land is hard work, for a female  sea turtle. While swimming, a female sea turtle can glide,  through the water with ease. But on a beach, she must slowly drag  herself, across the sand. A female sea turtle looks for a spot that will  be safe, at the time of a high tide. Once she has found a safe spot,  she digs a hole in the sand, with her back feet. The female sea turtle  then lays her eggs inside the hole and covers them with sand. When  the work is finished, she heads towards the water. Over the period,  the sand incubates or warms the eggs. This helps the baby turtles  grow inside the safety of their shells  until they are ready to hatch. Most  baby sea turtles hatch after about two  months of incubation,   

Why do fleas live on cats and dogs? 

Fleas are small wingless  insects that live on birds and  mammals, including  humans. Dogs, cats and  rats are easily prone to  fleas. The warmth of the  body and thickness of a  cat’s or dog’s coat is an  ideal place, for a flea to  live and breed. Fleas  live on these animals  by sucking their  blood. Fleas have  tiny bodies, no wings  and three pairs of legs.  They have small round heads and mouth parts that are adapted to  sucking, Fleas are often too tiny to see easily, but adult fleas grow  over 2 mm long. Fleas spread from one animal to another in order to  suck blood. Fleas lay their eggs, which hatch into larvae. Then, they  crawl into the host’s bedding, where they spin cocoons and develop  into adults within 2 weeks. The new adults seek a host, immediately  and must get a blood meal to survive and produce eggs.   

When do badgers leave their nests?    

Badgers are  black and  white faced  animals with  broad bodies  and short but  powerful legs  They live in  sets or  colonies  underground  They throw  out heaps of  soil, at the entrance to their tunnels, They leave their sets, at dusk to  search for food. Being nocturnal, they have very good sense of  smell. They use their sense of smell to locate food, such as  earthworms and other small animals, fruit, cereals and vegetables. A  badger may eat, several hundreds of earthworms in just a single  night. Its excellent sense of smell is also useful for recognizing the  scent signals left by other badgers for finding a mate and detecting  danger. Badgers prefer hilly districts on the border of woods. They  take care to keep their sets warm and clean. Damp bedding is  thrown out and is replaced by fresh, dry grass or straw, 

When do glow-worms glow?   

 The glow-worm is non a worm at all. It is the common name for various groups of larvae and adult larviform females, which glow, through bioluminescence, Glow-worms may sometimes resemble worms, but all are insects. They are blackish and their bodies are very delicate. They are found in large numbers in tropical humid areas. They hide, during the daytime, among the vegetation. At night, light is generated in flashes by them. The light-generating organ is located in the bottom of the abdomen and regulated by nerves. No heat is liberated by the light emitted by them. Two chemicals, luciferin, and luciferase are present. Luciferin blends with oxygen to light, whereas luciferase helps in this combination, i.e. acts as a catalyst. The light produced by them may frighten birds and prevent them, from attacking these fireflies.  

When will Halley’s comet next be seen?    

Comets are huge, dirty balls of ice that orbit the Sun. They are bright  objects with long tails, which we  sometimes see streaking across the  night sky. The head of a comet  contains a nucleus, which contains  the jets of gas. These jets escape,  from the surface and are blown by the  solar wind to form a tail. A comet is  usually named after the person who  discovers it. The most famous comet,  was discovered by an astronomer  Edmund Halley, in 1682. He  predicted that the comet would return  after every 76 years. It passed close to  the Earth in the 1980s and will be  back in the 2050s. When we look at a  comet in the night sky, it does not  appear to be moving much, but it may  travel at over 160,000 km/hr. In 1997, the  Hale Bopp comet had given the brightest view of a comet since  1811. The Shoemaker-Levy comet smashed into Jupiter, in July 1994  with a big crash. 

What is evolution of life? 

According to  evolutionary  theory, life  began  billions of  years ago  when a  group of  chemicals  inadvertently  organized  themselves into a self-replicating molecule. This tiny molecule gave  rise to everything that has ever lived on the planet. Different and  more complex organisms grew from this simple beginning through  mutation of DNA and natural selection.  Scientists estimate that our planet, Earth, formed around 4600  million years ago. We have some really good evidence to support  the following hypothesis: The Earth began as part of the accretion of  the Solar System  The formation of the planets (including Earth), asteroids, meteors,  comets and the central Sun – formed through the tendency of matter  to clump together, until finally there  were substantial bodies, the planets  and their moons, sweeping up all the  left-over bits in their orbits. Studies of  the Moon’s surface show that in its  early history it was subjected to  bombardment by giant meteorites.  Earth’s early history must have been  even more violent because of the  greater gravitational forces involved. 

How the water transports from roots to the top in the giant redwood tree?   

 A redwood tree  reaches a height of  about 100 metres  which is as tall as  a 30 storey  building. It has a  system of inter  connected wood  cells for carrying  water. The  hollow, short thin  cells are stacked  intricately to form an  incredibly tall column.  These cells are dead wood that function as pipes with pitted  openings along the sides of the pipe for water to pass between  adjacent cells. The small cells rarely exceed a quarter of an inch in  length. These form a continuous column of water within this pipe in  order to move water through the pipe. Two forces move the water, a  push and a pull. Roots do most of the pushing and leaves do most of  the pulling, Water, which evaporates from the leaves starts the  Suction process. Water molecules  evaporate from a leaf and pull on the  molecules around it as they depart.  This creates a small suction in the  water column and pulls water from  adjacent water-conducting leaf cells.  These molecules, in turn attract those  around them. The chain continues to  the ground and moves water from  the roots to the top of tree. 

What is the significance of Ramsar sites?    

Ramsar sites are  wetlands of  importance  under the Ramsar Convention  Wetlands are  defined as areas  of marsh, fen, peatland or water,  whether natural or artificial,  permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh,  brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which  at low tide does not exceed 6 m. Ramsar sites may also incorporate  riparian (banks of a stream, river, pond or watercourse) and coastal  zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine  water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands.  The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the  Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the  framework for national action and  international cooperation for the  conservation and wise use of wetlands  and their resources. The Ramsar  Convention is the only global  environmental treaty that deals with a  particular ecosystem. The treaty was  adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar  in 1971 and the Convention’s  member countries cover all  geographic regions of the planet. 

Why does the horned lizard eject blood from its eyes?    

Lizards are a group of  3,800 scaly skinned  reptiles. They have  four legs and long  tails. Their back  legs are stronger,  than the front ones  and are used to drive  the lizard forwards. The  horned lizard eject blood,  from its eyes for self defense. It  squirts a jet of blood, from its eyes  almost as far as 1m to put off its predators.  It is able to do so because it increases the blood pressure in its head,  which stimulates the membrane of tiny blood vessels in its eyes.  Hence, the droplets of blood are ejected. When squirted into the  eyes of an attacker, the blood acts as an irritant and diverts the  attention of the attacker. The horned lizard has special features such  as razor like hard spines of horns. It has a flattened oval body and  pointed fringe with scales, throughout the sides of the body. These  lizards are normally found in sandy areas. 

How the water transports from roots to the top in the giant redwood tree? 

 A redwood tree reaches a height of about 100 metres which is as tall as a 30 storey building. It has a system of inter connected wood cells for carrying water. The hollow, short thin cells are stacked intricately to form an incredibly tall column. These cells are dead wood that function as pipes with pitted openings along the sides of the pipe for water to pass between adjacent cells. The small cells rarely exceed a quarter of an inch in length. These form a continuous column of water within this pipe in order to move water through the pipe. Two forces move the water, a push and a pull. Roots do most of the pushing and leaves do most of the pulling, Water, which evaporates from the leaves starts the Suction process. Water molecules evaporate from a leaf and pull on the molecules around it as they depart. This creates a small suction in the water column and pulls water from adjacent water-conducting leaf cells. These molecules, in turn attract those around them. The chain continues to the ground and moves water from the roots to the top of tree. 

  What is evolution of life?  

According to evolutionary theory, life began billions of years ago when a group of chemicals inadvertently organized themselves into a self-replicating molecule. This tiny molecule gave rise to everything that has ever lived on the planet. Different and more complex organisms grew from this simple beginning through mutation of DNA and natural selection. Scientists estimate that our planet, Earth, formed around 4600 million years ago. We have some really good evidence to support the following hypothesis: The Earth began as part of the accretion of the Solar System The formation of the planets (including Earth), asteroids, meteors, comets and the central Sun – formed through the tendency of matter to clump together, until finally there were substantial bodies, the planets and their moons, sweeping up all the left-over bits in their orbits. Studies of the Moon’s surface show that in its early history it was subjected to bombardment by giant meteorites. Earth’s early history must have been even more violent because of the greater gravitational forces involved.  

What do you know about the size of the heart of animals?  

The with the biggest heart is naturally the biggest animal ever, the blue whale. The heart of the blue whale is as big as a small car. Its main blood vessel is big enough to crawl through. But, its heart beats very slowly, just five or six times per minute, when the blue whale is at the surface and even slower when it dives. In comparison to this, a human heart beats seventy times per minute at rest. Above all, the heart of the hummingbird beats five hundred times per minute at rest and more than a thousand times per minute when it flies. Thus, the heart of the hummingbird is the largest in proportion, when compared to any other animal. An average mammal’s heart comprises less than 1% of its total body weight, The heart of a blue whale is only 0.5% of its body mass, whereas the heart of the hummingbird is 2% of its body mass. That is approximately 4% bigger than the whale’s. This is because the hummingbird needs enough oxygen and food so that it may hover like a helicopter and remain in the sky for long hours, 

What do you know about venomous fish?  

There are about 250 species of venomous fish. The most ON venomous fish is the stone fish. Stone fish are mottled greenish-brown in colour with their skin having many stone-like appendages which give them an almost perfect camouflage. The most striking feature of this species is its spine of 13 grooved hypodermic like projections, each capable of piercing a sandshoe. If you accidentally step on one, the venomous spines on the back and sides of the stone fish will inject venom and cause severe pain, illness and perhaps death. Out of all the stone fish, the reef stone fish is the most venomous fish in the world. It is usually brown or grey and may have the patches of yellow, orange or red. It looks like an encrusted rock or lump of coral. It has thirteen stout spines in the intense pain and is believed to have dorsal fin, which can inject a highly toxic venom. The venom causes killed many Pacific and Indian Ocean Islanders, 

What is a rainbow? 

Rainbow is a large band of parallel stripes, blended at the rims, which displays the full spectrum of colours that make up the Sun’s white light This brilliant display appears to the naked eye when the Sun’s light breaks up as it passes through the prism-like raindrops during a rain shower. This curved spectrum of light appears only when both the elements of sunshine and rainfall present. As the sunlight enters the falling raindrops, it breaks up into its true colours of red, orange, yellow, blue, and violet. These colours are always arranged according to their wavelengths, with red being at one end of the spectrum, and violet at the other. Once inside the droplet, the particles of the coloured light bounce from side to side, reflect off of the far side of the droplet, exit the droplet and BITS OF FACT e up of reassemble according to their wavelength, to form a rainbow the human eye to see the coloured bands, ranging violet, his body must be : positioned between the sun rain, with his back to the continuum of aac Newton seven of the  

How does the shape of a leaf vary?  

Trees can be divided into two categories, according to their leaves broad leaved trees and conifers with needle-like leaves. Trees can be identified from their leaves. Leaves vary not only in shapes but also on the basis of the number of leaflets on the same stalk. Leaves also vary in terms of their leaflets, which are either paired or offset. Trees like birches and poplars have small triangular or deltoid leaves, whereas aspens and alders have round leaves. Limes and Indian bean trees have heart-shaped or cordate leaves. Maples and sycamores have leaves shaped a bit like hands and hence, the leaves are referred to as ‘palmate’. Ash and walnut trees have lots of leaflets on the same stalk. It gives them a feathery or ‘pinnate’ look. Many shrubs like magnolias and buddleias and trees like willow, cherry, sweet chestnut and cork oaks have long narrow leaves. 

How does nature scatter seeds?  

For a plant to expand its type, seeds are vital. But seeds require appropriate conditions for growth. There are various methods by which seeds are scattered to the right place. In some seeds, the outer covering has hooks, barbs or spines. They cling onto the fur of passing animals and sometimes onto the clothes of people and are hence, carried away. Some seeds grow in sticky berries. When the birds feed on these berries, a few of the seeds cling, onto the bills of the birds and are thus carried off. The plants, which grow in or close to the water drop their seeds into the mud or water. As birds and animals walk along the shore in search of food, mud sticks to their feet and hence, seeds are carried away. Some birds, insects and squirrels eat certain kinds of seeds and bury some in the mud for later use. They sometimes forget about it and hence, new plants develop. Some birds and animals eat the fruit and then, deposit the seeds, in their droppings. 

How is cactus adapted to hold water?  

Most cacti grow in hot dry regions but a few are found in the rain forests and on mountain tops. Cactus plants have sharp spines, thick bulbous green stems and no leaves. The spines, which are actually the leaves are designed in such a way that they lose as little water as possible, through evaporation. The spines also protect them from being eaten away by animals. The fat stems of cacti can hold a lot of water so that they may survive the hot and dry climate. They also have long roots which lie close to the ground so that they may collect as much rainwater as possible. Besides, long roots facilitate them to gather water from a large surface area. The cactus plants produce big colourful flowers after, every few years. If grow into a new plant,.  

How does photosynthesis take place?  

Plants use sunlight to combine carbon dioxide from the air with water in order to make sugary food required by the plants. This process is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in leaves in two cells – palisade and spongy cells. Within these cells are tiny packages called chloroplasts, which are filled with a jelly-like substance called stroma. The stroma contains the chemical called chlorophyll, which makes leaves green. The leaí draws carbon dioxide, through pores called stomata. It also draws water from the ground, through veins and stems. When the sun shines, chlorophyll soaks up its energy and uses it to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen mixes with carbon dioxide to make sugar. Oxygen is released through the stomata. Sugar is transported along the plant and some sugar is combined into large molecules called starches, which are easy for the plant to store.  

How does a tiger kill its prey?  

Tigers are the largest of the big cats. The average male tiger’s body grows 2 m long. It has a tail, which is 1 metre long Tigers live in the forests of Asia, Sumatra and Java. As hunters are killing them for their skin they are becoming rare. They prey on large animals, such as deer, buffaloes, antelopes and wild pigs. Silence and stealth are their main hunting skills. The stripes on a tiger’s body camouflage the tiger so that it may reach its prey, without being seen. After spotting its prey, the tiger crouches close to the ground and then creeps forward, slowly. When it is just a few metres away, it makes a sudden and powerful rush and then pounces on its prey. The jaws of the tiger contain long pointed front teeth, which it uses to stab the prey. With its sharp hooked claws and powerful shoulders, it clings onto its prey, tightly and pulls it to the ground.  

How are stripes a boon to zebras?  

Zebras belong to the family of horses. But, they are different from the other members of their family because of their striped coats. The stripes of a zebra may seem to make it easily visible. When it is moving, it actually blurs its outline and confuses its predators. Thus, the stripes of a zebra help it save from its enemies. Earlier, there was a species called quagga, which had stripes only on its head but it has now become extinct. Another species is the gravy which is found Somalia. It is the biggest of all the species of zebras and has numerous thin stripes and very large ears. Zebras are grazing animals, some roam around in open grassy plains, while others live in rough mountainous areas. They are good fighters and usually li in small bands. Zebras give birth to remarkably, well developed young ones, known as foals that are up and about almost at once This is the reason, why these animals are always at risk from their predators.  

How do animals hibernate?  

In order to cope up with the cold and due to unavailability of food in winters, some animals go int a kind of deep- sleep called hibernation. During hibernation, the temperature of the body drops. As a result, the animal burns the food stored in its body very slowly. It requires less oxygen. As a result, breathing is slower and the heart beats only faintly Small mammals like bats, squirrels and hedgehogs hibernate. The Arctic fox, which lives in the far north of Asia and America can sleep for days together when there is scarcity of food in winter. Many animals like the bear go to sleep during winter. But scientists believe that they do not hibernate. They sleep more in winter than in summer. Squirrels bury dozens of nuts in autumn to feed on them able to find most of them, when they during winter. They seem to have a remarkable memory as they are need 

which was the biggest iceberg?  

Icebergs are giant chunks of ice that break off, from the end of glaciers or polar ice caps. They are usually formed during summer, when the warm climate partially melts the ice. Only a tenth of the iceberg can be seen above water, the rest is hidden in the sea. Icebergs float because the density of ice (around 900 kg per cubic metre) is lower than that of seawater (around 1025 kg per cubic metre). The ratio of these densities tells us that 7/8 of the mass of the iceberg must be below water. Usually, icebergs are 20% to 30% longer under the water than above and not quite as deep as they are long at the waterline. About 15,000 icebergs are calved each year in the Arctic. The biggest iceberg of the Arctic was 11 km long. It was spotted off Baffin Island, in 1882. The icebergs of Antarctica are much bigger compared to the Arctic ones. The biggest iceberg was spotted in 1956 by the icebreaker USS Glacier. It was 300 km long. The tallest iceberg was more than half as high as the Eiffel Tower in Paris.  

Which is the coldest continent on the Earth?  

The Earth’s fifth largest and coldest continent is Antarctica. 98% of the continent is covered with ice. With an area of 14 million square km, it is larger than Australia. The summer temperature barely rises above 25°C. The Antarctic ice cap is the thickest. It is about 4,800 m deep. Antarctica is mountainous, its highest point is the Vinson Massií, which is 5,140 m high. The Antarctic population is made up of scientists, pilots and other specialists to do research in the unique polar environment. Since, the beginning of the 20th century, several countries have sent scientific expeditions to Antarctica. They have set up permanent, stations where scientists can live and work. Geologists have found coal and the fossils of plants and animals, which show that Antarctica was once a warm continent. The Antarctic cap has 29 million cubic km of ice. This is 90% of all the ice on the planet and between 60-70% of the entire world’s fresh water. Only about 0.4% of Antarctica is not covered by ice. 

Which is the world’s highest waterfall?  

Waterfalls are places, where Fivers fall vertically Waterfalls may also occur at places on rivers, where the water passes over a hard rock joined to a softer rock. The river does not erode the hard rock, as much as the softer rock and so the harder rock forms a shelf over, which the river flows. The world’s highest falls are the Angel Falls in Venezuela, which have a total drop of 979 metres. Angel Falls are named after an American pilot Jimmy Angel who flew over them in 1935. The Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe fall on River Zambezi in Africa. They have a total drop of 500 metres. The roar from the Victoria Falls can be heard as far as 40 km. In the rainy season, water flows at the rate of 550 million litres per minute. Another famous waterfall is the Niagara Falls on the US Canadian border. These falls were first formed about 12,000 years ago. Since then, the falls have moved 11 km further upriver.  

Which fish produces an electric current? 

An electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a long snake-like freshwater fish, not a true eel that can generate electricity. It has electric current producing organs, within plates located on both sides of its spinal column. The plates run almost its entire body length. The electric eel’s charge is 350 volts on the average but, may be as great as 550 volts, which is released by its central nervous system. The shock consists of four to eight separate charges, which last only two to three thousandths of a second each. Used as a defense mechanism, the shocks can be repeated up to 150 times per hour. The most powerful electric eel, found in the rivers of Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Peru, produces a shock o 400 to 650 volts. One shock from an electric eel will not kill a person, but repeated shocks will. The electric eel grows to be almost 8 feet (2.5 m) long. Most of the internal organs are in the front of this fish the rest of the body contains the electricity-producing organs (modified muscles). The scales covering the body are tiny. As this fish ages, its vision diminishes. With age, the amperage of the fish’s electric shock increases. 

which is the tallest tree in the world?  

The coastal redwoods of California, USA, are the tallest trees in the world. They can reach a height of about 90 m or more and their trunks can reach diameters of 3 to 6m. The tallest living tree stands at 112 m or five storeys higher than the Statue of Liberty. It is a Mendocino Tree, a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) found at Montgomery State Reserve near Ukiah, California, USA. It is estimated to be over 1,000 years old. The tree was last measured in September 1998, and was also found to have a diameter of 3.14 m. The redwood trees take about 400 to 500 years to mature and some trees are known to be 1,500 years old. These giant trees grow from tiny seeds that are less than 2 mm long. These trees have very few branches and leaves and are often scarred by fire and lightning marks. As they grow older, the lower branches fall off, leaving cle columnar trunks. The Lindsey Greek tree, a massive redwood, was one of the biggest trees ever known. It blew over in 1905 and it weighed over 3,300 tonnes.  

Which worms absorb food through their skins?  

Worms are long, wriggling, tube-like animals. There are three main groups of worms – the ringed worms, the flatworms and the roundworms. Ringed worms include earthworms, marine worms and leeches. The body of an earthworm consists of a series of rings or segments. Flatworms are worms with flattened bodies. They include thread worms, hookworms and roundworms. Some flatworms are parasitic, which means that they live inside the bodies of other creatures including humans. Tapeworms are the worst parasitic flatworms. A tapeworm may enter a human body in the form of an egg. The egg hatches inside the stomach. It absorbs its food, through the skin as its has no digestive organs. It grows very long and multiplies rapidly. It can be 10 m long inside the human body. A human being may get a tapeworm by eating pork or beef, which is not cooked properly. 

What do you mean by carnivorous plants?  

Carnivorous plants are those plants which trap insects, for their food. These plants survive in places where the availability of nitrogen is insufficient. Hence, they eat insects to fulfill the quantity of nitrogen required. An insect is lured into the jaw like leaf trap of the plant like Venus fly trap with nectar. Once the insect has landed, the jaws shut on the victim in a fraction of a second. Immediately, the plant secretes juices that drown and then dissolve the insect. The leaves of the sundew are covered in tentacles that ooze a sticky substance known as mucilage. Insects are trapped in its tentacles and are then suffocated, within ten seconds. The pitcher plant is another carnivorous plant. The inside of the tubular shaped leaf is lined with downward pointing hair. The hair blocks an insect from climbing up the tube and escaping. The fluid in the bottom of the tube contains digestive juices that digest the prey.  

What causes the difference between the tastes of fruits?  

Each fruit has a different taste, which varies in some way. The taste of fruit depends on the compounds it bears. In general, a fruit consists of fructose (natural sugar), organic acids, vitamins, starch, proteins, minerals and cellulose. All these materials are present, in different proportions, in different fruits, Fruits having more fructose content taste sweeter, while those having more acids taste sour, Orange is a fruit, which comprises almost equal quantities of fructose and acids. Hence, it tastes both sweet and sour. In general, raw fruits contain more acids, but on ripening, the quantity of acid decreases and the amount of sugar increases. Therefore, raw mangoes are sour, but ripe ones are sweet. Some fruits, like lemons do not taste sweet even, after ripening. This is because of the excessive amounts of acids in it.  

What are herbs?  

Herbs are fragrant lanes and stems of plants whose stems are not wood exceptions like rosemary) They are small plants whose leaves can be used to make medicines, food or perfumes. Most herbs are perennial and have soft stems. Basil, a sweet mild herb which has a peppery taste, is used in salads. Another is sage, which is thought to have special healing qualities. Its leaves are used fresh or dried. It is also a great flavouring for meat. Rosemary is a coastal plant and is believed to improve memory. Thyme is another herb, which comes from the Mediterranean. It is very strong and spicy and is mainly used fresh dried. It is one of the best herbs for seafood, but can be used with poultry, meat and vegetables too. Parsley thyme and a bay leaf may be tied in a muslin cloth and hung in soups, while cooking to give them extra flavours.  

Why do rabbits have large ears?  

A rabbit is a small, furry animal with a short tail and pointed ears. is a weak and timid animal and is always surrounded by ears to help it hear, even the slightest sound. The many enemies. Therefore, nature has gifted it with large large area of the ear catches almost every sound wave produced in the air and transfers it into the inner ear. This makes the rabbit aware of its enemies in time and run away, to a safer place. A rabbit washes its ears repeatedly licking its fore paws and rubbing them over the surface of its ears. It does this in order to keep its ears clean. The jackrabbit lives in the desert, where it is very hot in the day and very cold during the night The long ears of the jackrabbit not only allow it to listen out to enemies, but also help it to control the body temperature. It can lose heat, when it is hot or take in heat when it is cold, by controlling the flow of blood, through the numerous blood vessels in its large, thin ears.  

what do you mean by camouflage? 

 Camouflage is a way, in which an animal’s colour or shape matches its surroundings. In other words, it is an animal’s ability to hide itself, from its predator and prey. Animals have many ways of camouflaging themselves in order to hide themselves from their enemies. Paradoxophyla palmitate, a narrow headed frog native to Madagascar, is a leading example. The frog’s brown and yellow colouring as well as its rough texture allows it to blend in with the mud and tree trunks in its environment. The spots on the leopard and the stripes of the tiger are so well camouflaged that it is difficult to make out whether they are or not until they move. In order to match with the surrounding, the chameleon can change its colour. Similarly, the praying mantis of Malaysia can change its colour and look like a flower. The sloth of the South American jungles has an unusual way of camouflage. It has coarse hair, which grooved. Within these grooves grow simple, green algae. This gives a green appearance and helps the sloth to conceal itself from predators.  

Which is the largest bird?  

The largest living bird is the ostrich. This bird can grow to 2.75 m tall and can weigh over 150 kg. It cannot fly but it can run at a speed of more than 60 km/hr, which is faster than a racehorse. An ostrich has only two toes on each foot. The feet resemble those of the grazing antelope and cattle. It has a soft downy plumage, but it has no hair or fur on the head, neck and legs. At 5 cm in diameter, the eyes of the ostrich are the largest of all birds or of any land animal. It lives in the African savannah grasslands and nests in holes made in the ground. It is the male ostrich, which scoops out the hole and leads several females into it to lay their eggs. The egg of the ostrich is the largest and the toughest of all the eggs of the birds. Ostriches produce the strongest commercially available leather in the world and some of the most beautiful feathers.  

which bird stitches its nest together?  

A nest is made by large twigs, small twigs, feathers and all kinds of material including string, plastic and wire. The outer frame is made by the large twigs with the smaller ones in between to bind it together. The tailor bird is one of the most skilled nest builders. It is usually, brightly coloured, with green or grey upper parts and yellow-white or grey underparts. It often has a chestnut on the head. It has short rounded wings, a short tail, strong legs and a long curved bill. The tail is typically, held upright. It has a long and thin needle like beak, which it uses to stitch two leaves together to make a pouch for its eggs. It uses the spider’s silk as thread to do this. The nest of the bald eagle is also made out of large twigs and it weighs about 1-3 tonnes. The malleefowl’s incubation mounds contain over 50 tonnes of earth making it the largest nest of all birds. Compared to this, the vervain hummingbird’s nest is as small as a half tennis ball.  

Which is the world’s highest waterfall?  

Waterfalls are Places, where Fivers fall vertically Waterfalls may also occur at places on rivers, where the water passes over a hard rock joined to a softer rock. The river does not erode the hard rock, as much as the softer rock and so the harder rock forms a shelf over, which the river flows. The world’s highest falls are the Angel Falls in Venezuela, which have a total drop of 979 metres. Angel Falls are named after an American pilot Jimmy Angel who flew over them in 1935. The Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe fall on River Zambezi in Africa. They have a total drop of 500 metres. The roar from the Victoria Falls can be heard as far as 40 km. In the rainy season, water flows at the rate of 550 million litres per minute. Another famous waterfall is the Niagara Falls on the US Canadian border. These falls were first formed about 12,000 years ago. Since then, the falls have moved 11 km further upriver.  Which fish produces an electric current?  An electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a long snake-like freshwater fish, not a true eel that can generate electricity. It has electric current producing organs, within plates located on both sides of its spinal column. The plates run almost its entire body length. The electric eel’s charge is 350 volts on the average but, may be as great as 550 volts, which is released by its central nervous system. The shock consists of four to eight separate charges, which last only two to three thousandths of a second each. Used as a defense mechanism, the shocks can be repeated up to 150 times per hour. The most powerful electric eel, found in the rivers of Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Peru, produces a shock o 400 to 650 volts. One shock from an electric eel will not kill a person, but repeated shocks will. The electric eel grows to be almost 8 feet (2.5 m) long. Most of the internal organs are in the front of this fish the rest of the body contains the electricity-producing organs (modified muscles). The scales covering the body are tiny. As this fish ages, its vision diminishes. With age, the amperage of the fish’s electric shock increases.  which is the tallest tree in the world?  The coastal redwoods of California, USA, are the tallest trees in the world. They can reach a height of about 90 m or more and their trunks can reach diameters of 3 to 6m. The tallest living tree stands at 112 m or five storeys higher than the Statue of Liberty. It is a Mendocino Tree, a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) found at Montgomery State Reserve near Ukiah, California, USA. It is estimated to be over 1,000 years old. The tree was last measured in September 1998, and was also found to have a diameter of 3.14 m. The redwood trees take about 400 to 500 years to mature and some trees are known to be 1,500 years old. These giant trees grow from tiny seeds that are less than 2 mm long. These trees have very few branches and leaves and are often scarred by fire and lightning marks. As they grow older, the lower branches fall off, leaving cle columnar trunks. The Lindsey Greek tree, a massive redwood, was one of the biggest trees ever known. It blew over in 1905 and it weighed over 3,300 tonnes.  Which worms absorb food through their skins?  Worms are long, wriggling, tube-like animals. There are three main groups of worms – the ringed worms, the flatworms and the roundworms. Ringed worms include earthworms, marine worms and leeches. The body of an earthworm consists of a series of rings or segments. Flatworms are worms with flattened bodies. They include thread worms, hookworms and roundworms. Some flatworms are parasitic, which means that they live inside the bodies of other creatures including humans. Tapeworms are the worst parasitic flatworms. A tapeworm may enter a human body in the form of an egg. The egg hatches inside the stomach. It absorbs its food, through the skin as its has no digestive organs. It grows very long and multiplies rapidly. It can be 10 m long inside the human body. A human being may get a tapeworm by eating pork or beef, which is not cooked properly.   

Where are oils derived from?  

Oils are liquids that do not dissolve in water and burn easily. They are usually, made from the chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms. There are three main kinds of oils – essential, fixed and mineral oils. Essential oils are thin, perfumed oils, from plants. Essential oils often have an odour and are, therefore, used in food flavouring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually, prepared by fragrance extraction techniques, such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing or extraction. Fixed oils are made by plants and animals from fatty acids. They are non- volatile oils specially, found in fatty animal tissues and the seeds of various plants including cotton, corn, flax, sunflowers, peanuts, coconuts and olives. Mineral oils come from petroleum formed underground over millions, of years from the remains of sea organisms. Mineral oils are of the most inexpensive by products the are made from petroleum. Mineral oils are transparent and colour less. They are composed of a blend of hydrocarbons.  

What is soil erosion?  

Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind such erosion has been occurring 450 million years. Even before this natural processes moved loose rock, or regolith, oft the Earth’s surface. In general, background erosion removes soil at roughly the same rate as soil is formed. But ‘accelerated’ soil erosion — loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed – is a far more recent problem. It is always a result of mankind’s unwise actions, such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. These leave the land unprotected and vulnerable. Then, during times of erosive rainfall or windstorms, soil may be detached, transported, and deposited. Accelerated soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment, and is one of the most widespread of today’s environmental problems More recently still, the use of powerful agricultural implements has, in some parts of the world, led to damaging amounts of soil moving downslope merely under the action of gravity. This is called tillage erosion.  

What are savannas?  

Savanna is an enormous plain with hills and forests. The biggest Savannas are in Africa. The two seasons in Africa’s savanna are vet and dry. In the equator, the dry season is shorter 2-3 months and near the tropics it is longer 9-10 months, but in the largest part of the savanna the wet and dry seasons are long 5-6 months. In the wet seasons there are heavy rains pouring down. In the dry seasons, vegetable life grows very fast. The grass in savanna grows 2-3 metres up and forests are thin. There are parts where trees are scarce. In the dry season there are strong evaporation and the tree leaves fall off, grass and bushes wither. It often fires to flare up spreading to enormous areas. In the wet season grass grows up, trees and bushes get green and everything is so nice. If you have a walk in savanna you can see many animals – zebras, giraffes, elephants. The king of the animals – lion also live in the savanna,  

What are mangroves?  

Mangroves are trees and shrubs that have adapted to life in saltwater environment. All of these trees grow in areas with low oxygen soil. Mangrove forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator because they cannot withstand freezing temperatures. Dense tangle in mangrove forests of prop roots make the trees appear to be standing on stilts above the water. This tangle of roots allows the trees to handle the daily rise and fall of tides, which means that most mangroves get flooded at least twice per day. The roots also slow the movement of tidal waters, causing sediments to settle out of the water and build up the muddy bottom. Mangrove forests stabilize the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides. The intricate root system of mangroves also makes these forests attractive to fishes and other organisms seeking food and shelter from predators. Mangroves line more than 1,800 miles of shoreline within Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. In the Florida Keys, the red mangrove, black mangrove, and white mangrove tend to dominate wetland areas. 50  

How well you know the giant wave tsunami?  

A tsunami is a giant wave or series of waves created by an undersea earthquake, volcanic eruption or landslide. Tsunamis are often called tidal waves, but this is not an accurate description because tides have little effect on giant tsunami waves. Far out in the ocean, tsunami waves don’t get very high, but they move very fast. In fact, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports that tsunami waves can travel as fast as a jet plane. As a tsunami gets closer to land and the ocean depth decreases, the speed of the tsunami wave slows down and the height of the tsunami wave increases dramatically, along with its potential for destruction. One thing is certain about tsunamis, that they are unpredictable. Once a tsunami makes landfall, the waves can last from 5 to 15 minutes and do not follow a set pattern. Not all undersea earthquakes or other seismic events create tsunamis, which is why tsunamis are difficult to predict  

What are natural geysers?  

Geysers and hot springs are natural features resulting when ground water is heated by geothermal forces and brought to the surface. The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions, which exist in only a few places on Earth, so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. Generally all geyser field sites are located near active volcanic areas, and the geyser effect is due to the proximity of magma. Natural geysers are hot springs that intermittently throw up a jet of hot water, stream, etc. The earth’s crust has cracks and vents. Water occupies these and gets heated due to geothermal energy. Due to heating water turns into steam and pressure increases. In this case, if the opening of the vent crack is narrow, it erupts like a volcano, otherwise it flows like a stream. They provide a spectacular sight of boiling water eruptions, vivid colours and strange formations. However, for the hot spring enthusiast, the greatest pleasure comes not from just looking at the spring, but from getting into the water for its therapeutic powers. 48  

why do opossums behave as if dead?  

Opossums are marsupials found most commonly in Australia. The opossum is a slow runner and when threatened will usually growl, hiss, and bare its teeth or try to escape by climbing the nearest tree. However, when caught out in the daylight with little chance of escape, or when attacked, the opossum will play possum’. This is a surprisingly effective defense commonly seen in insects. In such cases, the opossum will fall on its side, curl its body, open its drooling mouth and excrete droppings all to give the appearance of being dead. While the opossum is in this state, which lasts several minutes or several hours, no amount of prodding will produce a response. Though, it appears to be in a catatonic state yet, its metabolic processes are as high as when the animal is fully alert. When the opossum believes the danger has passed, it will begin to wiggle its ears in an effort to pick up sounds. If the danger persists, the opossum will play dead again.  

Why do turtles and tortoises live so long?  

Turtles and tortoises have been on Earth, even before the dinosaurs a tortoise is that the turtle stays The difference between a turtle and in water, while the tortoise stays on land. But, both the creatures have one thing in common, they live to quite an age from 120 years to almost 200 years. Some of them are huge like the giant tortoises of the Galapagos Islands. They weigh beyond 200 kg their shells each are more than a metre long. They manage to live so long because the important parts of their bodies do not become weak with age, as in the case of humans and birds. In fact, they continue to grow very very slowly for as long as they live. Their bodies do not need much energy to survive. They can live for long periods, without water or food. Turtles and tortoises face other risks to their life. After birth, their shells take some months to become hard. Till then, they are an easy prey for birds and fish. The other risk to their life comes from the pollution of their living environment.

When do a solar and a lunar eclipse occur?  

An eclipse occur when the light from a planet or a star like the Sun is temporarily blocked off by another space object. There are two types of eclipses – lunar and solar. A solar eclipse occurs, when the Moon comes between the Sun and the Earth, casting a shadow a few kilometres wide, onto the Earth’s surface. Sometimes, the Moon covers part of the Sun. This is known as a partial eclipse. Total eclipses are rarer and only a narrow stretch of the Earth’s surface sees the Sun blocked out completely. There are one or two solar eclipses every year. The longest duration for a total solar eclipse is 7.5 minutes. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth comes in between the Moon and the Sun. Lunar eclipses happen once or twice, every year and last only for a few hours. In a total lunar eclipse, the Moon turns rust red.  

When do we see the different colours of light?  

Sir Isaac Newton, was the first, who discovered how light is divided. We usually, think that light is white, but it is only when, light strikes the edge of a glass prism or the surface of a soap bubble that we can see the different colours of light. Actually, the white light can be broken up into different wavelengths that can be seen. These wavelengths form a band of parallel stripes. This band is called a spectrum. In other words, a spectrum is a range of different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The prism bends short wavelengths of light, more than longer wavelengths so, the light is spread out in bands, ranging from violet to red. The order of colours in a spectrum is always the same i.e. red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. In a spectrum, the red line is always at one end and the blue and violet lines, at the other.  when does lightning occur?  When a thunderstorm occurs, lightning also exists. This is because a thunderstorm is classified, by lightning. For either of the two to be present in the atmosphere at the same time, clouds must first form. The clouds form when air near the Earth’s surface is warmed, causing it to rise. As we know, warm air rises. Within this cloud, there are many electrons, giving off their charges. The tendency of charges within a cloud is to have positive charges gathered towards the upper portion and negative charges, in the bottom of the cloud. When the difference between these charges is great enough, to overcome the natural insulation of the air, which keeps these charges from mixing, a flash of lightning can take place, This charge difference builds up to millions of volts, before the stroke of lightning takes place. The lightning bolt actually, happens because nature tries to maintain equilibrium, a state of balance between all things. That is why, the lightning that you see is a discharge of energy in the form of electricity.  

Where are the world’s largest forests?

 The world’s largest forests are the World’. The Amazon the often known as the ‘Lungs of rain forests are so vast that their span reaches, throughout nine countries, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guinea, French Guinea, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela This evergreen woodland rain forest infrastructure covers over 3.7 million square miles. It is estimated that more than 20% of the Earth’s oxygen is produced in this area. The Amazon rain forests cover more than 1.2 billion acres, representing two-fifths of the enormous South American continent. The life force of the Amazon rain forests is the mighty River Amazon. The Amazon rain forests contain the largest collection of living plant and animal species in the world. The diversity of plant species in the Amazon rain forests is the highest on the Earth. It is estimated that a single hectare (2.47 acres) of Amazon rain forests contains about 900 tons of living plants, including more than 750 types of trees and 1,500 other plants. 58  

Where is the greatest depth of the ocean?  

The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the world’s oceans and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth’s crust. The Mariana Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, just east of the 14 Mariana Islands, near Japan. The deepest part of the Mariana Trench is the Challenger Deep, so named, after the exploratory vessel HMS Challenger II which was a fishing boat converted into a sea lab by Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard. The Mariana Trench is 11,033 m deep. The trench forms the boundary between two tectonic plates, where the Pacific Plate is subducted beneath the Philippine Plate. At the bottom, the water column exerts a pressure of 108.6 MPa upwards, which is over one thousand times the standard atmospheric pressure at the sea level. Of course, the deepest recorded fish was also found in the Mariana Trench (at 27,460 feet below the ocean surface).  

Where is the highest mountain range in the world?

 The Himalayas are the highest and one of the youngest mountain ranges, in the world. Their origin can be traced in the Jurassic Era, which is about 80 million years ago. The Himalayas, literally translated as the Land of Snow, are the great mountain range of Asia, home to the highest (tallest) peaks in the world. They form a 1500 mile broad crescent, through north-eastern Pakistan, northern India, southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. The Himalayas range averaging 320 to 400 km in width rises sharply from the gangetic plains, There are more than 30 peaks of the Himalayas each rising to the height of 7,620 m (25,000 ft) or more. The Himalayas contain 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world. Among these peaks are the world’s highest mountain peak, Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is on the Nepal-Tibet border the second highest peak, K2 or Mount Godwin Austen (8,611 m) located on the border between China and Jammu and Kashmir. The third highest peak, Kanchenjunga (8,598 m) is on the Nepal-India border. The others are Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna 1, Nanga Parbat and Nanda Devi. B  

Where do we see sunspots?

 Sunspots are dark spots on the surface of the Sun, which are 2,000 degrees Centigrade cooler than the rest of the surface. The coolest bit of the sunspot is the dark center called the umbra. There is the penumbra around it. Some sunspots appear as mere specks on the Sun’s surface. They also appear in groups, which can be ten times the size of the Earth. Sometimes they measure 200,000 miles in length. These groups seem to move across the Sun over two weeks as the Sun rotates. The number of sunspots reaches a maximum every 11 years. This is called the solar or sunspot cycle. When sunspots are at their maximum, the Earth’s weather may become warmer and stormer. The observations of the Sun, by satellites like the Nimbus 7 showed that less heat reaches the Earth from the Sun when sunspots are at a maximum.  

Where are stars rormed?

 More millions or class Hence were seen from the fact from nearby stars the nebula pull off the gravity of the gas or shockwave caused by a nearby star explosion make the cloud of gas and dust shrink and grow hotter. As this happens, the nebula breaks up into smaller clumps, each of which may eventually form a star Slowly, the knot of matter gathers together in a dish. As the disc spins, it heats up until a nuclear reaction takes place and a new star is born Stars are being born and dying all over the Universe Big stars have short lives of 10 million years, whereas small stars may last for 200 billion years. Stars are fuelled by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium deep in their interiors. The outflow of energy from the central regions of the star provides the pressure necessary to keep the star from collapsing under its own weight. It also provides the energy, by which it shines,

which is the world’s longest river?  

Africa’s River Nile is the world’s longest with a length of 6,695 km. The Nile flows from south to north and is formed by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara. The Blue Nile begins in the highlands of Ethiopia and the White Nile begins at Lake Victoria. The two branches of the Nile merge at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely, through a desert from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population of Egypt and all of its cities with the exception of those near the coast, lies along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. Nearly, all the cultural and historical sites of ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river. There are hundreds of farms along the Nile. Usually, farmers use boats to transport items and animals (such as rice, wheat, cattle and hay) between locations on the Nile. Fishing is another main source of income and wealth for the people along the Nile.  

Which is the saltiest sea?  

The dead sea is the saltiest sea. in the world It is devoid of life, except for bacteria. It is so salty that it quickly kills river fish swept by floodwaters. The Dead Sea is 67 km long and 18 km wide, at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley and its main tributary is River Jordan. The surface fed by Jordan is the least saline. Down to about 130 feet (40 m), the seawater comprises about 300 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater. That’s about ten times the salinity of the oceans. Below 300 feet, the sea has 332 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater and is saturated. Salt precipitates out and piles upon the bottom of the sea. Unusually, high salt-content enables one to float effortlessly. The Dead Sea is not only the saltiest sea but it is also the lowest point on the Earth. The lake reaches a depth of 1,300 feet below its surface. The extraction of potash, bromine, gypsum, salt and other chemical products is one of the few effective means of utilizing the Dead Sea as a resource. 68  

What do you know about diamond?  

The plant is the most priced tomatoes heal under about 100 km below the Faith’s surface. The world’s largest diamond mine is located in eastern Siberia llis 525 m deep and 1200 m in diameter Diamond is the hardest of all materials and is used not only in jewelry, but also has industrial uses such as, drilling and polishing. When a diamond is first mined, it is called a rough diamond Diamonds vary in shape, Sometimes, they have to be split before they are cut and polished, A method called brilliant cutting is employed in cutting most diamonds. This method was invented in the 17th century by an Italian Jeweler. The diamond is cut by a revolving metal plate, covered in diamond dust. The faces are angled to reflect as much light as possible,  

What do you know about the gold in seas and oceans?  

The sea is laden with gold. Where does gold come from? It is leeched out of the place, where tectonic plates spread, cold water seeps down into the earth and comes into contact with hot rocks. Unfortunately, it is so dilute that its concentrations or orders of magnitude are smaller than the parts per million. It’s more like parts per trillion (ppt). The oceans contain an average gold concentration of about 13 billionths of a gram per litre of seawater (13 ppt). Actually, gold concentration varies between 5 – 50 ppt, depending on location. The Bering Sea contains the highest reported concentration. There are huge deposits of undissolved gold – solid stuff along the mid-ocean ridges of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. But the sad part is that it costs too much to mine or extract gold from the sea to make a profit. The concentration of gold in seawater is small. But, the cost of pumping the water is greater than the value of the gold. Fort Knox gold mine, in Alaska has produced nearly, 3.5 million ounces of gold since, it went into operation, in late 1996. 66  

What do you know about the pearls produced by oysters?  

An oyster is a mollusk. It has a soft and very sensitive body, inside its hinged shell. Its shell is made of ho parts or valves. As the oyster grows in size, its shell also grows. The mantle is an organ that produces the oyster’s shell by using minerals, from the oyster’s food. The material created by the mantle is called nacre. Nacre lines the inside of the shell. The formation of a pearl begins, when a grain of sand or any other substance gets into the soft part of the oyster. In order to protect itself, the oyster covers the irritant, with the layers of the nacre – the same substance which makes the shell. The oyster continues to add more and more nacre. Finally, it results in the formation of a pearl. The main component of nacre is the thin layers of the mineral aragonite, which is translucent Light interacts with these overlapping layers to give the finished pearl its lustrous appearance. 

What do you know about the various types of volcanoes?  

A volcano is an opening in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. The different types of volcanoes are 1. Composite volcano also called stratovolcanos, are formed by the alternating layers of lava and rock fragments. Stratovolcanoes are usually, large and conical. 2. Shield volcano may be produced by hot spots, which lay far away from the edges of tectonic plates. The eruptions of shield volcanoes are characterized by low explosivity and lava fountaining that form cinder cones and spatter cones at the vent. 3. Cinder cones grow rapidly and soon approach their maximum sizes. They rarely exceed 250 m in height and 500 m in diameter. 4. Spatter volcano is when lava flows out of the volcanic hole and slides down the mountainside. The result is a steep hill with a conical shape. These types of volcanic cones are on volcanoes with lava primarily composed of fluids, common on the Hawaiian islands. 1   

When do chameleons change their colours?  

Chameleons are one of the 85 species of lizards. Most of the chameleons are found on the island of Madagascar and in the mainland Africa. A chameleon can look forwards and backwards, at the same time because it has amazing eyes which can swivel in all directions. A chameleon changes its colour, when it is angry or frightened when it is too hot or too cold or when it is sick. In order to match with the surrounding, it changes itself often. The colour of the skin is controlled by pigment cells called melanophores. Lizards can also change their colours but chameleons are expert at this. They can change quickly, to all sorts of colours.  

When does the female insect eat its male?  

A female insect eats its male during or immediately, after mating. The behaviour has been observed among female green anacondas, which will mate, with a number of males, then eat one of their suitors. This phenomenon is common among insects and arachnids, like black widows, praying mantises and scorpions. Among the red back spiders, relatives of the black widows, males are actually, willing participants in the feast they flip onto the female’s mouth parts. A black widow spider belongs to the arachnid family, it has no backbone. The spider got its name (black widow spider) because the female usually, eats the male after mating. Sometimes, the male brings the female a present like an insect. So, the female does not eat the male so quickly. A male black widow has a yellow patch on its back. It is shaped like an hour glass. A female black widow has a red patch, on its back. It is shaped like an hour glass.

How are lakes formed?

 Lakes are formed by many geological processes. Some lakes formed long ago in hollows, scraped out by ice. These filled with water as ice melted. Many of the world’s great lakes, were formed by glaciation, for example, the Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria, are glacial in origin. Some lakes are formed on the top of volcanoes, for example, the Crater Lake in the US state of Oregon. This lake was formed about 6,850 years ago when a volcano collapsed, Lakes are also formed by the buckling of stratified rock into large folds or by the displacement of large masses of rock due to faults and blocking of valleys by landslides. The source of lake water is atmospheric precipitation that reaches the lake directly or by means of springs, brooks and rivers. A lake may evaporate as the climate becomes more acid or it may fill up with sediment leaving a bog or swamp in its place. 

Which is the largest seabird?  

The largest seabird is the Albatross. It has a white body and long, narrow wings, which enable it to glide even in still air. When it glides near the surface of the sea, it makes use of wind currents from the waves. With the help of these currents, it can stay in the air, without beating its wings for six hours. Its body is about 1.2 m long. It has a wing span of 3.7 m, the biggest of any bird. Albatrosses feed on live fish and dead animal, which float on the surface of water. They have an excellent sense of smell and can detect rotting carcasses of whales from a distance of 30 km. Since they get their food from the sea, they hardly come ashore. They come to the shore only to breed. The female lays a single large white egg on the ground, in the open which is incubated alternatively by the male and the female bird. The young one’s takes about 40 weeks to grow sufficiently. Albatrosses live long and are among the few birds that die at an old age. Wild Albatrosses live for more than 50 years 

Which is the biggest flower?  

The world’s largest flower is the Rafflesia, which grows in the jungles of Sumatra and Java. Its scientific name is Rafflesia Arnoldi, after Sir John Raffles and Dr. Arnoldi, the British botanists, who discovered the plant, in 1818. This flower has orange- brown and white petals and reaches a diameter of about 1 metre and can be 2 cm thick. It can weigh up to 11 kg. Rafflesia is a parasite, which has no leaves, roots or stems. Hence, it does not photosynthesize. It is usually, found in the rain forests of south-east Asia. This flower is popularly called the stinking corpse lily, because it looks and smells just like a huge lump of rotting flesh. It attracts thousands of flies, which pollinate the flower. Rafflesia individuals grow as thread-like strands of tissue completely embedded within and in intimate contact with surrounding host cells from which nutrients and water are obtained.

 Which bird can sleep, while flying?

 Laysan Albatrosses are very large birds. Their wing spans can reach to 13 feet (three metres) and they each may weigh as much as 11 kg. Their range extends to most of the north Pacific Ocean. An Albatross has a dark brown back and white head, neck, and rump. Its eye patch is dark. Its bill is thick and yellow with a grey, hooked tip. Wings are dark brown above, underneath is white with irregular brown-black borders. The tail is dark brown- black with white coverts. The legs and webbed feet are flesh-pink. Although, Albatrosses are so awkward on land yet, they are graceful and impressive in flight. An Albatross in flight can be so perfectly attuned to wind conditions that it may not flap its wings for hours, or even for days, as it can sleep while flying. It takes advantage of the air currents just above the ocean’s waves to soar in a perpetual graceful motion. Albatrosses live from forty to sixty years. They can island on which they were born. stay out at sea for as long as five years before returning to the same 

which is the world’s longest river?  

Africa’s River Nile is the world’s longest with a length of 6,695 km. The Nile flows from south to north and is formed by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara. The Blue Nile begins in the highlands of Ethiopia and the White Nile begins at Lake Victoria. The two branches of the Nile merge at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely, through a desert from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population of Egypt and all of its cities with the exception of those near the coast, lies along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. Nearly, all the cultural and historical sites of ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river. There are hundreds of farms along the Nile. Usually, farmers use boats to transport items and animals (such as rice, wheat, cattle and hay) between locations on the Nile. Fishing is another main source of income and wealth for the people along the Nile. 

Which is the saltiest sea?  

The dead sea is the saltiest sea. in the world It is devoid of life, except for bacteria. It is so salty that it quickly kills river fish swept by floodwaters. The Dead Sea is 67 km long and 18 km wide, at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley and its main tributary is River Jordan. The surface fed by Jordan is the least saline. Down to about 130 feet (40 m), the seawater comprises about 300 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater. That’s about ten times the salinity of the oceans. Below 300 feet, the sea has 332 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater and is saturated. Salt precipitates out and piles upon the bottom of the sea. Unusually, high salt-content enables one to float effortlessly. The Dead Sea is not only the saltiest sea but it is also the lowest point on the Earth. The lake reaches a depth of 1,300 feet below its surface. The extraction of potash, bromine, gypsum, salt and other chemical products is one of the few effective means of utilizing the Dead Sea as a resource. 68

 What do you know about diamond?  

Plant is the most priced tomandous heal unds about 100 km below the Faith’s surface. The world’s largest diamond mine is located in eastern Siberia llis 525 m deep and 1200 m in diameter Diamond is the hardest of all materials and is used not only in jewelry, but also has industrial uses such as, drilling and polishing. When a diamond is first mined, it is called a rough diamond Diamonds vary in shape, Sometimes, they have to be split before they are cut and polished, A method called brilliant cutting is employed in cutting most diamonds. This method was invented in the 17th century by an Italian Jeweler. The diamond is cut by a revolving metal plate, covered in diamond dust. The faces are angled to reflect as much light as possible,  What do you know about the gold in seas and oceans?  The sea is laden with gold. Where does gold come from? It is leeched out of the place, where tectonic plates spread, cold water seeps down into the earth and comes into contact with hot rocks. Unfortunately, it is so dilute that its concentrations or orders of magnitude are smaller than the parts per million. It’s more like parts per trillion (ppt). The oceans contain an average gold concentration of about 13 billionths of a gram per litre of seawater (13 ppt). Actually, gold concentration varies between 5 – 50 ppt, depending on location. The Bering Sea contains the highest reported concentration. There are huge deposits of undissolved gold – solid stuff along the mid-ocean ridges of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. But the sad part is that it costs too much to mine or extract gold from the sea to make a profit. The concentration of gold in seawater is small. But, the cost of pumping the water is greater than the value of the gold. Fort Knox gold mine, in Alaska has produced nearly, 3.5 million ounces of gold since, it went into operation, in late 1996. 66

Why do waves occur?

 Waves occur, when wind blows across the sea. The wind transfers some of its energy to the water, through friction between the air molecules and water molecules. On a calm day, waves are few whereas on a stormy or windy day, waves are several and big. When we see the waves move one after the other, the water appears to move forward. If there are pieces of floating wood in the water, they will not move in front, as the waves appear to do. They will only bob up and down with the waves. Water particles are dragged a short way by the friction between air and water, which is known as wind stress. If the wind continues to blow for a long time, with force in the same direction, moving particles may build up into a ridge of water. At first, this is a ripple and then it becomes a wave. The size of a wave depends on the strength of the wind and how far it blows over the water. 

What are the different layers of Sun?

 Much like the Earth, the Sun has many different layers that define its structure, Unlike the Earth, the Sun is completely gaseous, there is no solid surface on the Sun. Although the Sun is completely made of gas, the density and temperature of the gas e changes drastically as you travel from the center to the outermost regions. In the core of the Sun, the density is as high as 150 grams per cubic centimetre. At the other extreme near the base of the outermost layer, the corona, the density has dropped to about 1×10-15 grams per cubic centimetre The core has a very high temperature of more that 15 million degrees Kelvin. As you move away from the heat producing core the temperature drops to about 6000 degrees at the photosphere, the effective surface of the Sun. The puzzling thing is that the temperature then rises again to more than 2 million degrees in the corona which is the furthest layer from the core. Researchers are currently investigating what might cause the Sun to have such a curious temperature profile. 92 

why do stars twinkle?

Mest stars bum steadily, we could see them from space, they would not actually be twinkling at all. A star may appear to twinkle because air movement in the Earth’s atmosphere makes the light from the star twist and bend This makes the light appear to flicker. Stars appear as tiny dots in the sky. As the light travels, through the many layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, the light of the star is bent (refracted) many times and in random directions. This random refraction results in the star winking out. It looks, as though the star moves a bit. Our eyes interpret this as twinkling. Because of this effect, observatories for studying stars are situated on mountain tops. This is due to the fact that as we go higher up, the air becomes thinner and it is less likely to cause the twinkling effect. Stars are mainly balls of hydrogen and helium gases. In the heart of the stars, nuclear reactions like those in atom bombs generate heat and light. The heart of a star reaches the temperature of 16 million degrees Centigrade. This grain of hot sand would kill someone 150 km away. 

Why do floods occur?  

Floods occur, when the water in a river or sea LAOS overflows its banks and splashes out elsewhere. Water accumulates in a river, from heavy rains or from other streams or reservoirs, which feed the river. Floods also occur in stormy weather, when high tides or gigantic waves sweep on to the shore. River floods may occur after a period of prolonged heavy rain or after snow melts in spring. The types of land surfaces that are prone to flooding are broad and flat, usually situated on the banks of a river or main waterway. Flood size is described in terms of frequency, Small floods are common, whereas big floods are rare. Flash floods are floods which happen very suddenly, without any warning, Flash floods can happen in the desert too after a rare downpour of rain. A small flood that is likely, to occur every two years is a 2 year flood. A big flood, which is likely to occur once a century is called a 100 year flood, 

Why do volcanoes erupt?  

As we know, the core of the Earth is hot. The deeper you go under the crust of the Earth, the higher is the temperature At a depth of 20 miles, it is 1,000 degrees Centigrade to 1,100 degrees Centigrade hot. Most rocks found there are in a molten state. When rocks melt, they expand and require more space. In some areas of the world, mountain ranges have been formed. Under and close to these mountain ranges, the pressure is less than elsewhere. It is a type of weak spot’ in the Earth’s solid surface. The liquid rock, known as magma, expands into these areas and a local reservoir of molten rock is made. This material goes up along the cracks made by the uplift. When the pressure in the reservoir of molten rock is greater than the strength of the roof above, it explodes as a volcano. When a volcano erupts, it throws out hot, gaseous liquid called lava or solid particles that look like cinders and ash. 

Why do we have day and night?  

We all live on the Earth. It is like big, round ball. Moreover, it is spinning. This is hard to believe because we do not feel any motion. Everything stays in its place because the Earth pulls everything to itself. This pull is called gravity. The Earth always spins, at the same speed (about 1,000 miles per hour). The Earth spins on its axis which is an imaginary line, through the center of the Earth. We can imagine the axis, as a stick pushed, through the middle of an orange. As the Earth spins, the Sun always shines on one side and thus we have daylight. The face of the Earth which does not face sunlight is dark. Thus, the shaded side is night time. As the Earth continues to turn, the shaded side moves into the Sun’s light and the sunlit side turns away from the light. It takes 24 hours for the Earth, to make one complete turn, on its axis and our clocks are based on this principle. A 

Why do trees have rings?  

Across-section da free shows adequate light and dark rings of wood. The light rings represent the summer growth of the tree, whereas the dark rings, the winter growth By counting these pairs of rings we can calculate the age of the tree. The rings look lighter in summer because, at this time, the cells of wood are larger and have thinner walls. Whereas in winter, the cells are smaller, have dense walls and are tightly packed. This makes a darker band. When you look at the rings of a tree, you will notice that they differ in width also. This difference is made by the weather conditions that prevailed, during that particular season. A variation in the light, the amount of rain and the minerals in the soil make the variations, in the rings. Narrow rings indicate poor conditions and wider rings denote, good weather.  

Why are sharks different from other fish?  

Sharks are different from other fish because they are the most fearsome sea creatures. The skeleton of the shark is made up of a rubbery cartilage, whereas most other fish have bony skeletons. They have strong jaws and tough teeth, specially equipped for killing. The streamlined body, strong muscles and the large tail of the shark make it a fast swimmer. They also have sensory cells, all over their bodies including the heads, which can detect vibrations in the water. Sharks use their teeth so much so that they have three or four spare teeth in reserve. Most other fish are covered in smooth, flat scales. A shark is covered in sharp, tooth- like scales called denticles. Most other fish have just one gill-slit each, an organ for breathing on each side of the body. A shark has five, six or even seven gill-slits on each side. Most other fish have flaps over their gills but sharks do not.

Where are pythons found?  

A python is a common name for group of non venomous snakes that kill by squeezing their prey. Pythons mainly eat reptiles and mammals. The biggest species of pythons reach gigantic sizes and are capable of killing and swallowing animals, as large as crocodiles, pigs, antelopes or small deer. Pythons have rarely killed humans. Pythons live in a wide variety of tropical and sub-tropical habitats, ranging from rain forests and woodlands to savannas and deserts. Some species are basically aquatic, while others spend most of their time in trees. Giant species typically, live on the ground but can swim or climb trees, when needed. Pythons range through much of sub Saharan Africa and through parts of southern Asia, including India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; south- eastern Asia, including Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, and Vietnam; and in regions of southern China. They are also found in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, New Guinea and Australia. A python ranges from about 1-10 m long and can weigh up to 140 kg.

Where does a bee keep its sting?  

Bees are four-winged, flower-feeding  insects. They have enlarged find feet, branched or feathered body, hair and stingers . Honeybees and bumblebees are the most common. Bumblebees are larger and stronger than honeybees. Bees are beneficial insects because they produce honey and pollinate crops. A bee keep its sting, at the end of its abdomen. At the tip of a bee’s abdomen, there is a shaft where its stinging thorn is to be found. It can sting several times. Once it has left the thorn in its victim’s flesh, it will not be able to sting again. It is not true to say that a bee will automatically die, once it has lost its thorn. Only female bees can sting. Male bees or drones can’t protect themselves by stinging others. But, there is one female species which cannot sting. These bees, which live mainly in Africa and South America are not defenseless. If disturbed, they fly at the intruder in great numbers, crawl into eyes, ears and hair and smear him, with a sticky substance, causing him to retreat in great discomfort. 

What are the different types of rocks and how are they formed?  

Igneous rocks are crystalline solids which form directly from the cooling of magma. This is an exothermic process (it loses heat) and involves a phase change from the liquid to the solid state. The earth is mac of igneous roc Igneous rocks are given name based upon to things: composition (what they are made of) and texture (how big the crystals are). In most places on the surface, the igneous rocks which make up the majority of the crust are covered by a thin veneer of loose sediment, and the rock which is made as layers of this debris get compacted and cemented together. Sedimentary rocks are called secondary, because they are often the result of the accumulation of small pieces broken off of pre-existing rocks. The metamorphics get their name from ‘meta’ (change) and ‘morph’ (form). Any rock can become a metamorphic rock. All that is required is for the rock to be moved into an environment in which the minerals which make up the rock become unstable and out of equilibrium with the new environmental conditions. Common metamorphic rocks include slate, schist, gneiss, and marble. 98 

Where does a hedgehog go in winter?

 A hedgehog is a small animal, which looks like a porcupine. It has short ears and legs, a short tail and a long nose. A hedgehog has stiff, sharp needle-like growth, called spines, on its back to protect itself from its predator. It can roll itself into a prickly ball, to protect its soft, underparts, when there is danger. In winter, a hedgehog goes into hibernation, which is a sleep-like state in order to protect itself, from the cold and reduce its need for food. The body temperature of the hedgehog decreases and its heartbeat and breathing are also slowed down, to a great extent. In this state, it requires little energy to keep itself alive. It can live on the food, which is stored in the form of fat in the body. Hedgehogs nest, in a hibernaculum throughout the winter, but they may wake up several times. The nest is about 50 cm in diameter. It is mostly, made of leaves, grass and various other plants. Hedgehogs also nest in semi man made structures, such as a pile of logs. 

Where is the world’s biggest crab found?

 Crabs are decapods. They are ten-legged omnivores, but the front pair of legs are specialized with enlarged claws. So, they are commonly, described as eight-legged creatures. Crabs vary in sizes from the pea crab, only a few millimetres wide to the Japanese spider crab, with a leg span of up to 4 m. The Japanese spider crab is the largest known arthropod. The size of its body is 37 cm and its weight is up to 20 kg. A crab’s natural habitat is on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean around Japan. It often lives on the seabed, at the depths of 150 to 800 m, but is found most prominently, in the depths of 200 to 300 m. In spring, it can often be found laying eggs in waters, as shallow as, 50 m. It has an orange body, but it has white spots on its thin legs. The width of its oval-shaped and vertically rounded shell can reach up to 30 cm, and can be up to 40 cm long. Its compound eyes are situated on the front. Its two thorns stick out between them. It feeds on dead animals and shellfish. It is believed to have a life expectancy of up to 100 years. 

Where would you find the traveller’s tree?  

kwa Madagascariensis, who known as the  traveler’s Tree or  Traveler’s Palm, is a apkal tree from the me family, as the birds of paradise. It is native to the island of Madagascar The plant is shaped like a huge fan made of feathers. It can grow up to 30 f1 – 60 ft (10 m to 20 m) tall. The leaves. of the  traveler’s tree are symmetrically, grouped and given the tree the shape of a hand fan. Leaves can be up to 10 ft (3 m) long, The  traveler’s tree grows best in well-drained and moist grounds. Edible seeds are produced in fruit capsules after tiny, white summer blooms. According to some beliefs, this plant produces water, at the base, of its leaves and is thus valuable to a traveler. But actually, the tree does not produce water. It is rain, which has been trapped in the sheaths that cover the Ravenala’s leaves. The water can be obtained by pricking the stems of the leaves and has been used for drinking, in times of scarcity. 

Why do we have seasons?

 Seasons are periods of similar weather. They occur at certain times of the year. There are usually four seasons each year and each one lasts about three months. We have different seasons because the Earth is tilted on its axis. When the Earth is on one side of the Sun, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun. It is summer in the north of the world and winter in the south. As the Earth moves a quarter way round the Sun, the northern half begins to tilt away. This brings cooler autumn weather to the north and spring to the south. When the Earth moves another quarter round to the far side of the Sun, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun. It is winter in the north of the world and summer in the south. As the Earth moves three quarters of the way round the Sun, the north begins to tilt towards the Sun again. This brings the warmer weather of spring to the north and autumn to the south 

Why do waves occur?   

Waves occur, when wind blows across the sea. The wind transfers some of its energy to the water, through friction between the air molecules and water molecules. On a calm day, waves are few whereas on a stormy or windy day, waves are several and big. When we see the waves move one after the other, the water appears to move forward. If there are pieces of floating wood in the water, they will not move in front, as the waves appear to do. They will only bob up and down with the waves. Water particles are dragged a short way by the friction between air and water, which is known as wind stress. If the wind continues to blow for a long time, with force in the same direction, moving particles may build up into a ridge of water. At first, this is a ripple and then it becomes a wave. The size of a wave depends on the strength of the wind and how far it blows over the water.   

What are the different layers of Sun?   

Much like the Earth, the Sun has many different layers that define its structure, Unlike the Earth, the Sun is completely gaseous, there is no solid surface on the Sun. Although the Sun is completely made of gas, the density and temperature of the gas e changes drastically as you travel from the center to the outermost regions. In the core of the Sun, the density is as high as 150 grams per cubic centimetre. At the other extreme near the base of the outermost layer, the corona, the density has dropped to about 1×10-15 grams per cubic centimetre The core has a very high temperature of more that 15 million degrees Kelvin. As you move away from the heat producing core the temperature drops to about 6000 degrees at the photo sphere, the effective surface of the Sun. The puzzling thing is that the temperature then rises again to more than 2 million degrees in the corona which is the furthest layer from the core. Researchers are currently investigating what might cause the Sun to have such a curious temperature profile. 92   

why do stars twinkle?  

Mest stars bum steadily, we could see them from space, they would not actually be twinkling at all. A star may appear to twinkle because air movement in the Earth’s atmosphere makes the light from the star twist and bend This makes the light appear to flicker. Stars appear as tiny dots in the sky. As the light travels, through the many layers of the Earth’s atmosphere, the light of the star is bent (refracted) many times and in random directions. This random refraction results in the star winking out. It looks, as though the star moves a bit. Our eyes interpret this as twinkling. Because of this effect, observatories for studying stars are situated on mountain tops. This is due to the fact that as we go higher up, the air becomes thinner and it is less likely to cause the twinkling effect. Stars are mainly balls of hydrogen and helium gases. In the heart of the stars, nuclear reactions like those in atom bombs generate heat and light. The heart of a star reaches the temperature of 16 million degrees Centigrade. This grain of hot sand would kill someone 150 km away.   

Why do floods occur?   

Floods occur, when the water in a river or sea LAOS overflows its banks and splashes out elsewhere. Water accumulates in a river, from heavy rains or from other streams or reservoirs, which feed the river. Floods also occur in stormy weather, when high tides or gigantic waves sweep on to the shore. River floods may occur after a period of prolonged heavy rain or after snow melts in spring. The types of land surfaces that are prone to flooding are broad and flat, usually situated on the banks of a river or main waterway. Flood size is described in terms of frequency, Small floods are common, whereas big floods are rare. Flash floods are floods which happen very suddenly, without any warning, Flash floods can happen in the desert too after a rare downpour of rain. A small flood that is likely, to occur every two years is a 2 year flood. A big flood, which is likely to occur once a century is called a 100 year flood,   

Why do volcanoes erupt?   

As we know, the core of the Earth is hot. The deeper you go under the crust of the Earth, the higher is the temperature At a depth of 20 miles, it is 1,000 degrees Centigrade to 1,100 degrees Centigrade hot. Most rocks found there are in a molten state. When rocks melt, they expand and require more space. In some areas of the world, mountain ranges have been formed. Under and close to these mountain ranges, the pressure is less than elsewhere. It is a type of weak spot’ in the Earth’s solid surface. The liquid rock, known as magma, expands into these areas and a local reservoir of molten rock is made. This material goes up along the cracks made by the uplift. When the pressure in the reservoir of molten rock is greater than the strength of the roof above, it explodes as a volcano. When a volcano erupts, it throws out hot, gaseous liquid called lava or solid particles that look like cinders and ash.   

Why do we have day and night?   

We all live on the Earth. It is like big, round ball. Moreover, it is spinning. This is hard to believe because we do not feel any motion. Everything stays in its place because the Earth pulls everything to itself. This pull is called gravity. The Earth always spins, at the same speed (about 1,000 miles per hour). The Earth spins on its axis which is an imaginary line, through the center of the Earth. We can imagine the axis, as a stick pushed, through the middle of an orange. As the Earth spins, the Sun always shines on one side and thus we have daylight. The face of the Earth which does not face sunlight is dark. Thus, the shaded side is night time. As the Earth continues to turn, the shaded side moves into the Sun’s light and the sunlit side turns away from the light. It takes 24 hours for the Earth, to make one complete turn, on its axis and our clocks are based on this principle. A   

Why do trees have rings?   

A cross-section da free shows adequate light and dark rings of wood. The light rings represent the summer growth of the tree, whereas the dark rings, the winter growth By counting these pairs of rings we can calculate the age of the tree. The rings look lighter in summer because, at this time, the cells of wood are larger and have thinner walls. Whereas in winter, the cells are smaller, have dense walls and are tightly packed. This makes a darker band. When you look at the rings of a tree, you will notice that they differ in width also. This difference is made by the weather conditions that prevailed, during that particular season. A variation in the light, the amount of rain and the minerals in the soil make the variations, in the rings. Narrow rings indicate poor conditions and wider rings denote, good weather.   

Why are sharks different from other fish? 

 Sharks are different from other fish because they are the most fearsome sea creatures. The skeleton of the shark is made up of a rubbery cartilage, whereas most other fish have bony skeletons. They have strong jaws and tough teeth, specially equipped for killing. The streamlined body, strong muscles and the large tail of the shark make it a fast swimmer. They also have sensory cells, all over their bodies including the heads, which can detect vibrations in the water. Sharks use their teeth so much so that they have three or four spare teeth in reserve. Most other fish are covered in smooth, flat scales. A shark is covered in sharp, tooth- like scales called denticles. Most other fish have just one gill-slit each, an organ for breathing on each side of the body. A shark has five, six or even seven gill-slits on each side. Most other fish have flaps over their gills but sharks do not.   

What are algae?  

Algae are the most primitive form of life. They are simple organisms that live in oceans, lakes, rivers and damp mud. Algae vary in size from, single celled microscopic organisms to huge seaweeds over 60 m long. For example, the largest known algae is the Giant Kelp, which grows up to 65 m in length. Algae do not have leaves, roots or stems like other plants, but they have chlorophyll in them, which enables them to get their energy from sunlight. Algae may be tiny, but they form a vital source of food for sea creatures from shrimps to whales. They also provide most of the oxygen, which water creatures need for life. Algae are used by humans, in many ways. They are used fertilizers, soil conditioners and are a source of livestock feed. Green algae are usually, found in freshwater whereas red or brown algae are found in the warm seas. The chlorophyll of red or brown algae is masked by other pigments. 

what is a tree bark?  

The outer covering of the stem of woody plants is known as bark. It is composed of waterproof cork cells. One of its main function is, to shield the inner and more soft structures of the tree. It not only keeps them from drying out but, also protects them against outside injuries. The bark protects a layer of food conducting tissue called the phloem or inner bark. The process by which bark is formed may continue year after year. As the woody stem increases in size, the outer bark of the dead cork cells give way it may split to form grooves or shed off or peel off. A layer of reproductive cells, called the cork cambium, produces new cork cells to replace the old ones. The bark of the hemlock tree is used in the tanning of leather, Bottle corks are made from the thick, spongy bark of the cork oak, which grows in the Mediterranean region. Quinine is made from the bark of the cinchona tree. Extracts from the bark of other trees are used for flavouring and as medicines. 

What is the Earth’s atmosphere made up of?

The atmosphere is a blanket of gases, which extends around the Earth. The atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1 % argon and carbon dioxide and tiny traces of neon, krypton, zenon, helium, methane and carbon monoxide. The atmosphere is divided into five layers exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere. The exosphere is the highest level of the atmosphere, which means than gas is very sparse. In the thermosphere, temperatures are very high ranging from 120 degree centigrade to 2,000 degrees centigrade about, 700 km up. The mesosphere contains few gases, but, it is thick enough, to slow down meteorites. Temperatures range between 10 degrees centigrade 120 degrees centigrade about 80 km up. The stratosphere is completely, calm and clear. That is why, jet airliners fly in this layer. Temperatures range from 60 degree centigrade to 10 degrees centigrade about 50 km up. Although, the troposphere is just 12 km thick yet, it contains 75% of the weight of gases in the atmosphere. Temperature drops by height from 18 degrees centigrade to 60 degrees centigrade.

What are tectonic plates?

 The Earth’s surface is divided into, thick slabs called tectonic plates. Each plate is a fragment of the Earth’s rigid outer layer or lithosphere. There are 16 large plates and several smaller ones. The plates are made of rock and are from 50 to 150 km thick. They move both, horizontally and vertically. The Pacific plate, is the biggest plate which covers the whole of the Pacific Ocean. It is continuously, in motion, it moves about 10 cm a year. It takes hundreds of millions of years for it, to move vast distances. The Pacific plate is the only large plate which has no continent situated on it. The movement of the tectonic plates is responsible for several things, which include the pattern of volcanic and earthquake activity, around the world. Most of the Earth’s seismic activity (volcanos and earthquakes) occurs at the plate boundaries as they interact. The top layers of the plates are called the crust. Oceanic crust the crust under the oceans) is thinner and denser than continental crust. 

What are tectonic plates?  

The Earth’s surface is divided into, thick slabs called tectonic plates. Each plate is a fragment of the Earth’s rigid outer layer or lithosphere. There are 16 large plates and several smaller ones. The plates are made of rock and are from 50 to 150 km thick. They move both, horizontally and vertically. The Pacific plate, is the biggest plate which covers the whole of the Pacific Ocean. It is continuously, in motion, it moves about 10 cm a year. It takes hundreds of millions of years for it, to move vast distances. The Pacific plate is the only large plate which has no continent situated on it. The movement of the tectonic plates is responsible for several things, which include the pattern of volcanic and earthquake activity, around the world. Most of the Earth’s seismic activity (volcanos and earthquakes) occurs at the plate boundaries as they interact. The top layers of the plates are called the crust. Oceanic crust (the crust under the oceans) is thinner and denser than continental crust.

What is the speciality of Uluru?  

Uluru, formerly known as Ayers Rock is the world’s largest monolith or single piece of stone on the planet. It rises from the broad desert plain in the deep center of Australia. Uluru is Australia’s most recognizable natural icon. The famous sandstone monolith stands 348 metres high and has an elliptical shape, with a circumference of 9.4 kilometres. Like an iceberg, it has most of its bulk below the surface. It is located 440 kilometres south-west of Alice Springs, in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Uluru is particularly, notable for its striking appearance, at different times of the year as it appears to change colours with the different light angles at different times of the day and year. Sunset is particularly, remarkable sight when it briefly glows red. Although, rainfall is uncommon in this semi-arid area yet, during wet periods, the rock acquires a silvery-grey colour, with streaks of black algae forming on the areas that serve as channels for water flow. This massive pile of rock dome dates back to 500 million years.

What is the speciality of Uluru?

 Uluru, formerly known as Ayers Rock is the world’s largest monolith or single piece of stone on the planet. It rises from the broad desert plain in the deep centre of Australia. Uluru is Australia’s most recognizable natural icon. The famous sandstone monolith stands 348 metres high and has an elliptical shape, with a circumference of 9.4 kilometres. Like an iceberg, it has most of its bulk below the surface. It is located 440 kilometres south-west of Alice Springs, in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Uluru is particularly, notable for its striking appearance, at different times of the year as it appears to change colours with the different light angles at different times of the day and year. Sunset is particularly, remarkable sight when it briefly glows red. Although, rainfall is uncommon in this semi-arid area yet, during wet periods, the rock acquires a silvery-grey colour, with streaks of black algae forming on the areas that serve as channels for water flow. This massive pile of rock dome dates back to 500 million years.  

what are wetlands?  

wetlands are 325 of land, where the water level is mostly, above the ground. Bogs, lens, swamps and marshes are the main types of wetland. Wetlands act like sponges and help to control floods as well as to top up supplies of groundwater. Bogs and fens occur in cold climates and contain plenty of partially rotted plant material called peat. Marshes and swamps are found in cold and warm places. They have more plants than bogs and fens. A swamp is a cross between a lake and land. Although, its waters are usually very shallow yet lots of special kinds of trees and plants can be found growing in the water A marsh is drier than a swamp and water cannot always be seen bu the ground and the plants that grow in it are always soggy or waterlogged. Reeds and rushes grow in marshes. Wetlands provide a safe and lush environment for many different species of fish, birds and insects. There are many types of Vegetation in wetlands. There are plants such as cattails, bulrushes, sedges, arrowhead, water lilies, blue flag and floaters like common duckweed. 

 What are the main conditions required for the development of cyclone?  

Tropical cyclogenesis is the term that describes the development and strengthening of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere. The mechanisms through which tropical cyclogenesis occurs are distinctly different from those though which mid-latitude cyclogenesis occurs. It involves the development of a warm-core cyclone, due to insignificant convection in a favourable atmospheric environment. There are certain requirements for tropical cyclogenesie. Sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance and low vertical wind shear. Tropical cyclones tend to develop during the summer, but have been noted in nearly every month in most basins. This is strongly related to the water temperature along its path. An average 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide of those, 47 reach hurricane/typhoon strength and 20 become intense tropical cyclones. 

What is bamboo – tree or grass?  

Bamboo is thought to be a tree but actually, it is a kind of grass. It is the largest member of the grass family. Bamboo is the fastest growing woody plant, in the world. Its accelerated growth rate (up to 3-4 feet/day) is due to a unique rhizome system and is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions. There are over, five hundred types of bamboos. They all consist of smooth, hollow, joined stems with a strong watertight partition, at each joint. All grow very quickly. They grow upwards at a rate of 41 centimetres a day and can grow up to a height of 36 metres. While most bamboos flower every year, there are some that flower only three or four times, in a century. The flowers are very similar to those of other grasses. The fruits are normally, like grasses and some kinds are like nuts. Bamboo has numerous advantages. In the United States, bamboo is mainly used, in fishing poles, walking sticks and phonograph needles. Bamboo has long been used to make paper.

What are fungi?  

Fungi are not plants, because, they have no chlorophyll, to make their food. They are a group of 50,000 species, which include mushrooms, toadstools, mould, mildew and yeast. Since, fungi cannot make their own food, they live on other plants and animals as parasites. Fungi are made of numerous thread-like structures called hyphae, which absorb the chemicals they feed on, Fungi feed on the host by releasing chemicals called enzymes, which break down chemicals in their host. Fungi, which live on living organisms are called parasitic fungi, whereas fungi, which live on dead plants and animals are called saprophytic. The most poisonous of all fungi is the destroying angel. It can kill anyone, who eats it once. Fly agaric is a toadstool, which is a poisonous mushroom. It is easy to recognize from its spotted red cap. The field mushroom grown wild or cultivated is the mushroom most widely eaten.

What are the uses of the willow tree?  

Willow Trees are usually, found in moist habitats such as, flood plains and on river banks, These trees grow very rapidly, in this climate The willow tree is very useful in several ways. Its leaves provide food for the wildlife. The leaves and bark of the willow tree have been mentioned, in ancient texts from Assyria, Sumer and Egypt as a remedy for aches and fever. The bark of the willow tree contains an active compound salicin, which is used in making many medicines, Aspirin is a derivative of salicylic acid, which was synthesized from derivatives of the willow bark. The twigs of the common osier are grown for the use in basket making, whereas the light but dent-resistant wood of other willow trees is used in making artificial limbs, wooden shoes and cricket bats, brooms, cradles, boards, chairs and other furniture, dolls, flutes, poles, toys, tool handles, wands and whistles. 

What are lichens?

 Lichens are a wonderful partnership of algae and fungi There are about, 20,000 species of lichens. They are usually, flat and crust like, with no roots or stems, They often grow on roofs or soil, but most grow on rocks or the branches of trees. The algae, in lichens make food from sunlight to feed the fungi, whereas the fungi make a protective layer around the algae and hold water. Lichens can grow only when, moistened by rain. They grow very slowly but can eventually, cover very large areas. Some lichens grow a fraction of a millimetres, in a year. Lichens could survive in many places, where other plants would die, For example, the Arctic deserts and mountain tops. Some Arctic lichens are believed to be 4,000 years old. Lichens are very sensitive to air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide. Hence, they are used by scientists to indicate air pollution. Scandinavian reindeer moss is a lichen eaten by reindeers. It is also exported to Germany for decorations. 

What is the importance of plants?  

Plants are helpful for the survival of human beings, in several ways. They not only provide us with food, but also give us oxygen to survive. Plants consume carbon dioxide, which we release and give off oxygen, which human beings require to survive. Shampoos, perfumes, bath oils and creams are made from sweet-smelling plants. The corks that seal the bottles of wine are made from the bark (cork) of the Oak tree. Besides this, plants help us to make lots of useful things such as paper, cloth and medicines. The coal, which we use today comes from plants, which grew even before dinosaurs existed. Trees also provide us with fuel, timber, resins, varnishes, dyes, rubber and many more things. Softwood is obtained from coniferous trees such as pine, larch, fir and spruce. 75-80% of the natural forests of northern Asia, Europe and the USA are softwood, Hardwood timber is obtained from broad-leaved trees, like the Oak.  How have the animals found in the

 arctic region adapted themselves?  

The Arctic is a very cold, windy and often snowy biome, located around the North Pole. Animals that live in the Arctic are adapted to extreme conditions, Many animals that live in the Arctic, like the Arctic fox and the ermine have coats that thicken and change colour to white, during the winter as camouflage, in the snow. Some animals hibernate during the cold season; they go into a very deep, sleep-like state, in which their heartbeats slow down. These animals often hibernate in underground burrows or pits. The musk oxen have thick overcoats of shaggy long straight hair that hangs down to the ground. Their undercoats are thick brown fleece. The white fur of the polar bear helps it to sneak up, on seals that are laying on the ice packs. Females dig dens in the snow, where they hibernate during the worst part of the winter. 18 

what is the purpose of an elephant’s trunk?  

The African elephant is the largest land animal, growing as tall as 4 m and weighing more than 6,000 kg. The trunk of the elephant is the most outstanding part of the elephant’s body. It is an extension of the nose and the upper lip. The trunk is very powerful and flexible. The elephant uses its long trunk to breathe, to smell and to gather food. It is very good for holding on to things and it is so sensitive that it can even pick up very small objects. The trunk is also used for drawing up water. The water is then, transferred to the elephant’s mouth for drinking. The trunk is also used to draw up water, which the elephant, then showers all over its body. The elephant also enjoys dust baths, using the trunk to gather the dust and blow it over itself. In this way, it gets rid of flies and ticks. The trunk is also used to warn the other elephants from danger, by giving a loud blast, call a trumpet

Which plant causes itching?  

Mucuna prunes is a tropic legume known as velvet cowitch and by other com names, found in Anca, la and the Caribbean. The party infamous for the extreme itchiness. It produces a conta particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods. Ithe value in agricultural and horticultural use and has a range of medicinal properties. The plant is an annual, climbing shrub with long vines that can reach over 15 m in length, when the plant is young, it is almost completely covered with fuzzy hair, but when older, it is almost completely free of hair. The leaves are tripinnate ovate, reverse ovate, rhombus-shaped all widely ovate. The sides of the leaves are often heavily grooved and the tips are pointy. In young Mucuna Pruriens, both sides of the leaves have hair. The stems of the leaflets are two to three millimeters long. Additional adjacent leaves are present and are about 5 mm long. Mucuna pruriens is a widespread fodder plant in the tropics. To that end, the whole plant is fed to animals as silage, dried hay on dried seeds. M pruriens silage contains 11- 23% crude protein, 35-40% crude fiber, and the dried beans 20-35% crude protein

What are sand dunes?  

lifeless sand. But sand dunes are When you think of a sand dune, you probably picture a barren pile actually dynamic natural structures They grow, shift and travel. Mounts of wind blown sand in deserts and coastal areas are called dunes. Winds transport grains of sand until it accumulates around obstacles to form ridges and mounds. Wind direction, the type of sand, and the amount of vegetation determine the type of dune. Sand dunes are found in the coastal and inland deserts. A sand dune can be as small as an anthill or as tall as a skyscraper. All sand dunes are formed the same way, every single one is a pile of sand built up by the wind. Once the sand has been picked up by the wind, it will go wherever the wind carries it. Even though most sand dunes are made of the same material and formed in the same way, they vary widely in appearance, Dunes are named either for their shape or alignment with the wind. Star dunes and parabolic dunes are named for their shape and longitudinal dunes and transverse dunes are named for their alignment with the wind. 119 

What is the unique feature of armadillos?

Armadillos are the new world placental mammals with a leathery armor shell, The Dasypodidae are the only surviving family in the order cingulate, part of the anteaters and sloths. The word armadillo is Spanish means “little armored one’. About 10 extant genera and 20 extant species of armadillo have been described, some of which are distinguished by the member of bands, on their armor. Their average length is about 75 cm, including tail, the giant armadillo grows up to 150 cm and weighs up to 59 kg, while the pink fairy armadillos are diminutive species with an overall length of 12-15 cm. All species are native to America, where they inhabit a variety of environments. Armadillos are primarily found in south and central America, particularly Paraguay and surrounding area. It has a very special and unique feature to curl themselves into a ball just to save them from the danger. Armadillos are small to medium-sized mammals. The largest species, the giant armadillo, can be the size of a small pig at up to 60 kg and over 100 cm in length. 

which animal ruled for 135 million years?  

animals of the dade Dinosauria’ They first appeared during the Triassic period, approximately 230 million years ago, and were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years from the beginning of Jurassic. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds at over 9,000 living species are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1000 different species of non-Aviom dinosaurs. They are represented in every continent by both, extant species and fossil remains. Some are herbivorous, others carnivorous. Most dinosaurs are bipedal, though many extinct groups included quadrupedal species and body postures. Many species possess elaborate display structures such as homes or crests and some prehistoric groups developed skeletal modifications, such as bony armor and spines. 11  

What do you know about hibiscus?  

Hibiscus is a genus of Fring plants in the allow family, Halvaceal It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly known as hibiscus sorrel and flor de Jamaica, on less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both, annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped with five on more petals, colour from white to pink, red, orange, purple, or yellow, and from 4-18 cm broad. Flower colour in certain species, such as H.mutabilis and H.tiliaceus changes with age. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule splits open at maturity. It is of white and red colour. It is an example of complete flowers.

what are glaciers?  

care made up of ballon shows that many years compresses into large, thickened Glacierstorm when snow remains in one location long enough to transform into ice. What makes glaciers unique is their ability to move. Due to sheer mass, glaciers flow like very slow rivers. Some glaciers are as small as football fields, while others grow to be over a hundred kilometers long. A glacier cannot form unless it is above the snowline, the lowest elevation at which snow can survive year-round. Most glaciers form in high mountain regions such as the Himalayas of Southern Asia or the Alps of Western Europe where regular snow and extremely cold temperatures are present. Most glaciers located in polar regions like Antarctica and Greenland. Glaciers can be thought as remnants from the last Ice Age when ice covered nearly 32% of the land, and 30% of the oceans. Glaciers may be retreating worldwide due to global warming, but they still cover about 10% of Earth’s land and hold about 77% of Earth’s freshwater 115

What are the main conditions required for the development of cyclone?   

Tropical cyclogenesis is the term that describes the development and strengthen ing of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere. The mechanisms through which tropical cyclogenesis occurs are distinctly different from those though which mid-latitude cyclogenesis occurs. It involves the development of a warm-core cyclone, due to insignificant convection in a favourable atmospheric environment. There are certain requirements for tropical cyclogenesie. Sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough corolis force to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance and low vertical wind shear. Tropical cyclones tend to develop during the summer, but have been noted in nearly every month in most basins. This is strongly related to the water temperature along its path. An average 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide of those, 47 reach hurricane/typhoon strength and 20 become intense tropical cyclones.   

What is bamboo – tree or grass?   

Bamboo is thought to be a tree but actually, it is a kind of grass. It is the largest member of the grass family. Bamboo is the fastest growing woody plant, in the world. Its accelerated growth rate (up to 3-4 feet/day) is due to a unique rhizome system and is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions. There are over, five hundred types of bamboos. They all consist of smooth, hollow, joined stems with a strong watertight partition, at each joint. All grow very quickly. They grow upwards at a rate of 41 centimetres a day and can grow upto a height of 36 metres. While most bamboos flower every year, there are some that flower only three or four times, in a century. The flowers are very similar to those of other grasses. The fruits are normally, like grasses and some kinds are like nuts. Bamboo has numerous advantages. In the United States, bamboo is mainly used, in fishing poles, walking sticks and phonograph needles. Bamboo has long been used to make paper.  

What are fungi?   

Fungi are not plants, because, they have no chlorophyll, to make their food. They are a group of 50,000 species, which include mushrooms, toadstools, mould, mildew and yeast. Since, fungi cannot make their own food, they live on other plants and animals as parasites. Fungi are made of numerous thread-like structures called hyphae, which absorb the chemicals they feed on, Fungi feed on the host by releasing chemicals called enzymes, which break down chemicals in their host. Fungi, which live on living organisms are called parasitic fungi, whereas fungi, which live on dead plants and animals are called saprophytic. The most poisonous of all fungi is the destroying angel. It can kill anyone, who eats it once. Fly agaric is a toadstool, which is a poisonous mushroom. It is easy to recognize from its spotted red cap. The field mushroom grown wild or cultivated is the mushroom most widely eaten.  

What are the uses of the willow tree? 

 Willow Trees are usually, found in moist habitats such as, flood plains and on river banks, These trees grow very rapidly, in this climate The willow tree is very useful in several ways. Its leaves provide food for the wildlife. The leaves and bark of the willow tree have been mentioned, in ancient texts from Assyria, Sumer and Egypt as a remedy for aches and fever. The bark of the willow tree contains an active compound salicin, which is used in making many medicines, Aspirin is a derivative of salicylic acid, which was synthesized from derivatives of the willow bark. The twigs of the common osier are grown for the use in basket making, whereas the light but dent-resistant wood of other willow trees is used in making artificial limbs, wooden shoes and cricket bats, brooms, cradles, boards, chairs and other furniture, dolls, flutes, poles, toys, tool handles, wands and whistles.   

What are lichens?  

 Lichens are a wonderful partnership of algae and fungi There are about, 20,000 species of lichens. They are usually, flat and crust like, with no roots or stems, They often grow on roofs or soil, but most grow on rocks or the branches of trees. The algae, in lichens make food from sunlight to feed the fungi, whereas the fungi make a protective layer around the algae and hold water. Lichens can grow only when, moistened by rain. They grow very slowly but can eventually, cover very large areas. Some lichens grow a fraction of a millimetres, in a year. Lichens could survive in many places, where other plants would die, For example, the Arctic deserts and mountain tops. Some Arctic lichens are believed to be 4,000 years old. Lichens are very sensitive to air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide. Hence, they are used by scientists to indicate air pollution. Scandinavian reindeer moss is a lichen eaten by reindeers. It is also exported to Germany for decorations.   

What is the importance of plants?   

Plants are helpful for the survival of human beings, in several ways. They not only provide us with food, but also give us oxygen to survive. Plants consume carbon dioxide, which we release and give off oxygen, which human beings require to survive. Shampoos, perfumes, bath oils and creams are made from sweet-smelling plants. The corks that seal the bottles of wine are made from the bark (cork) of the Oak tree. Besides this, plants help us to make lots of useful things such as paper, cloth and medicines. The coal, which we use today comes from plants, which grew even before dinosaurs existed. Trees also provide us with fuel, timber, resins, varnishes, dyes, rubber and many more things. Softwood is obtained from coniferous trees such as pine, larch, fir and spruce. 75-80% of the natural forests of northern Asia, Europe and the USA are softwood, Hardwood timber is obtained from broad-leaved trees, like the Oak.  How have the animals found in the  

arctic region adapted themselves?   

The Arctic is a very cold, windy and often snowy biome, located around the North Pole. Animals that live in the Arctic are adapted to extreme conditions, Many animals that live in the Arctic, like the Arctic fox and the ermine have coats that thicken and change colour to white, during the winter as camouflage, in the snow. Some animals hibernate during the cold season; they go into a very deep, sleep-like state, in which their heartbeats slow down. These animals often hibernate in underground burrows or pits. The musk oxen have thick overcoats of shaggy long straight hair that hangs down to the ground. Their undercoats are thick brown fleece. The white fur of the polar bear helps it to sneak up, on seals that are laying on the ice packs. Females dig dens in the snow, where they hibernate during the worst part of the winter. 18 

 what is the purpose of an elephant’s trunk?   

The African elephant is the largest land animal, growing as tall as 4 m and weighing more than 6,000 kg. The trunk of the elephant is the most outstanding part of the elephant’s body. It is an extension of the nose and the upper lip. The trunk is very powerful and flexible. The elephant uses its long trunk to breathe, to smell and to gather food. It is very good for holding on to things and it is so sensitive that it can even pick up very small objects. The trunk is also used for drawing up water. The water is then, transferred to the elephant’s mouth for drinking. The trunk is also used to draw up water, which the elephant, then showers all over its body. The elephant also enjoys dust baths, using the trunk to gather the dust and blow it over itself. In this way, it gets rid of flies and ticks. The trunk is also used to warn the other elephants from danger, by giving a loud blast, call a trumpet animals of the dade Dinosauria’ They first appeared during the Triassic period, approximately 230 million years ago, and were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years from the beginning of Jurassic. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds at over 9,000 living species are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1000 different species of non-Aviom dinosaurs. They are represented in every continent by both, extant species and fossil remains. Some are herbivorous, others carnivorous. Most dinosaurs are bipedal, though many extinct groups included quadrupedal species and body postures. Many species possess elaborate display structures such as homes or crests and some prehistoric groups developed skeletal modifications, such as bony armor and spines. 11